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Cornell  University  Library 
ML  105.B87 

The  original  of  tiiis  book  is  in 
tine  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 


Biographical  Dictionary 



With  a  Bibliography  of  EngHsh  Writings 
on  Music. 




I    ♦     I 





The  following  explanatory  remarks  and  acknowledgments  are  offered 
by  way  of  Introduction. 

This  work  is  intended  for  students  of  Music  or  persons  interested 
in  the  art,  and  while  not  claiming  a  great  degree  of  completeness  in 
any  department,  may  nevertheless  be  found  interesting  and  useful  as 
a  supplement  to  larger  and  more  ambitious  works  of  the  same  class. 
It  aims  at  conciseness  in  every  particular,  and  each  notice  is  so 
arranged  that  any  fact  of  a  biographical  or  bibliographical  character 
may  be  readily  found.  All  anecdotal  and  gossipy  matter  has  been 
suppressed,  the  intention  of  the  Editor"  being  merely  to  put  forth  a 
work  of  utility,  especially  in  view  of  the  fact  that  so  many  works  in 
musical  literature  exist  to  which  readers  can  turn  for  pastime.  The 
endeavour  has  been  to  present  a  series  of  brief  notices  of  Musicians 
in  which  every  important  fact  likely  to  be  ot  use  has  been  noted. 
Prominence  has  naturally  been  given  to  British  Musical  Biography, 
and  no  one  whose  life  or  works  seemed  of  interest  has  been  knowingly 
omitted.  The  Bibliographical  character  of  the  work  accounts  for  the 
presence  of  many  names  of  minor  importance,  and  accordingly  no 
apology  is  offered  for  the  comparative  insignificance  of  any  name 
mentioned  throughout  the  book.  The  notices  of  Foreign  Musicians 
are  confined  to  such  as  claim  attention  by  their  acknowledged 
eminence,  or  by  their  connection  in  any  way  with  Britain.  The 
Critical  Remarks  occurring  here  and  there  throughout  the  work  are 
generally  digests  from  a  collation  of  opinions  by  writers  of  authority. 
It  should  also  be  further  remarked  that  the  nationalities  of  biographi- 
cal subjects  are,  with  certain  exceptions,  fixed  by  parentage  and  not 
by  birthplace. 

The  Bibliographical  Appendix  forms  a  brief  Subject-Index  to  the 
work  itself,  and  in  a  general  way  to  the  English  Literature  of  Music. 
No  pretence  is  made  to  an  exhaustive  or  even  accurate  treatment  of 
this  division  of  the  work,  and  the  only  plea  which  can  be  recorded  on 


its  behalf  is  its  almost  complete  novelty.  To  be  a  Bibliography  in ' 
the  strict  meaning  of  the  word  would  make  it  needful  to  record  every 
particular  of  publication,  which  has  been  found  impossible  in  the 
present  case,  as  a  personal  examination  of  only  a  small  number  of  the 
books  indexed  could  be  made.  For  its  imperfections  both  in  regard 
to  accuracy  and  detail  the  compiler  can  only  apologize.  With  a  view 
to  the  compilation  of  a  complete  Bibliography  of  the  English  writings 
on  Music  and  Collections  of  all  kinds,  the  Author  would  be  obliged 
if  possessors  of  musical  books  would  communicate  titles  and  dates  to 

To  Mr.  Stephen  S.  Stratton,  of  Birmingham,  the  Author  desires  to 
express  most  grateful  acknowledgment  for  willing  and  valuable  assis- 
tance in  every  department  of  the  work.  The  book  is  indebted  to  him 
for  dates,  facts,  and  suggestions  of  every  kind,  and  to  him  is  due 
many  of  the  corrections  of  chronological  errors  in  musical  biography 
which  have  been  perpetuated  in  work  after  work.  His  valuable 
services  in  connection  with  the  revisal  for  the  press  are  also  thank- 
fully acknowledged.  Thanks  are  also  warmly  accorded  to  Mr.  James 
Love,  of  Falkirk,  N.  B. ;  Major  G.  A.  Crawford,  of  London ;  Mr.  W. 
H.  Dana,  of  Warren,  Ohio ;  Mr.  W.  H.  Daniell,  of  Boston,  Mass. ; 
and  Messrs.  Karl  Merz,  W.  B.  Gilbert,  J.  C.  Fillmore,  David  Baptie, 
C.  E.  Stephens,  and  many  others,  for  services  rendered  in  connection 
with  British  and  American  Biography  and  Bibliography.  The  notices 
of  many  of  the  living  musicians  noticed  throughout  the  work  are  in- 
debted to  themselves  for  revision  and  correction  in  the  biographical 
sections,  and  the  Author  desires  to  acknowledge  much  assistance  freely 
rendered  in  this  respect. 

In  conclusion  the  Author  would  invite  additions,  suggestions  and 
corrections  of  all  kinds,  which  may  be  sent  for  him  to  the  care  of  the 
publisher,  and  of  these,  acknowledgment  will  gladly  be  made. 

Langside,  Glasgow,  1886. 


. . .     Words  omitted  to  shorten  titles. 

[     ]    Dates  within  brackets,  are  approximations  or  doubtful. 

B.— Born. 

C — Circa  (about). 

Cantab. — Cambridge  University. 

Cantuar.  —Canterbury  (Lambeth  Musical  Degree). 

Cath.— Cathedral. 

'Cello.  — Violoncello. 

Ch.— Church. 

Chap. — Chapel.      Chap.  Roy. — Chapel  Royal. 

Chor, — Chorister,  Chorus. 

Coll.  -College. 

Comp. — Composer,  Composed,  Composition,  or  other  forms. 

Cond. — Conductor,  Conducted,  etc. 

Cons.  — Conservatory,  Conservatoire. 

D.— Died. 

Ed,— Editor,  Edited,  Edition. 

F.C.O.— Fellow  of  College  of  Organists. 

Gent. — Gentleman  (Gent,  of  Chap.  Royal). 

Mem.  — Member. 

Mus.  Bac.  or  Mus.  Doc. — Bachelor  or  Doctor  of  Music. 

N.D.— No  date. 

Op. — Opus  (work). 

Orch.  — Orchestra,  Orchestral. 

Org. — Organ,  Organist. 

Oxon. — Oxford  University. 

Pf.— Pianoforte. 

R.A.M. — Royal  Academy  of  Music,  London. 

S. — Studied,  Saint. 

Vn.,  Vnst, — Violin,  Violinist. 

Attention  is  drawn  to  the  Appendix  of  Additions  and 
Corrections  at  the  end  of  the  Book. 


AARON.  Scottish  writer,  B.  towards  close  of  loth  cent.  Abbot  of  St.  Martin 
Cologne,  1042.     D.  1052. 

Work. — "De  Utilitate  Cantus  vocalis  et  de  Modo  cantandi  atque  psallendi." 
Aaron  points  out  the  advantages  to  be  derived  from  chanting  psalms,  and  other 
vocal  music,  in  public  worship. 

AARON  (Pietro).     See  Aron  (Pietro). 

ABACO  (Evaristo  F.  Dall').     Italian  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Verona,  1662. 
Concert- master  to  the  Kurfiirst  Max.  Emanuel  of  Bavaria.     D.  Feb.,  1726. 
Works. — Sonatas  for  violin  and  bass,   and  for  two  violins,   'cello,  and  bass. 
Six  concertos  for  four  violins,  tenor,  bassoon,  'cello,  and  bass,  op.  S-     He  also 
composed  a  great  quantity  of  ch.  music. 

ABBATINI  (Antonio  Maria).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Tifemo.  [1595.]  Chap, 
master  of  the  Lateran,  1626-28 ;  of  the  Ch.  of  the  Gesii ;  of  the  Ch.  of  Maria 
Maggiore,  1645  ;  of  S.  Lorenzo  in  Damaso,  1646  ;  of  the  Ch.  of  Maria 
Maggiore  (2nd  time),  1649-57  ;  of  the  Loretto,  1657  ;  and  o£  the  Ch.  of  Maria 
Maggiore  (3rd  time),  1672-77.  D.  1677. 
Works. — Four  Books  of  Psalms,  Rome,  1630.     Five  Books  of  Motets,  Rome, 

1636-38.     Three  Books  of  Masses,  Rome,   1638-50.     Del  Male  in  Bene,  Opera, 

produced  1654.     Antifone  for  twenty-four  voices,  Rome,  1677. 

In  conjunction  with   Kapsberger  and  Carissimi  he  assisted  Kircher  with  the 

compilation  of  his  "Musurgia  Universalis." 

ABBE  (Joseph  B.  St.-S.).  -  French  violoncellist  and  comp.,  B.  Agen,  June  11, 
1727.     D.  1787.     Comp.  works  for  'cello,  etc. 

ABBEY  (John).  English  organ-builder,  B.  Whilton,  Northamptonshire,  Dec. 
22,  1785.  He  went  to  Paris  in  1826  and  established  there  a  firm  which 
extended  its  operations  over  Europe  and  Gt.  Britain,  besides  parts  of  S. 
America,  etc.  D.  Versailles,  Feb.  19,  1859.  He  built  organs  for  the 
Cathedrals  of  Rheims,  Nantes,  Amiens,  Evreaux,  Rochelle,  Rennes,  Tulle, 
Versailles,  Viviers,  Bayreaux,  and  numerous  churches  and  theatres.  Abbey 
invented  no  improvements  in  organ  mechanism,  but  his  general  workmanship 
was  good. 

ABBOT  (Henry),  English  ch.  clergyman,  flourished  about  the  middle  of  the 
l8th  cent.  Lecturer  at  St.  John's  the  Baptist,  Bristol.  Author  of  "The  Use 
and  Benefit  of  Church  Music,  towards  quickening  our  Devotion,"  1724. 

ABBOTT  (Thomas  Moreton),  English  violinist,  B.  Bilston,  Staffordshire,  Aug. 
13,  1843.  S.  under  Henry  Hayward.  Resident  in  Birmingham  as  violinist 
and  teacher.  Is  well  known  in  the  Midland  Counties  as  an  admirable  per- 
former and  leader. 

ABEILLE  (Johann  C.  LUdwig).  German  comp.  and  org.,  £.  Bayreuth,  Feb., 
1761,     S.  at  Stiittgart.     Mem.  of  Duke  of  Wiirtemberg's  Band.    Org.  at  Court 

5  Abe  —  AB6. 

Chap,  of  Duke  of  WSrtetaberg,  1803-32.     Concert-master  to  the  same,  1802. 

Received  Royal  gold  medal  and  pension,  1832.  D.  1832. 
Works.— Poems  by  Hubner,  set  to  music,  1788;  Do.,  second  part,  ,1793 ; 
Idylles  de  Florian,  1793  ;  Cantata  pour  le  mercredi  des  Cendres,  1798;  Chansons 
for  the  piano,  17'go;  Four  sonatas  for  the  piano,  1789;  Sonata  for  Pf.,  with 
variations,  1790 ;  Fantasia  for  tjie  Pf.,  1790 ;  Concerto  for  the  Pf.  ;  Grand 
concerto  for  Pf.  duet,  1793;  Songs  and  Elegies,  with  Pf.  accomp.,  1809; 
Polonaise  for  Pf.  ;  Valses,  etc.,  for  Pf.  ;  L' Amour  et  Psyche,  opera,  1801. 
Pierre  et  Annette,  operetta,  1810. 
ABEL  (J.  E.).     German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Ludwigslust,  1795.     Teacher  at  a 

German  court.      Seized  with  a  painful  disease.      Went  to  America,  1819. 

Came  to  England,  1820.     Teacher  in  London  of  Pf.  and  'cello.     He  is  author 

of  a  few  unimportant  pieces  for  the'Pf.,  etc. 

ABEL  (Karl  Frledricll).    German  comp.  and  viol,  -da-gamba  player,  B.  Kothen, 
1725.  Played  under  Hasse  at  the  Court  of  Dresden,  1748-58.   Visited  London, 
1759.    Appointed  chamber  musician  (violinist)  to  Queen  Charlotte,  1765.  Gave 
concerts  in  conjunction  with  J.  C.  Bach,  1762-82.    Returned  to  Germany,  1783. 
Returned  permanently  to  London,  and  gave  concerts,  1785-87.    Further  history 
unknown.     Supposed  to  have  D.  London,  June  22,  1787. 
Works. — Op.  i.  six  overtures  in  8  parts  for  orch.  ;  op.  2.  six  sonatas  for  clavi- 
chord, with  accomp.  for  violin  or  flute ;  op.  3.  six  concertos  for  2  violins,  flute, 
'cello,  and  bass ;  op.  4.  six  overtures  in  8  parts  for  orch ;  op.  5.  six  sonatas  for 
clavichord  and  violin ;  op.  6.  six  solos  for  flute,  with  bass  accomp,  ;  op.  7.  six 
overtures,  etc.,  for  orch.  ;  op.  8.  six  quartets  for  strings  ;  op.  9.  six  trios  for  strings ; 
op.  10.  six  overtures  for  orch.  ;  op.  11.  six  sonatas  for  clavichord,  violins  and  bass  ; 
op.  12.  six  quartets  for  strings;  op.  13.  six  sonatas  for  clavichord  and  violin;  op. 
14.  six  overtures  for  orch. ;  op.   15.  six  quartets  for  strings  ;  op.  16.  six  trios  for 
strings;  op.  17.  six  overtures  for  orch.,  in  4  pts. ;  op.  18.  six  sonatas  for  clavichord 
and  violin. 

Abel's  instrumental  compositions  are  marked  by  refinement  and  skill  in  manipu- 
lation ;  but  this,  again,  is  marred  by  lack  of  energy  and  a  languid  flow  of  ideas. 

ABELA  (Carl  Gottlob).     German  comp.,  B.  Borna,  Saxony,  April  29,  1803. 
D.  April  22,  1841.     Writer  of  Lieder  and  Part-songs. 

ABELL  (Jolin).  English  comp.  and  vocalist,  B.  [1660.]  Gent,  extraordinary 
Chap.  Roy.,  1679.  Sent  to  Italy  to  study  by  Charles  II.  Returned  to 
England,  1683.  Re-entered  Chap.  Roy.,  and  remained  till  1688,  when  he 
was  dismissed  on  account  of  his  being  an  adherent  to  the  Roman  Catholic 
faith.  Went  abroad  and  sung  in  Germany  and  Poland  with  success.  Returned 
to  England  about  1701.  D.  Cambridge,  1724. 
Works. — A  Collection  cf  Songs  in  several  Laiiguages,  1701.     A  Collection 

of  Songs  in  English,  1701.     Two  songs  in  Pills  to  Purge  Melancholy.     Les  Airs 

d'Abell,"  etc. 

ABENHEIM  (Joseph).  German  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Worms,  1804.  Mem. 
of  Chap.  Roy.,  Stuttgart.  Mem.  of  orch.  of  the  theatre,  Stuttgart,  1825. 
Works, — The  greater  portion  of  this  composer's  works  are  in  MS.  His  princi- 
pal pieces  include : — Six  songs  for  voice  and  Pf.,  op.  2 ;  Six  do.,  op.  5. 
Songs  from  works  of  Schiller,  with  Pf.  accomp ;  Nocturnes  and  Polonaises  for 
Pf.  ;  Music  to  "Hariadan,"  a  drama,  produced  in  1842,  Chamber  music,  etc. 

AEEBT   (Johann  Josef).     Bohemian  comp.,   B.   Kachowitz,    1832.      S.   at 

Prague,  etc.     Entered  service  of  King  of  Wiirtemberg  as  double-bass  player, 

1852.     Chap.-master  to  do.,  1867. 

Works. — Columbus,  Musikalisches  Seegemalde,  in  Form  einer  Symphonic,  fur 

grosses   Orchester,    op.    31,    1864 ;    Symphony   in    C    minor,    for    orch.,    1853  ; 

Symphony   in  A  minor,   for  orch.,    1856;    Anna  von   Landskorn,   opera,    1859; 

Le   Roi    Enzio,    opera,    1862;    Astorga,   opera,    1866;    String  quartets;    Vocal 

quartets ;   Pf.  music ;  Songs  ;    Bac  fugues  arranged  for  orch.  ;  Ekkhard,  opera 

etc,  '  ' 

AbI  — Actt 

ABINGDON  (Willougllliy,  Earl  of).  English  amateur  comp.  and  flute-player, 
B.  Jan.  1 6,  1740,  D.  Sept.  26,  1799.     Established  concerts  ift  London,  etc. 

Works; — Twelve  sentimental  catches  and  glees,  for  three  voices,  a  Represen- 
tation, of  the  Execution  of  Queen  M'ary  of  Scots,  in  seven  views  ;  the  music 
composed  and  adapted  to  each  view  by  the  Earl  of  Abingdon'.  Songs,  Duets, 
Flute  music,  etc. 

ABOS   (Geronimo).      Italian   comp.,   B.   Malta,    beginning  of  l8th   century. 

Teacher  at  Cons,  of  "  La  Pieta,"  Naples.     Visited  London  in  1756.     Trained 

several  musicians  who  have  attained  eminence  :  among  others  Aprile,  the 

vocalist.     D.  Naples,  1786. 

Works. — La    Pupilla    e    'ITutore,    opera ;     La    Serva    Padrone';    L'Ifigenia 

in  Aulide;  L'Artaserse,   1746;   L'Adriano,    1750;   Tito  Manlio,    1756 ;..  Creso, 

1758.     Masses.     Litanies,  etc.,  preserved  in  MS.   at  Naples,  Rome,  Paris  and 


ABBAM  (John).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Margate,  Aug.  7,  1840.     Org.  of 

S.  John's,  Torquay,  1864.     Org.  of  S.  Peter  and  Paul,  Wantage,  1865.     Org. 

of  S.  Paul's  Ch.,  St.  Leonards-on-Sea,   1869.     Mus.  Bac.  Oxon'.,  May  27, 

1868.     Mus.  Doc.  Oxon.,  April  22,  1874.     F.  C.  O.,  Lond. 

Works. — ^Jerusalem,  a  Sacred  Cantata.     The  Widow  of  Nain,  an.  Oratorio. 

Anthems,  Services,  Pianoforte  Music,  etc. 

ABBAMS  (Harriet).     English  soprano  vocalist  and  comp.,  B.  1760.     S.  under 

Dr.  Arne.     Debut,  at  Drury  Lane,  London,  in  Arne  s   "May  Day,"  1775. 

Sang  at  Handel  Commemoration,  1784.     Appeared  also  at  principal  London 

concerts.     D.  in  first  half  of  present  century. 

Works. — Collection    of   Scotch    Airs    harmonized    for    three    voices,    1790- 

Collection  of  Songs,   1787.     Set  of  Glees.      Songs,   Crazy  Jane,  The  Orphan's 

Prayer,  and  others. 

"Miss  Abrams,  though  not  possessed  of  great  power  of  voice,  sang  with  much 

sweetness  and  delicacy  ('Georgian   Era').      Her  sisters,  Theodosia  and  Eliza, 

were  also  vocalists,  the  former  a  contralto  of  much  ability,  who  afterwards  became 

Mrs.  Garrow." 

ABT  (Franz  Willielm).  German  comp.,  B.  Eilenburg,  in  Saxony,  Dec.  22, 
1819.  Cond.  of  Philharmonic  Soc,  Zurich,  1841.  Entered  staff  of  Hof- 
theater,  Brunswick,  1853.  Cond.  at  Hof-theater,  Brunswick,  1858-80. 
Visited  America  and  cond.  at  the  "  Gilmore  Jubilee,"  1872. 

Works. — His  works  extend  to  over  op.  500,  comprising  over  3000  pieces. 
Among  the  principal  are  : — I.  Cantatas:  Cinderella;  Little  Red  Ridinghood ; 
Richard  Coeur  de  Lion  ;  Snow  Maidens  ;  The  Water  Fairies ;  The  Silver  Cloud ; 
The  Wishing  Stone.  2.  Concerted  Vocal  Music:  Quartets,  Trios,  etc.,  A  Rose  in 
Heaven  :  Alpine  Horn  is  Sounding  ;  Ave  Maria  ;  O  Fatherland  ;  Merry  May  ; 
Evening  ;  Joy ;  Morning ;  Our  Native  Land  ;  A  Winter  Song ;  The  Minstrels ; 
The  Rovers;  The  Boat  Song;  Night  Song;  Vineta;  Thuringian  Volkslied; 
Eventide ;  The  Wanderer's  Song ;  Home  ;  .etc.  3.  Songs^  Agathe,  or,  When  the 
Swallows  homeward  fly  ;  Irene ;  Louise ;  Devotion ;  May  Song  ;  Ever  Thine  ; 
Flora ;  How  dear  thou  art  to  me  ;  My  Mother's  Voice ;  Oh  !  ye  Tears  (C.  Mackay) ; 
A  Sound  fills  the  Wood;  Oh  early  morn  ;  The  Exile  ;  Songs  for  Children  ;  Solemn 
Night.  4.  Pianoforte  Music,  Dances,  Drawing-Room  Pieces,  etc.  Orchestral 
Music,  Chamber  Music,  Choruses  for  Male  voices,  etc. 

Abt's  melodies  are  catching,  albeit  oftentimes  tinged  with  melancholy,  generally 
in  S3Tnpathy  with  the  subject,  and  invariably  marked  with  those  characteristics 
which  distinguish  the  cultivated  musician. 

ABYNGDON  (Henry).     English  comp.,  B.  during  isth  cent.     Sub-centor  of 
Wells,  1447-97.    Master  of  Song,  Chap.  Roy.,  Lond.,  1465.     Master  of  St. 
Catherine's  Hospital,  Bristol,  1478.     D.  Sept.,  1497. 
The  works  of  this  musician  are  unknown,  but  it  is  generally  supposed  that  he 

wrote  extensively  for  the  church. 

ACHABD  (Leon).     French  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Lyons,   1831.      D^but  at  Lyons, 

4  Act.  —  adA. 

Oct.,    1862.      S.   at  Milan.      Married   to   Mdlle.   Le  Poitevin,  July,   1864. 

Has  appeared  in  Paris  in  several  important  rSles. 
ACLAND  (A.  H.  D.)      English  writer,  wrote  "Letters  on  Musical  Notation," 

Lond.,  8vo,  1841. 
ACLAND  (T.  G.)      English  writer,  published  "Chanting  Simplified."     Lond., 

l2mo,  1843. 

ADAM  de  la  HALE.    See  Hale. 

ADAM  (Adolphe  Charles).      French  comp.  and  pianist.      B.  Paris,  July  24, 
1803.     Entered  Paris  Cons,  and  S.  under  Boieldieu,  1819.    Went  to  London, 
1832.     Received  Cross  of  Legion  of  Honour,  1836.     Mem.   of  Institute  de 
France,  1844.    Established  and  directed  the  Theatre  National,  1847.   Prof,  of 
Comp.,  Paris  Cons.,  1849.     D.  Paris,  Slay  6,  1856. 
Works. — i.  0/«?-aj.- Pierre  et  Catherine,  1829;  Danilowa,  1830;  Le  Chalet,  1834; 
La  Marquise,  1835;  Micheline,  1835;  Le  Postilion  de  Longjumeau,  1836;  Le  Bras- 
seur  de  Preston,  1838  ;    Le  Fiddle  Berger,  1838 ;    R^gine,  1839 ;  La  Reine  d'un 
Jour,  1839 ;  La  Main  de  fer,  ou  le  Secret,  1841 ;  La  Rose  de  P^ronne,  1841 ;  Le 
Roi  d'  Yvetot,  1842  ;  Lambert  Simnel,  1843 ;  Cagliostro,  1844  ;  Richard  en  Pales- 
tine, 1844 ;  Giralda,  1850 ;    Les  Nations,  1851 ;    Le  Farfadet,   1852 ;  La  Poupee 
de  Nuremberg,  1852  ;  Si  j'^tais  Roi,  1852 ;   La  Sourd,  1853 ;  La  Favridondaiiie, 
1J853  ;  Le  Roi  des  Halles,   1853  ;   Le  Bijou  perdu,  1853  ;   Mam'  zelle  Genevieve, 
1853;  Le  Muletier  de  Tolede,  1854 ;  A  Clichy,  1854;    Le  Houzard  de  Berchiny, 
185s  ;  FalstafF,  1856  ;  Les  Pantins  de  Violette,  1856.     2.  Ballets.  Faust,  1832  ;  La 
Fille  du  Danube,   1836 ;    Les    Mohicans,    1837  ;    La  jolie  fiUe  de  Gand,    1839  ; 
Giselle,  1841 ;  Griselides,  1848 ;  Orfa,  1852 ;  Le  Corsaire,  1856 ;  La  Filleule  des 
Fees.     3.  Cawtotej- .•  Le  Premiers  Pas,   1847,  composed  for  the  inauguration  of  the 
Opera  National ;    La  Fete  des  Arts,  1852;   Chant  de  Victoire,   1855;   Cantata, 
1856.     4.  Two  Masses,  1847-1850.     5.  Pianoforte  music,  consisting  of  Fantasias, 
Rondos,  Dances,  and  Morceaux  de  Salon,  etc. 

Adam  was  one  of  those  clever,  flippant,  and  brilliant  writers  with  which  the 
world — but  particularly  France — abounds.  His  talent  was  a  commodity  easily 
handled,  since  continued  and  thoughtful  effort  was  unnecessary  to  what  he  wrote. 
His  writings  possess  no  depth,  and  are  marked  by  those  features  which  betoken  an 
easy  command  of  surface  dexterity  in  shaping  materials.  The  work  which  may  be 
noted  as  his  best  is  "Le  Postilion  de  Longjumeau,"  in  which  he  has  followed 
Boieldieu  in  general  style.  His  later  works  are  influenced  by  Auber,  but  have 
neither  the  powerful  emotional  characteristics,  nor  the  refined  method  of  expression 
shown  by  the  composer  of  "La  Muette  de  Portici." 

ADAM  (Carl  F.)      German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Zadel,  nr.  Meissen,  1770.     D. 
[Saxony,  1810.] 
Writer  of  Pf  music,  organ  music,  choruses  for  male  voices,  etc. 

ADAM  (J.  Louis).  Father  of  A.  C.  Adam,  B.  Miettershelz,  Alsace,  1758. 
Prof.  Paris  Cons.,  1797-1842.  D.  Paris,  1848. 
Works. — Sonatas  for  the  Pianoforte.  Two  Symphonies  for  orch.,  pro- 
duced, 1798.  Arrangements  of  Haydn's  and  Pleyel's  quartets  for  Pf.  Two 
works  on  Pianoforte  playing,  Paris,  1798.  Pieces  for  Harp  and  Violin,  Piano  and 
Violin,  etc.,  etc. 

ADAM  (Josef  August.)     German  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Vienna,  22nd  April, 
Writer  of  military  and  orchestral  music. 

ADAMBEKGEB  (Valentin).  German  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Munich,  6th  July, 
1743.  S.  under  Valesi,  and  in  Italy.  Sang  in  London,  1777.  Appeared  in 
Vienna,  1780.     Teacher  and  singer  in  Vienna.     D.  Vienna,  Aug.,  1804. 

ADAMS  (Abraham).  English  org.  and  comp.  Flourished  at  end  of  l8th  and 
beginning  of  19th  cent.  Org.  of  ch.  of  St.  Mary-le-bone,  1810.  Compiled 
"The  Psalmist's  New  Companion,"  Lond.,  n.d. 

ADAMS  (Rev.  F.A.)     See  Root,  G.  F. 


ADAMS  (John  S.)  English  writer,  compiled  a  work  entitled  "  Five  Thousand 
Musical  Terms."     Lond.,  1861. 

ADAMS  (Sara  Flower).    See  Flower,  Sara. 

ADAMS  (Stephen).     See  Maybrick,  Michael. 

ADAMS  (Thomas).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Sth  Sept.,  1785.  S.  under 
Busby.  Org.  Carlisle  Chap.,  Lambeth,  1802-14.  Org.  St.  Paul's,  Deptford, 
1814.  Org.  ch.  of  St.  George,  Camberwell,  1824.  Org.  St.  Dunstan  Ch., 
1833.    D.  Sept.  IS,  1858. 

Works. — Fugues,  Fantasias,  Voluntaries,  Interludes,  etc.,  for  Organ. 
Anthems.     Hymns.     Pianoforte  Pieces,  etc. 

Adams  was  one  of  the  finest  organists  Britain  has  yet  produced.  His  performance 
was  uniformly  good,  but  he  excelled  in  extempore  playing.  His  compositions  are 
masterly,  and  are  coming  into  general  repute. 

ADAMS  (Thomas  Julian).  English  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  London,  Jan.,  1825. 
S.  under  Moscheles.  Cond.  of  orchestras  in  various  towns  and  watering-places 
in  England  and  Scotland.  Comp.  some  pieces  of  dance  music.  Has  done 
much  to  introduce  good  orchestral  music  in  towns  where  its  cultivation  was 

ADCOCK  (James).      English  comp.,  B.  Eton,  1778.      Chorister,  St.  George's 
Chap.,  Windsor,  1786.     Lay-clerk,  do.,  1797.      Mem.  of  Trinity,  St.  John's, 
and  King's  Colleges,  Camb.     D.  Cambridge,  April,  i860. 
Works. — Three  glees  for  3  and  4  voices,  dedicated  to  Sir  Patrick  Blake  [c. 

1815].     Hark  how  the  Bees,  glee  for  4  voices.       Welcome   Mirth,   glee   for    3 

voices.     The  Rudiments  of  Music,  etc. 

ADCOCK  (John).     English  writer,  author  of  "The  Singers'  Guide  to  Pronunci- 
ation, with  an  Appendix  consisting  of  a  Pronouncing  Dictionary  of  Musical 
Terms,  etc."     Nottingham  [1873]. 
ADDISON  (John).      English  comp.  and  double-bass  player,  B.  London,  1770. 
Played  'cello  at  Vauxhall  Gardens.      Double-bass  player  at  the  Italian  opera, 
and  at  the  "Ancient"  and  "  Vocal "  Concerts.      Married  to  Miss  Williams, 
1793.     Latterly  speculated  in  mills,  and  was  nearly  ruined.     D.  London,  30th 
January,  1844. 
Works. — "Elijah,"     a    sacred    drama.       Music    to    the    dramas    of    "The 
Sleeping    Beauty,"    1805;     "The    Russian    Imposter,''    1809;     "My    Aunt," 
1813;    "Two  Words,"  1816 ;    "Free  and  Easy,"  1816;    "My  Uncle,"  1817; 
"  Singing  Practically  treated   in  a  series  of  Instructions,"  Lend.,  n.d.  [1836]. 
His  other  works  consist  of  songs,  glees,  etc. 

Addison  was  a  teacher  of  some  celebrity,  and  was  the  instructor  of  A.  Lee, 
Pearman,  and  others.  His  compositions  are  now  forgotten,  though  they  are  tune- 
ful and  were  popular.  His  wife  (nee  Miss  Williams)  made  her  dlbut  in  "  Love  in 
a  Village,"  in  1796.  She  was  a  favourite  singer  at  Vauxhall  gardens  and  other 
places  in  London. 

ADDISON  (Joseph).  English  poet  and  essayist,  B.  Milston,  Wilts,  1672. 
D.  London,  1719. 
Addison  wrote  the  book  of  "  Rosamund,"  an  opera,  which  was  originally  adapted 
to  music  by  Clayton,  and  had  a  run  of  three  nights.  Arne  subsequently  wrote 
music  to  it,  and  produced  it  with  success  in  1733.  Addison  is  noticed  here  chiefly 
on  account  of,  his  attacks  on  the  Italian  opera.  These  appeared  in  the  Spectator, 
and  ridiculed  the  whole  concern.  There  certainly  existed  many  incongruities  in 
these  performances— chiefly  in  matters  of  detail— and  Addison,  though  scarcely 
qualified  to  play  the  musical  critic,  made  fun  out  of  a  serious  exhibition  spoiled  by 

ADDISON  (R.)    English  music-publisher,  B.  1797.    Was  successively  in  partner- 
ship with  several  publishers  of  note.     While  chief  of  the  firm,  Addison  and 
Beale,  he  published  many  important  works.     D.  Jan.  17,  1868. 
ADELBURG  (August  von).  Hungarian  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Constantinople, 
1833.     Writer  of  an  Opera,  Music  for  String  insts.,  Pf.,  etc. 


ADHEMAK  (Oomte  Abel  d').     French  song-writer,  B.  Paris,  l8l2.      Com. 
menced  comp.  in  1836.     D.  1851. 
Works.— Songs,  principally  for  male  voices,  with  such  titles  as  the  following  ;— 
"The  Bravo,"  "The  Brigand,"  "The  Kabyle,"  "The  Torreador,"  etc. 

ADLEB  (Georges).     French  violinist  and  comp.,   B.  Buda,  |Hungary,   1806, 

Comp.  for  violin  and  Pf. 
ADLEB  (Vincent).    French  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  1828.     D.  Geneva,  1871. 

WoKKS.— Op.  I.  Th^me  Hongrois,  for  2  vns.,  alto  and  bass.  Op.  2.  Variations 
for  Pf.  solo.  Op.  3.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  Vn.  Op.  4.  Variations  for  Pf.  Op.  6. 
First  Polonaise  for  Violin.  Op.  7.  Rondo,  for  Pf.  Op.  8.  Theme  (original),  for 
Pf.  Op.  10.  Four  Songs.  Op.  11.  "Libera  me,  Domine,"for  4  voices  and  organ. 
Op.  12.  Songs  for  male  quartet.  Op.  13.  Three  songs  for  male  quartet.  Op.  15. 
Cantata  for  one  and  more  voices,  with  Pf.  accomp.  Op.  18.  Nouvelle  Scene  de 
Bal,  for  Pf  Op.  19.  Theme  Styrien,  for  Pf.  Op.  20.  Idylle  for  Pf.  Op.  22. 
Idylle  for  Pf.  Op.  23.  Scene  Pastorale,  for  Pf.  Op.  24.  Grand  March  for  Pf. 
Op.  27.  Sonata  for  Pf.  duet.  Two  Prayers  for  4  voices,  orch.  and  organ.  Songs, 

His  compositions  are  of  the  same  school  as  those  of  Ascher  and  Heller ;  light, 
pleasing  efforts,  with  some  originality  and  much  careful,  as  well  as  skilful,  elabor- 

ADLINGTON  (WiUiam).  English  pianist  and  teacher,  B.  Southwell,  near 
Nottingham,  1838.  S.  at  R.  A.  M.  Associate  R.  A.  M.,  1865.  Principal  of 
the  Edinburgh  Institution  for  Music,  etc.  Cond.  of  Aberdeen  Univer- 
sity Orch.  Soc,  etc.  Author  of  "Elementary  Principles  of  Music,,  and 
Elements  of  Harmony,  adapted  for  those  studying  the  Pianoforte."  Edin., 
8vo.,  1881. 

ADLUNG  (Jacob).      German  writer,  B.  near  Erfurt,  Jan.   14,   1699.     S.  at 
School  of  St.  Andrew,  Erfurt,  171 1.     Org.  of  Evangelical  Ch.,  Erfurt,  1727. 
Prof,  at  the  Raths-gymnasium,  Erfurt,  1741.     D.  Erfurt,  Jan.  5,  1762. 
Works. — Anleitung  zu  der  musikalischen  Gelahrtheit,  Erfurt,   1758,   Dresden 

ed.,   1783.      Musica  Mechanica    Organoedi,   etc.,  Berhn,    1768.      Musikalisches 

Siebengestirn,  Berlin,  1768. 

ADBIANI  (Francisco).  Italian  comp.,B.  Santo  Severino,  1539.  D.  Aug.  16, 
IS7S-     Writer  of  Psalms,  Chansons,  etc. 

ADBIEN  (Martin  Joseph),  Belgian  comp.,  B.  Li^ge,  May  26,  1767.  D. 
1822.  Writer  of  Dramatic  Music,  etc.  His  brother  was  a  comp.  of  Songs 
and  Romances,  B.  Liege,  1767. 

ADYE  (Willett).  English  amateur  musician  and  violin  virtuoso,  has  published 
"Musical  Notes,"  Lond.,  1869.     This  is  a  work  on  the  subject  of  violinists. 

AELSTEBS  (Georges  J.)  Belgian  comp.,  B.  Ghent,  1770.  Carilloneur  of 
Ghent,  1788-1839.  Music  director  of  the  Ch.  of  S.  Martin,  Ghent,  1839-49. 
D.  April,  1849. 

Works. — Chiefly  church  music,  and  consisting  of  Motets,  Masses,  Litanies,  a 
Miserere,  Hymns,  etc. 

AEBTS  (Egidius).  Belgian  flute-player  and  comp.,  B.  Boom,  1822.  S.  flute 
and  comp.  at  Brussels  Cons.,  1834.  Travelled  through  France  and  Italy, 
concert-giving,  1837-48.  Prof,  of  flute,  Brussels  Cons.,  1847.  Gave  concerts 
in  Brussels,  etc.,  till  1852.     D.  Brussels,  gth  June,  1853. 

Works.— Symphonies  for  orch.  Concertos  for  flute.  Fantasias,  etc.,  for  flute. 
Overtures,  etc. 

AFBANIO.  Italian  ecclesiastic  and  inventor,  was  Canon  of  Ferrara  about  com- 
mencement of  the  1 6th  cent.  Said  to  be  the  inventor  of  the  bassoon  on  the 
authority  of  woodcuts  occurring  in  a  work  by  Albonesi  on  the  Chaldean  Lan- 
guage.    1539. 

AGABEG  (Madame  E.)     See  Wynne  (Edith). 

A  G  A  —  A  G  R 

AGAZZABI  (Agostino).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Sienna,  Dec.  2,  1578.  Master  of 
Chap,  at  German  Coll.,  Rome,  1603.  Master  of  Sienna,  Oath.  1630-40. 
D,  1640. 

Works. — II  Primo  Libro  di  Madrigali  a  cinque  voci,  Venice,  i6oo.  Madrigali 
Armoniosi  a  cinque  o  sei  voci,  Venice,  1600.  Sacrse  Cantiones,  J,  6,  7,  8  voci. 
Liber  primus,  1602.  Do.,  Liber  Secundus,  1603.  Do.,  Third  Book,  1603. 
Three  Books  of  Motets,  1608-9.  Sacrje  Cantiones,  2,  3,  4  voices  and  organ,  2 
Books,  1603.  Sacree  Laudes  de  Jesu,  4,  5,  6,  7  and  8  voices  and  organ,  1603. 
II  primo  libro  di  Motteti,  for  2  and  3  voices,  1604.  Sacrse  Laudes,  2nd.  Book, 
1603.  Psalmi,  1618.  Eucharisticum,  1625.  Litanie,  1639.  La  Musica  Ecclestica, 
1636.     Eumelio,  a  pastoral  drama,  16 14. 

AGNESI  (Louis  F.  L.)  French  bass  vocalist,  B.  Erpent,  1833.  D.  London, 
Feb.,  1875.     S.  Brussels  Cons.     Celebrated  as  an  operatic  singer. 

AGOSTINI  (Ludovico).     Italian  comp.  and  poet,  B.  Ferrara,  1534.     Chap.- 
master  to  Duke  Alfonso  II.  d'  Este.     D.  Sept.  20,  1590. 
Works. — II  primo  libro  di  Madrigali,  a  5  voci,  Venice,  1570.     Madrigali,  a  4 
voci,  Venice,  1572.     L'Eco  ed  enigmi  musicali,  6  voci,  1581.     Messe,  Vespri, 
Mottetti,  Madrigali  et  Sinfonie,  Ancona,  1588. 

AGOSTINI  (Paolo).     Italian  comp.,  B.  Vallerano,  1593.     Pupil  of  B.  Nanini. 

Master  of  Vatican  Chap.,  Rome,  Feb.,  1629.      Chap.-master  and  org.  of  S. 

Maria,  Trastevere.     Do.  S.  Lorenzo,  in  Damaso.     D.  Rome,  1629. 

Works. — Two  Books  of  Psalms,  Rome,  1619.     Tvro  Books  of  Magnificats, 

for   I    2,   and  3  voices,    Rome,    1620.       Books    of   Masses,   Rome,    1624-28. 

Motets,  Masses,  etc.,  preserved  in  the  Vatican  Library,  Rome. 

"  For  invention  he  is  said  to  have  surpassed  all  his  contemporaries.  His  com- 
position for  four,  six,  and  eight  choirs  are  said  to  have  been  the  admiration  of  all 
Rome. " — Hawkins. 

AGRELL  ( Johaun),  Swedish  comp. ,  B.  Loth.  Lived  at  Cassel  and  Nuremberg 
during  i8th  cent.  D.  Jan.  19,  1769.  Writer  of  instrumental  music,  pub- 
lished during  1723-1761. 

AGBELLI  (Salvatore).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Palermo,  1817.  S.  Naples  Cons, 
under  Zingarelli,  Donizetti,  etc. 

Works.  —  Operas :  I  due  Pedanti,  1834 ;  II  Lazzarone  Napolitano, 
1838;  Una  Notte  di  Carnevale,  1838;  I  Due  Gemelli,  1839;  I  Due 
Forzati,  1839  ;  La  Locandiera,  1839  ;  La  Sentinella  Notturna,  1840 ; 
L'Omicido  Immaginario,  1841  ;  I  Due  Pulcinelli  simili,  1841  ;  II  Fan- 
tasma,  1846 ;  La  Jacqurie,  1849 ;  Lfonore  de  M^dicis,  1855 ;  Les  Deux 
Avares,  i860  ;   Calisto  ;   Blanche  de  Naples ;   La  Rose.     Ballets,  etc. 

AGBICOLA   (Alexandre).      Belgian   comp.,   B.    1470.      Entered  service  of 
Philip,  Duke  of  Austria.     Went  to  Castile,  1506,  where  he  D.  1530  [1526-27]. 
Works. — Motets,  Masses,  etc.     Chiefly  preserved  in  manuscript. 
He  was  accounted  one  of  the  greatest  among  the  musicians  of  his  day. 

AGBICOLA  (Georg  L.)     German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Thuringia,  Oct.  25,  1643, 
Chap.-master  at  Gotha,  1670.     D.  Gotha,  Feb.  22,  1676. 
Works. — Madrigals  ;  Sonatas  for  Violin,  etc. ;  Songs  (Lieder),  etc. 

AGBICOLA  (Johann  Friedricll).    German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Saxony,  Jan. 

4,  1720.     S.  under  J.  S.  Bach,  and  at  University  of  Leipsic.     Resided  at 

Berlin,  1741.     Chap.-master  and  comp.  to  Frederick  the  Great,  on  death  of 

Graun,  1759.     D.  Nov.  12,  1774. 

Works.  —  Operas :    II   Filosofo  convinto,    1750  ;    La    Ricamatrice   divenuta 

damma  ;  II  Re  pastore,  1752  ;  Cleofide,  1754  ;  II  Tempio  d'Amore,  1755  ;  Psyche, 

1756  ;    Achille     in     Sciro,     1758 ;     Ifigenia    in     Tauride,     1765.      Cantatas. 

Pamphlets  on  musical  subjects  (satirical).      A  work  on  the  precedence  of  Melody 

over  Harmony.     A  work  on  the  Elements  of  Singing,  etc. 

AGBICOLA  (Martin).     German  theoretical  writer,  B.  Soralh  Silesia,  i486 


[1500].    Teacher  of  Music  in  Protestant  School,  Magdeburg,  1524-56.    Chanter 

in  Ch.  of  Magdeburg.     D.  June,  1556. 
Works. — Ein  Kurtz  Deutsche  Musica,  1528.     Musica  Instrumentalis  Deudsch, 
etc.,  Wittemberg,  1529-45.     Musica  Figuralis  Deudsch,  etc.,   1532.     Rudimenta 
Musices,  etc.,  1539,  etc. 

"The  works  of  Agricola  seem  intended  for  the  instruction  of  young  beginners  in 
the  study  of  music ;  and,  though  there  is  something  whimsical  in  the  thought  of  a 
scientific  treatise  composed  in  verse,  it  is  probable  that  the  author's  view  in  it  was 
the  more  forcibly  to  impress  his  instructions  on  the  memory  of  those  who  were  to 
profit  by  them.  His  "  Musica  Instrumentalis  "  seems  to  be  a  proper  supplement  to 
the  "Musurgia  "  of  Ottomarus  Luscinius,  and  is  perhaps  the  first  book  of  direc- 
tions for  the  performance  on  any  musical  instrument,  ever  published." — Hawkins, 

AGTHE  (Caxl  Christian).    German  comp.  and  pianist,   B.  Kettstsedt,  1739. 
D.  Nov.  27,  1797. 
Writer  of  Operas,  Songs,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

AGUADO  (Diouisio).      Spanish  comp.   and  guitar-player,  B.  Madrid,  April, 
1784.     S.  Paris  under  Garcia,  1825.    Returned  to  Madrid,  1838.     D.  Madrid, 
Dec,  1849. 
Works. — New  Method  for  the  Guitar,  1825.     Three  Rondos  for  the  Guitar, 
1822.     Collection  of  Andantes,  Valses  and  Minuets,  for  Guitar.      Solos.     Tran- 
scriptions, etc. 

He  was  one  of  the  greatest  performers  on  the  guitar,  and  his  feats  on  it  are 
spoken  of  as  remarkable. 

AGUILAR  (Emanuel).  English  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Clapham,  London, 
Aug.  23,  1824.  Son  of  E.  Aguilar,  a  West  Indian  of  Spanish  extraction. 
Has  given  concerts  of  high-class  music  in  London  and  the  provinces. 
Works. — i.  The  Bridal  of  Triermain,  a  Dramatic  Cantata,  founded  on  the 
poem  of  Sir  Walter  Scott,  produced  by  the  Bedford  Musical  Society,  Oct.,  1880. 
2.  A  Summer  Night,  Cantata  for  treble  voices.  3,  Goblin  Market,  a  Cantata  for 
treble  voices.  4.  The  Bridal  Wreath,  an  Opera  (manuscript).  5.  Pianoforte 
Music:  Six  Pieces,  op.  27;  War  March;  Couleur  de  Rose,  galop,  op.  29;  Re- 
veries ;  M^lodie  ;  Bolero,  op.  20  ;  Serenade,  op.  23  ;  Galop,  and  Tyrolienne,  op.  24; 
Deux  Morceaux ;  Nocturne  ;  Leonore,  mazurka ;  Ophelia,  romance  ;  Ar^thuse, 
melodie ;  Transcriptions,  etc.  6.  Fantasia  for  Organ,  2  Pianofortes,  and  Violin,  pro- 
duced at  the  Musical  Artists'  Association,  March,  1881.  7.  Songs:  The  Appeal, 
The  stars  are  brightly  beaming ;  In  a  wood  on  a  windy  day ;  Sympathy ; 
Farewell ;  Break,  Break ;  Hope  Alway.  8.  Little  Book  about  Learning  the 
Pianoforte.  Lond.  [1866].  9.  Symphonies,  overtures,  trios,  sonatas,  etc.  in  MS., 
which  have  been  performed  at  concerts. 

AGUJARI  (Lucrezia).  Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Ferrara,  1743.  D.  Parma, 
May,  1783.  Chiefly  celebrated  for  the  extraordinary  upward  range  of  her 

ABLE  (Johann  Eudolf).      German  comp.  and  org,,  B.  Miihlhausen,  Thur- 
ingia,  Dec.  1625.     Org.  at  Erfurt  and  Miihlhausen,  1644-73.     D.  1673. 
Composer  of  church  and  instrumental  music. 

AHLSTROEM  (A.  J.  R.)  Swedish  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Stockholm,  1762.  D. 
there  in  first  part  of  present  century.     Known  only  by  a  few  songs. 

AIBLINGER  (Joseph  Caspar).  German  comp.,  B.  Bavaria,  Feb.  23,  1779. 
S.  in  Italy,  1803-11.  Recalled  to  Germany,  and  appointed  Chap.-master  to 
King  of  Bavaria,  1826.  Returned  to  Italy,  and  compiled  collection  of  ancient 
music,  1833.     D.  Munich,  May,  1867. 

Works. — Op  i  .  Requiem  for  4  voices,  org.  and  orch.  Op.  2.  Litanies  for  4  voices 
and  orch.  Op.  3.  Latin  Mass  for  4  voices  and  orch.  Op.  4.  Graduel  and  Offertoire 
for  4  voices,  orch.  and  organ.  Op.  5.  Requiem  for  4  voices,  orch.  and  organ.  Op. 
6.  Litanies  for  4  voices  and  orch.  Op.  7.  Two  Latin  Masses.  Op.  8.  Two  do.  do.  ; 
Op.  1 1.  Ave  Regina.  Op.  12.  Seventeen  Psalms  for  4  voices,  orch.  and  organ '  Op' 
13.  Six  Offertoires,  etc.    Opera,  Rodrigues  et  Chimene, 

AIC  —  AIR 

AICHINGEB  (Gregor).  German  comp.,  B.  [1565].  S.  music,  and  became  a 
priest.  Org.  at  Augsberg.  Visited  Rome,  1599.  Returned  to  Augsberg,  1 601, 
D.  [1614.] 

Works.— I.  Sacrarum  Cantionum,  1590.  2.  Liturgica,  1593.  3.  Book  II., 
do.,  1595.  4.  Sacrse  Cantiones,  1597.  J.  Tricinia  Mariana,  1598.  6.  Divinae 
Laudes,  1602.  7.  Vespertinum  Virginis  Canticum,  1604.  8.  Ghirlanda  di 
Canzonette,  1604.  g.  Fasciculus  sacrarum  harmoniarum  quatuor  vocum,  1609. 
10.  Solemnia  corporis  Christi  in  sacrificio  missse,  i6o6.  11.  Cantiones  Ecclesias- 
ticse,  1607.  12.  Virginalia,  1608.  13.  Teutsche  Gesenglein,  1609.  14.  Sacra2  Dei 
Laudes,i6o9.  15.  Odaria  Lectissima,  1611.  16.  Corona  Eucharistica,  l6li.  17. 
Vulnera  Christi,  etc. 

One  of  the  greatest  musicians  of  the  sixteenth  century.  His  writings  abound 
with  passages  wherein  may  be  found  examples  of  profound  contrapuntal  knowledge, 
together  with  much  inspiration  and  loftiness  of  expression. 

AIDE  (Hamilton).      Greek  poet,  novelist,  dramatist,   and  musical  comp.,   B. 
Paris,  1830.      Educated  in  England,  and  at  University  of  Bonn.      Entered 
army  as  officer  of  85th  Regiment.     Left  army  in  1853 — Biograph. 
Works. — Novels :  Rita  ;  Confidences  ;  Carr  of  Carrlyon ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Faul- 

conbridge;    The    Marstons ;    Penruddoche.      Philip,   a   drama,    1872.      Poems. 

Songs :  Alone  on  the  Shore  ;  At  my  feet ;  Babe,  good  night ;  Come  Again  ;   The 

Fisher ;    In  Autumn  ;  Little  May  ;  The  Music  of  the  Sea  ;  Spanish  Boat  Song ; 

Winter  is  Past.     Operettas,  etc. 

AIKIN  (John).     English  writer,  author  of  I.  Essays  on  Song- writing,  Dublin, 
1777 ;  2.  Vocal  Poetry,  or  a  Select  Collection  of  English  Songs  :  to  which 
is  prefixed  an  Essay  on  Song-writing,  London,  1810. 
The  "  Essay  "  which  is  prefixed  to  No.  2  is  of  no  historical  value. 

AIMON  (Esprit).      French  'cellist  and  comp.,  B.  Lisle,  1754.      D.  Paris,  1828, 
Writer  of  string  quartets,  opera,  Pf  music,  and  songs. 

AIMON  (Famphile  L.  F.)     French  comp.  and  violoncellist,  B.  near  Avignon, 

1779.    Cond.  of  theatre  orch.,  Marseilles,  1776.    Cond.  at  "  Gymnase  Drama- 

tique,"  Paris,  1821.    Cond.  at  Theatre  Frangaise,  1822.    D.  Paris,  Feb.,  1866. 

Works. — Operas:  Jeux  Floraux,   1818;   Michel  et  Christine,   1821;  Velleda ; 

Abufar ;  Alcide  el  Omphale ;  Les  Cherusques ;  Les  Deux  Figaros.     Quintet  for 

strings.     Op.  4.  Three  Quartets  for  strings.     Op.  6.  Three  do.     Opp.  7,  8,  9.  Nine 

do.     Op.  43,  46,  47.  Nine  do.     Concertos  for  bassoon.     Airs  and  solos  for  violin 

and  clarinet.     Writings  on  harmony.     Violoncello  Music. 

AINSWOETH  (Henry).  English  musician  and  theologian.  B.  about  middle 
ofi6thcent.  Lived  in  Holland  from  1593.  D.  Amsterdam,  1622.  Published 
a  collection  of  Psalms,  Amsterdam  1612.  An  American  edition  of  this  was 
issued  with  the  title  "The  Book  of  Psalms  :  Englished  both  in  Prose  and 
Metre,"  etc. 

AIBD  (James).  Scottish  music-seller  engaged  in  business  in  Glasgow.  Pub- 
lished in  the  i8th  cent.  "A  Selection  of  Scots,  English,  Irish,  and  Foreign 
Airs,  adapted  for  the  Fife,  Violin,  and  German  Flute. '    6  vols,  n.d. 

AIBETON  (Edward).     English  violin-maker,  B.  1727.     D.  1807. 

This  maker  worked  under  Wamsly  of  London,  and  received  mstruction  from 

him.      His  instruments  are  pale  yellow  in  colour,  and  the  model  is  that  of  N. 

Amati.     Violins  and  violoncellos  were  the  instruments  on  which  he  principally 


AIBY  (Sir  George  B.)  English  mathematician  and  writer,  B.  Alnwick,  Nor- 
thumberland, June  21,  1801.  Educated  at  Hereford,  Colechester,  and  Cam- 
bridge, B.A.  Cambridge,  1823.  M.A.  Cambridge,  1826.  Delivered  lectures 
on  Experimental  Philosophy,  1827- 1836.  Plumian  Prof,  at  Cambridge,  1828. 
Astronomer  Royal,  1835.  D? 
Works. — On   Sound  and    Atmospheric    Vibrations,    with   the   Mathematical 

Elements  of  Music,  Lond.,   1868.     Mathematical  Tracts.     Treatise  on  Errors  of 

Ot>servation.     Treatise  on  Magnetism,  187P. 

10  AKE  —  ALB 

AEEROYDE  (Samuel).    English  comp.,  B.  Yorkshire  about  end  of  17th  cent. 
D.  early  in  i8th  cent.     Comp.  of  many  songs  in  the  "Theater  of  Musick,' 
1685,  86,  87.     "The  Banquet  of  Music,"  1688;  and  in  many  other  of  the 
collections  published  during  that  period. 
He  is  briefly  noticed  by  Hawkins. 

ALA  (Giovanni  Battista).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Monza,  Milan,  in  latter  part  of 
i6th  century.  D.  after  1612.  Wrote  Canzonets,  madrigals,  motets,  and  other 
church  music. 

ALABD  (Delphin).  French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Bayonne,  March  8,  1815. 
Went  to  Paris,  and  S.  at  the  Cons.,  1827.  Gained  two  prizes  (ist.  and  2nd.) 
for  violin-playing.  Made  first  appearance  as  performer  in  Public,  1831. 
Prof,  of  violin  at  Paris  Cons.,  1843.  Chevalier  of  Legion  of  Honour,  1850. 
WoRKS.*-Op.  I.  Fantasia  for  violin ;  op.  2.  Six  studies  forviolin  solo ;  op.  3. 
Twenty-nine  variations  for  violin  ;  op.  4.  Second  fantasia  for  violin  ;  op.  5.  Third 
fantasia  for  violin  ;  op.  6.  First  nocturne  for  violin  and  Pf.  ;  op.  7.  Elegie,  Caprice 
for  violin ;  op.  8.  First  quartet  for  strings ;  op.  9.  Fantasia  (Norma)  for  violin  and 
Pf.  ;  op.  10.  Ten  studies  for  violin;  op.  II.  Fantasia  (Donizetti)  for  violin; 
op.  12.  Do.  on  Donizetti's  Linda;  op.  13.  Second  nocturne  for  violin  and  Pf.  ; 
op.  14.  Tarantella  for  two  violins;  op.  15.  First  concerto  for  violin  and  orch.,  in 
E.  ;  op.  16.  Ten  studies  for  violin  ;  op.  17.  Fantasia  for  violin  ;  op.  20.  Fantasia 
for  violin;  op.  21.  Fantasia  (Mozart)  for  violin  and  orch.;  op.  22.  Three  easy 
duets  for  violins ;  op.  23.  Three  do. ;  op.  24.  Fantaisie  Caract^ristique  for 
violin  and  orch.  ;  op.  25.  Duet  for  Pf.  and  violin  ;  op.  26.  Barcarolle  and  Saltarello 
for  violin  and  Pf. ;  op.  27.  Three  duets  for  2  violins ;  op.  28.  Fantasia  for  violin 
and  orch.  ;  op.  29.  Villaneile  for  violin  and  Pf  ;  op.  30.  Fantasia  (Beethoven)  for 
violin  and  orch.  ;  op.  31.  First  symphony  for  2  violins  and  orch.  ;  op.  32.  Fantasia 
(Verdi)  for  violin  and  orch.  ;  op.  33.  Second  symphony  for  2  violins  and  orch.,  in 
D.  ;  op.  34.  Second  concerto  for  violin  and  orch.,  in  A.  ;  op.  34a.  Third  symphony 
for  2  violins  and  orch.,  in  A.  ;  op.  35.  Fantasia  (Rossini)  for  violin  and  orch.  ; 
op.  36.  Fantasia  (Auber)  for  violin  and  orch.  ;  op.  37.  Do.  (Verdi) ;  op.  38.  Do. 
(Verdi) ;  op.  39.  Eight  easy  Fantasias  for  violin  and  Pf.  ;  op.  40.  Fantasia  (Verdi) 
for  violin  and  Pf.  ;  op.  41.  Twenty-four  studies  ;  op.  42.  Valse  for  violin  and  Pf. ; 
op.  43.  Mflodie  for  Pf.  and  violin  ;  opp.  44,  45,  46,  47,  48.  Fantasias  for  violin  and 
Pf.  (Meyerbeer,  Rossini,  Verdi,  Gounod,  and  Halevy).  Fantasias,  Transcriptions, 

The  playing  of  Alard  is  described  as  being  similar  in  object  to  that  of  Ole  Bull, 
Paganini,  etc.  He  endeavours  to  make  impressions  more  by  a  clever  display  of 
technical  ability  than  by  legitimate  and  sympathetic  treatment  of  his  subject.  His 
compositions  are  light,  brilliant,  and  effective  in  character. 

ALABV  (G-iulio  E.  A.)  French  comp.,  B.  Mantua,  1814.  Educated  at 
Milan  Cons.  Went  to  Paris,  1833.  Librarian  to  Society  for  Religious  and 
Classic  Music,  Paris,  1841.  Accompanist  at  Imperial  Chap.,  1853.  Music- 
director  at  Theatre  Italien. 

Works.— Redemption,  a  Mystery,  1850.  Operas:  Le  Tre  Nozze,  1851; 
Sardanaple,  1852  ;  L'Orgue  de  Barbaric,  1856 ;  La  Beaute  du  Diable,  1861  ;  Le 
Brasseur  d'Amsterdam,  1861  ;  La  Voix  Humaine,  1861  ;  Locanda  gratis,  1866. 
Songs.     Duets.     Quartets  (vocal).     Dance  Music.     Masses,  etc. 

ALBANI  (Mdlle.  E.)    See  La  Jeunesse,  Marie  Emma. 

ALBANI  (Mathias).  German  violin-maker,  B."  Botzen,  1621.  Pupil  of 
N.  Amati  at  Cremona  and  Jacob  Stainer  (?)  D.  Botzen,  1673.  The  violins 
of  this  maker,  though  well  modelled  and  beautifully  finished,  are  still  consider- 
ably inferior  to  those  of  Jacob  Stainer.  This,  chiefly  because  of  defective  con- 

There  are  several  other  makers  of  this  name,  but  none  of  them  appear  to  have 
gained  any  great  degree  of  fame. 

ALBENIZ  (Pedro).  Spanish  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Logrono,  1795.  Prof,  of  Pf 
at  Madrid  Cons.  D.  Madrid,  1855.  Comp.  pf.  music,  vocal  music,  and 
author  of  a  Method  for  the  Pf.,  etc. 

ALB  —  ALB  II 

ALBEBGS'ATI  (Count  Firro  C.)  Italian  Amateur  comp.  Flourished  at  end 
of  17th  and  beginning  of  l8th  centuries. 

Works. — Operas:  Gli  Amici,  1699.  II  Principe  selvaggio,  1712.  Op.  I. 
Baletti,  Correnti,  Sarabande,  etc.,  1682.  Op.  2.  Sonata  for  2  violins,  with  organ 
and  bass,  1683.  Op.  3.  Cantate  Morali  a  voce  sola,  1685.  Op.  4.  Messa  e 
Salmi,  1687.  Op.  5.  Plettro  Armonico,  1687.  Op.  6.  Cantate  da  Camera, 
1687.  Op.  8.  Motetti  e  Antifone,  1691.  Op.  9.  Concerti  (vocal),  1702. 
Op.  10.  Cantate  Spiritual!,  1702.     Giobbe,  oratorio,  1688,  etc. 

ALBERT  (Charles  D'.)  French  [?]  dance-music  comp.,  B.  near  Hamburg,  1815. 
He  is  a  dancing-master  in  England. 

Works. — Dance-music,  consisting  of  Polkas,  Quadrilles,  Waltzs,  Valses,  etc., 
etc.,  chiefly  based  on  melodies  in  popular  operas. 

His  son,  Eugene,  was  B.  at  Glasgow,  loth  April,  1864.  S.  under  Sir  A. 
Sullivan,  Prout,  and  Pauer.  First  appeared  at  the  Crystal  Palace,  5th  Feb.,  i88l, 
and  has  since  appeared  as  a  pianist  on  the  Continent  with  great  success.  His  works 
include  a  Pf.  Concerto  in  A  (1881)  and  a  Pf.  suite  (1883). 

ALBERT  (Emile).     French  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Montpellier,  1823.     D.  1865. 

Works. — Jean    le    Fol,    opera,    1865.       Les    Petits    du    Premier,    operetta, 

1864.     Symphonies  ;  Trios  for  strings  ;  Sonatas  for  violin  and  pf. ;  Pf.  solos,  etc- 

ALBERT  (Heinrich).  German  poet  and  comp.,  B.  Lobenstein,  June  28,  1604. 
D.  Konigsberg,  1657.  His  psalms  and  chorales  are  in  use,  while  his  writings 
greatly  influenced  contemporary  opinion  on  music. 

ALBERT  (Johann  Frederic).  German  comp.,  B.  Thuningen,  Jan.  11,  1642. 
D.  14th  June,  1710.     Writer  of  music  for  the  organ  and  church. 

ALBERT  (H.R.H.  Frmce  Francis  C.  A.  A.  E.)  German  amateur  musician,  B. 
Rosenau,  Coburg,  August  26,  1819.  Married  to  Queen  Victoria  of  Britain, 
Feb.,  1840.     D.  Dec.  14,  1861. 

Works. — i.  Vocal  Compositions  of  H.R.H.  the  Prince  Consort,  Lond.,  1862. 
2.  Songs  and  Ballads,  arranged  by  E.  J.  Loder.     3.  Anthems,  Services,  etc. 

Prince  Albert  did  much  in  every  way  to  encourage  music  in  Britain.  He  took  a 
lively  interest  in  everything  pertaining  to  the  art,  and  was  known  and  respected  for 
the  patronage  which  he  extended  to  all  the  struggling  British  musical  institutions. 
The  members  of  his  family  exhibit  a  similar  regard  for  music,  and  evince  much 
concern  in  all  matters  touching  its  development. 

ALBERTAZZI  (Emma),  «A  HOWSON.  English  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Lon- 
don, May  I,  1814.  S.  under  Sir  M.  Costa.  D^but  at  Argyle  Rooms,  1829. 
Sung  at  King's  Theatre,  London,  1830.  Went  to  Italy,  and  married  Signer 
Alberfazzi,  1831.  Debut  at  Milan,  1831.  Sung  in  Spain  and  Paris,  1835. 
Returned  to  London,  and  appeared  at  several  concerts,  etc.,  1837.  Sung  on 
Continent,  and  again  in  London,  1846.  D.  1847. 
"In  execution,  Madame  Albertazzi  has  little  to  acquire.     .     .     Her  face  and 

figure  are  more  than  pleasing — her  action  tame,  but  still  not  inappropriate.      On 

the  whole,  she  is  an  acquisition  to  our  opera  of  the  highest  value." — Athenaum, 

April  22,  1837. 

ALBINONI  (Tomaso).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Venice  at  end  of  17th  century.  D. 
[1745.]  Nothing  relative  to  his  career  has  been  handed  down. 
Works. — Op.  i.  Magnificat  for  4  voices.  Op.  2.  Sinfonie,  1700.  Op.  3. 
Dieci  e  due  balletti  ossia  senate  da  camera  a  tre.  Op.  4.  Twelve  cantatas  for 
solo  voice  and  bass.  Op.  5.  Twelve  concertos  for  six  instruments.  Op.  6. 
Twelve  cantatas  for  solo  voice  and  bass.  Op.  7.  Twelve  concertos  for  oboe  and 
violin.  Op.  8.  Twelve  ballets  for  2  violins,  'cello,  and  bass.  Op.  9.  Twelve  con- 
certos for  2  oboes,  alto,  'cello,  and  organ.  10.  Operas:  Palmerini,  1694;  II 
Prodigo  deir  innocenza,  1695 ;  Zenone,  1696 ;  Tigrane,  1697 ;  Radamisto, 
1698;  Primislas  I.,  1698;  L'Ingratudine  castigata,  1698;  Diomede,  1701  ; 
L'Inganno  innocente,  1701  ;  L'Arte  in  gara  con  I'arte,  1702;  La  Fede  tra 
gli  inganni,  1707;  Astarte,  1708;  II  Tradimento  tradito,  1709;  Giro,  1710; 
Giustina,  171 1  ;  II  Tiranno  Eroe,  1711 ;  Le  Gare  generose,  1712  ;  Eumene,  1717  ; 

12  ALB  —  ALC 

II  Meleagro,  1718  ;  Gli  Eccessi  della  gelosia,  1722  ;  Ermingarda,  1723  ;  Marianna, 
1724;  Laodicea,  1724;  Antigono  tutore,  1724;  Scipione  celle  Spagne,  1724; 
Didone  abandonata,  1725  ;  Alcina,  1725  ;  II  Trionfo  d'Armida,  1726  ;  L  Incostanza 
schernita,  1727;  La  Griselda,  1728;  II  Concilio  dei  pianetti,  1729 ;  L'Infedelta 
delusa,  1729  ;  Engelberta  (written  in  conjunction  with  Gasparini)  ;  I  due  Rivali  in 
amore,  1728;  Statira,  1730;  Gli  Stratagemmi  amorosi,  I73°  5  Elenia,  1730; 
Ardelinda,  1732;  Gli  avvenimenti  di  Ruggiero,  1732;  Candalide,  1734; 
Artamene,  1741. 

Albinoni  was  formerly  regarded  as  one  of  the  lights  of  the  Venetian  school,  and 
his  works  appear  to  have  been  received  with  moderate  success  during  his  day, 
though  they  are  now  forgotten. 

ALBONI  (Marietta).  Italian  contralto  vocalist,  B.  Cesena,  Forli,  loth  March,  1824. 
S.  under  Rossini.  i)^i«^  as  contralto  at  Milan,  1843.  Appeared  successively  at 
Bologna,  Brescia,  Vienna,  Hamburg,  Leipzig,  Dresden,  and  Rome,  1845-47. 
Dibut'm  London  as  Arsace,  in  "  Semiramide,"  1847.  Sang  in  London  in  opposi- 
tion to  Jenny  Lind  during  1849-51-56-57-58.  Sung  in  America,  1852.  Married  to 
Count  Pepoli,  1853.  Sang  in  Brussels,  Paris,  Italy,  and  Spain.  Last  appeared 
and  retired,  1863.  She  has  since  sung  for  charitable  purposes,  and  appeared 
in  London  in  1871.  Married  again,  1877,  to  Captain  Ziegler,  Paris. 
Alboni  was  esteemed  the  greatest  contralto  of  the  nineteenth  century.     Her  voice 

exceeded  two  octaves  in  register,  and  was  rich  and  mellow  in  quality. 

ALBBECHT  (Johann  Lorenz).    German  poet  and  comp.,  B.  1732.    D.  1773. 

ALBBECHTSBEBGEE  (Johann  Georg).   German  writer,  comp.,  and  teacher, 
B.  Klosterneuburg.  near  Vienna,  Feb.  3,   1736.      Org.  in  church  at  Melk, 
and  at  Raab,  in  Hungary.     Court  org.  at  Vienna,  1772-92.     Director  of  rnusic 
at   Ch.  of  St.    Stephen,   Vienna,   1792.      Married  to  Rosalie  Weiss,   1769. 
Mem.  of  Academy  of  Music,  Vienna,  1793.      Mem.  of  Academy  of  Music, 
Stockholm,  1798.     Instructor  of  Beethoven,  Hummel,  Weigl,  Eybler,  Mosel, 
Preindl,  Seyfried,  etc.     D.  Vienna,  March  7,  1809. 
Works. — i.  Twenty-six  Masses  for  6  and  4  voices,  organ  and  orch.  2.  Forty-three 
Graduels,  for  voices  and  organ.     3.  Thirty-four  Offertoires.     4.  Five  Vespers,  for 
choir,  orch.,  and  organ.     5.  Four  Litanies.     6.  Four  Psalms.     7.  Four  Te  Deums. 
8.  Six  Motets.     9.  Five  Salve  Regina.      10.  Six  Ave  Regina.      ti.  Two  Tantum 
Ergo.     12.  Eighteen  Hymns.     13.   Oratorios:  The  Pilgrims  of  Golgotha;   The 
Invention  of  the  Cross ;  The  Birth  of  Christ ;    The  Nativity ;  The  Passion  of 
Christ.      14.  Kine  Sacred  songs  or  cantiques.      15.  An  opera.      16.  Forty-four 
fugues  for   organ.     17.    Forty-two  sonatas  and  quartets  for  various  instruments. 
18.  Thirty-eight  quintets  for  2  violins,  2  violas,  and  'cello.      19.  Seven  sextets  for 
2  violins,  2  violas,  'cello,  and  D.  Bass.     20.  Twenty-eight  trios  for  2  violins  and 
'cello.      21.   Six  concertos  for  Pf.,  harp,  organ,   mandoline,  and  trombone.      22. 
Four  symphonies  for  full  orchestra.     23.    Theoretical  Works:  Griindliche  Anwei- 
sung  zur  Composition,  etc.,  Leipzig,   1790;   Kurzgefasste  Methode  den  General- 
bass  zu  erlernen,  Vienna,  1792;  Klavierschule  fur  Anfsenger  (Pianoforte  School), 
Vienna,  1800  ;  Collected  Works  in  3  vols.,  published  in  Vienna,  1826. 

A  large  portion  of  these  works  remain  unpublished.  His  works  on  harmony 
and  composition  have  been  published  in  English  by  Messrs.  Novello  &  Co.,  and 
Messrs.  R.  Cocks  &  Co. 

The  profound  contrapuntal  learning  of  this  composer  is  reflected  in  the  larger 
portion  of  his  published  works.  His  organ  music  is  well  known  among  English 
organists,  and  is  chiefly  noted  for  its  massive,  and  oftentimes  heavy,  character. 
The  theoretical  works  of  Albrechtsberger  which  have  been  translated  are  remark- 
able for  their  extreme  lucidity  and  detailed  exposition  of  every  matter  connected 
with  the  subject. 

ALBBICI  (Vincenzo).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Rome,  June  26,  1631.  D.  Prague, 
about  1682.     Writer  of  Masses,  Psalms,  etc. 

ALCOCK  (John).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  London,  April  11,  1715.  Chor. 
St.  Paul's.  Pupil  of  Stanley,  the  blind  organist,  1729.  Org.  successively  of 
Allhallows  Ch.,  London,  1735.  St.  Andrew's,  Plymouth,  1737.  St. 
Andrew's,  Holborn,  London,  1742.  St.  Laurence's  Ch,,  Reading,  1742. 
Org.  and  Choir-master  of  Lichfield  Cath.,  1749.      Mus.  Bac.  Oxon,  June, 

ALb  — Al^  ij 

I75S-     Mus.  Doc.  Oxon,  1761.     Resigned  post  of  org.  and  choir-master  at 
Lichfield,  retaining  only  that  of  lay- vicar,  1760.     Org.  at  Sutton-Coldfield, 
1761  ;  and  Tamworth,  1765.     Gained  prize  medal  at  Catch  Club,  1770.     D 
Lichfield,  March,  1806. 
Works. — Six-and-twenty  select  Anthems  in  score,  for  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  and  ! 
voices,  to  which  aire  added  a  Burial  Service  for  4  voices,  and  part  of  the  last  vers{ 
of  the  iSoth  Psalm,  for  8  voices  and  instruments,  in  21  parts,  London,  1771.     Sii 
Canzonets  or  Glees,  in  three  parts  (1770).     Harmonia  Festi,  or  a  Collection  o 
canons,  cheerful  and  serious  glees,  and  catches  for  4  and  5  voices,  Lichfield,  1791. 
Morning  and  Evening  Service  in  E  minor.      Six  Suites  of  Lessons  for  the  Harpsi- 
chord.     The  Harmony  of  Sion,   a  collection   of  Psalm   tunes,    1802.      Divine 
Harmony  ;  or,  a  Collection  of  fifty-five  double  and  single  chants.     Lichfield,  8vo, 
1752.     Hail,  ever  pleasing  solitude,  a  glee ;  gained  prize  medal  (Catch  club)  in 
1770.     Life  of  Miss  Fanny  Brown,  a  novel,     etc. 

A  most  agreeable  composer.  His  concerted  vocal  music  (glees  and  catches)  is 
perhaps  most  suited  to  the  present  taste,  although  his  anthems  are  very  fair 
specimens  of  sacred  writing,  and  might  command  a  hearing.  His  son,  John 
(1740-91),  was  also  an  org.  and  comp.  of  vocal  music. 

ALDOVRANDINI  (Giuseppe  A.  V.)  Italian  comp.,  B.  Bologna,  1665. 
D.  early  in  i8th  century.  Wrote  operas,  motets,  instrumental  music, 
oratorios,  etc. 

ALDBICH  (Henry).     English  comp.  and  divine,  B.  Westminster,  1647.     S.  at 

Westminster  School,  and  at  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  1662.     B.A.  Oxon,  May 

31,  1666.     M.A.  Oxon,  Aprils,  1669.     Canon  of  Christ  Church,  Feb.,  1681. 

D.D.  Oxon,  1682.      Dean  of  Christ  Church,  Oxon,  June,  1689.     D.  Oxford, 

Dec.  14,  1710. 

Works. — i.  Artis  Logicse  Compendium.     A  work  on  Logic.     2.  Service  in  G. 

3.  Service  in  A.     4.  Anthems:  I  am  well  pleased.    Not  unto  us,  0  Lord  (adapted). 

Out  of  the  deep.     O  give  thanks.     O  praise  the  Lord.     Thy  beauty,  O  Israel. 

We  have  heard  with  our  ears.     5.   A  Catch  on  Tobacco.     6.  Hark,  the  bonny 

Christ  Church  bells,  glee  for   3  voices.      7.    Miscellaneous  Treatises:  Theory  of 

Organ-building.     On  the  Construction  of  the  Organ.     Principles  of  Ancient  Greek 

music.     Fragment  of  a  Treatise  on  Counterpoint.    Memorandums  made  in  reading 

ancient  authors,  relative  to  several  parts  of  music  and  its  efFects.     Excerpta  from 

P^re  Menestrier ;  proportion  of  instruments  ;  exotic  music.     Argument  of  Ancient 

and  Modern  performance  in  music.     Theory  of  modern  musical  instruments,  etc. 

Aldrich  was  a  man  of  varied  accomplishments,  in  all  of  which  he  excelled,  and 
in  addition  to  his  skill  in  logic  and  music,  was  a  good  architect.  His  anthems  are 
still  occasionally  sung  in  the  provinces. 

ALESSANDBI   (Felice).      Italian  comp.,  B.   Rome,   1742.      S.  at  Naples. 

Went  to  Dresden  and  produced  an  opera,  1773.    Appeared  in  London,  1769-74. 

Married  Guadagni  the  vocalist.     Went  to  Russia.     Returned  to  Italy,  1788. 

D.  [after  1792]. 
Works. — Operas:  Ezio,  1767;  II  Matrimonio  per  concorso,  1767  ;  L'Argentino, 
1768  ;  La  Moglie  fedele,  Lond.,  1769  ;  II  Re  alia  caccia  ;  L'Amore  Soldato,  1773 ; 
Creso,  1774 ;  La  Sposa  Persiana,  1775  ;  La  Contadina,  1778 ;  Venere  in  Cipro, 
1779 ;  Attalo,  1786 ;  II  Vecchio  Geloso,  1781  ;  Demofoonte,  1783  ;  II  marito 
geloso,  1784;  Artaserse,  1774;  I  Puntighi  gelosi,  1784;  I  due  Fratelli,  1785; 
Dario,  1791,  etc, 

ALEXANDRE   ET   FILS.      French  Harmonium-makers,   established,   1829. 

Received  the  prize  medal  for  excellence  of  workmanship  at  Paris  exhibition, 

1855.      Have  since  patented  several  inventions  applicable  to  harmonium 


To  Messrs.  Alexandre  is  due  the  present  effective  condition  of  the  harmonium. 

Their  inventions,  chiefly  in  connection  with  tone  and  mechanism,  have  rendered 

the  harmonium  a  fit  instrument  for  the  concert-room. 

A.LFORD  (John).     English  lutenist,  published,   "A  Briefe  and  Easye  Introduc- 
tion to  learne  the  tableture,  to  conduct  and  dispose  the  hands  unto  the  Lute," 
London,  1568. 
This  is  a  translation  of  a  work  by  a  Frenchman  named  Le  Roy. 

t4  ALf  —  ALL 

ALFORD  (Mamaduke).     English  vocalist  and  comp.,  B.  Somersetstee,  1647 
D.  May,  1715.     He  was  succlssively  a  Yeoman  and  Sergeant  of  the  Vestry  of 
the  Chapel  Royal. 
ALKAN  (Charles  Henri  V.)    Ffench  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Paris,  1813. 
Paris  Cons.,  1819-1830.     Visited  Landon,  1833.     Gained  first  prize  of  Insti- 
tute of  France,  for  comp.,   1831.      Resides  in  Pans  as  concert-giver  and 
Works.— Etude  caprice  for  Pf.,  opp.  12,  13,  fS.  16.     Le  Preux,  concert  study, 
op.  ir.     Duet  for  violin  and  Pf.,  op.  21.      Nocturne  for  Pf.,  op.  22.      Saltarelle 
for  Pf.,  op.  23.     Gigue  for  Pf,  op.  24.     AUeluja  for  Pf ,  op.  25.     Transcription 
from  Mozart,  op.  26.     Etude  for  Pf.,  op.  27.      Bouree  d'Auvergne,  op.  29.     Trio 
for  Pf.,  violin  and  'cello,  op.  30.     Twenty-five  preludes  for  Pf.  or  organ,  op.  31. 
Collection  of  Impromptus  for  Pf.,  op.  32.     Sonata  for  Pf ,  op.  33.     Twelve  studies 
for  Pf ,  op.   35.       Three  Marches  for  Pf.,  op.  37.      Two  books  of  Chants  (Songs 
without  words)  for  Pf.,  op.  38.      Twelve  Studies  for  Pf.,  op.  39.      Three  Marches 
for  Pf.  duet,  op.  40.     Three  Fantasias  for  Pf,  op.  41.     Reconciliation,  Caprice  for 
Pf ,  op.  42.     Paraphrase  for  Pf.,  op.  45.  _  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  'cello,  op.  47,  etc. 

The  works  of  this  composer  abound  with  technical  difficulties  of  every  descrip- 
tion. His.  studies  are  especially  extravagant  in  construction,  and  require  close 
attention  from  even  the  best  performers  to  warrant  adequate  interpretation. 

ALLAN  (James).  English  piper  and  adventurer,  B.  Rothbury,  March,  1734. 
Known  as  the  "celebrated  Northumberland  Piper."  D.  Durham,  13  Nov., 
1810,  in  jail.  Allan  was  famous  as  a  strolling  vagrant,  half  gipsy,  half  itinerant 
musician.  His  adventures  are  detailed  in  the  "  Life  of  James  Allan,  the  cele- 
brated Northumberland  Piper,  detailing  his  surprising  adventures,  etc."  By 
James  Thompson.  Newcastle,  1828.  He  is  also  the  hero  of  a  hundred  chap- 
books,  hailing  from  Newcastle,  Glasgow,  etc.  His  performance  on  the  pipes 
is  mentioned  as  having  been  extraordinary. 

ALLAN  (James).  Scottish  cond.  and  barytone  vocalist,'  B.  near  Falkirk,  27 
July,  1842.  Well  known  in  Scotland  as  cond.  of  the  "Glasgow  Select 
Choir,"  a  post  which  he  has  held  since  1880.  The  choir  itself  is  perhaps 
without  equal  in  Scotland,  and  has  a  high  reputation  in  London  and  some 
of  the  larger  English  towns. 

ALLCHIN  (William  Thomas  Howell).    English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1843. 

Mus.  Bac.  Oxon.,  1869.     Cond.  of  Oxford  Choral  Soc,  1869.     Org.  of  St. 

John's  Coll.,    Oxford,   1875.     Local  Examiner  for  the  R.  A.  M.,  i?8i.    D. 

Oxford,  Jan.  8,  1883. 
Works. — The  Rebellion  of  Korah,  a  Sacred  Dramatic  Cantata,  for  Tenor 
Solo,  chorus,  and  full  orchestra  (manuscript).  Produced  and  composed  for  the 
degree  of  Mus.  Bac,  June,  1869.  Songs:  A  Shadow;  A  Rainy  Day;  A 
Lament  for  the  Summer  ;  A  Song  for  November  ;  A  Christmas  greeting ;  Prythee 
why  so  pale  ?  A  Sea  song  ;  The  Wrecked  Hope  ;  O  but  to  see  her  face  again ;  The 
Forsaken,  etc. 

ALLEGEANTI  (Madalena).  Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Venice,  1754. 
Flourished  during  last  century,  and  appeared  in  London  in  1781.  D.  after  1799. 

ALLEGB.I  (Gregorio).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Rome,  1580.  Priest  and  comp.  at 
Cath.  of  Fermo.  Pupil  of  G.  Nanini.  Chorister  in  Chap,  of  Pope  Urban 
VIII.,  1629-1652.     D.  Rome,  Feb.,  1652. 

Works.— II  primo  Libro  di  concerti  a  due,  tre,  e  quattro  voci,  Rome,  1618; 
A  second  book  of  concertos,  Rome,  1619  ;  First  book  of  motets,  ftc,  Rome, 
1620 ;  Motecta  duarum,  trium,  quatuor,  quinque,  sex  vocum,  liber  secundus, 
1621  ;  Various  pieces  of  sacred  music  preserved  in  church  libraries  in  Italy. 

Allegri  is  the  composer  of  a  "  Miserere  "  frequently  used  in  the  papal  chapel  at 
Rome,  and  which  is  said  to  be  one  of  the  finest  specimens  of  this  form  of 

ALLEN  (Alfred  Benjamin).  English  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Kingslandl 
Middlesex,  Sept.  4,  1850.  Commenced  study  of  the  Pianoforte  i8i;i;  S  at" 
London  Academy  of  Music,  1868.     Teacher  of  Music  near  London. 

ALL  — ALL  tg 

Works. — Songs:  Sweet  Birdie,  mine,  r868  ;  God  speed  the  Galatea,  with 
chorus,  1869;  She  sang  to  her  harp,  1869;  She  answered,  yes,  1870;  How  sweetly 
chime  those  evening  bells ;  Eily's  Reply ;  Row,  Boatie,  Row ;  Lead,  kindly 
Light ;  Dream  on,  my  Heart ;  He  was  vety  good  to  me  ;  A  widow  bird  sate 
mdjjrning  ;  The  Castaway  ;  Does  he  lo^e  me  ?  A  Sea-shell ;  It  was  a  lover  and 
his  lass.  Marche  Grotesque,  for  orch.,  1874.  Festival  Gavotte.  Egyptian 
Court  Dance,  1877.  Orchestral  music.  Organ  music.  Other  works  to  the 
amount  of  100,  and  including  a  secular  cantata,  remain  in  MS. 

ALLEN  (George).  American  writer,  author  of  "  The  Life  of  Philidor,  Musician 
and  Chess-Play er."  Philadelphia,  1863.  This  book  is  notable  as  having  been 
the  first  work  printed  on  vellum  in  America. 

ALLEN  ((George  Benjamin).      English  comp.  and  vocalist,  B.  London,  April 
21,  1822.      Chor.  at  St.  Martin's-in-the-fields,  1830.      Chor.  in  Westminster 
Abbey,  1832.      Deputy  for  Mr.  Clark,  St.  Paul's  Cath.,  and  Mr.  J.  B.  Sale, 
Westminster  Abbey.    '  Established  the  "Abbey  Glee  Club,"  1841.      Chor. 
(bass)  Armagh  Cath.,  Ireland,  1843.     Married  in  London.     Cond.  of  Classical 
Harmonists'  Soc,  Belfast.     Originated  and  executed  the  scheme  for  the  build- 
ing of  the  "  Ulster  Hall,"  Belfast.    Bac.  Mus.  Oxon,  1852.    Resigned  appoint- 
ment atArm^h,  1862.     Org.  and  choir-master  of  All  Saints'  Ch.,  Kensington. 
Established  suburban  academies,  for  music,  in  London.    Org.  at  Toorak,  Mel- 
bourne, Australia.      Cond.  of  Lyster's  opera  company,  Australia.     Organized 
opera  company  and  visited  the  principal  towns  of  Australia,  New  Zealand, 
and  India,  with  great  success ;  this  being  greatly  due  to  the  efforts  of  his  pupil. 
Miss  Alice  May.    Returned  to  England.    Established  a  comedy  opera  company 
(limited),  and  produced  "The  Sorcerer,"    "H.M.S.   Pinafore,"  and  "The 
Pirates  of  Penzance,"  comic  operas  by  W.  S.  Gilbert  and  Sir  A.  S.  Sullivan. 
Works. — Operas:  Castle  Grim,  2  Acts,  London,  1S65.     The  Viking,  5  acts, 
Danish  subject  (not  produced  owing  to  the  failure  of  the  English  opera  company). 
The  Wicklow  Rose,  Manchester,  1882.     Two  others  remain  in  MS.     Cantatas: 
Harvest  Home,  1863.     The  Vintage  of  the  Rhine,  1865  ;   Ministering  Angels, 
1884.     Te  Deums  in  D  and  F.     Introits  and  the  Office  of  the  Holy  Communion. 
Anthems :   A  Book  of  Fifteen  Anthems,    1853 ;    Listen,   O   Isles ;    In  the  be- 
ginning was  the  Word ;   Now  is  Christ  risen ;   O  God,  the  rock  of  ages ;    O 
come  let  us  worship ;  Praise  the  Lord ;   The  Lord  is  King ;  Awake,  thou  that 
sleepest.      Concerted  Vocal  Music:  Six  four-part  Songs  [1861] ;  Far  from  din  of 
Cities;  I  love  my  love  in  the  morning;   The  Shepherd's  Song;  Swiss-Lakers' 
Festival  Song  ;   Morning ;   May ;   Down  in  yon  Green  Vale ;  See  the  Shepherd 
Swains ;   The  Wind  on  the  Tree-tops.     Serenade :   Soft  may  thy  Slumbers  be ; 
When  lovely  Spring ;   Lovely  Spring ;   A  Game  of  Croquet ;   Out   among  the 
Summer  Meadows ;  Oberon,  trio ;  The  three  plagues  of  life,  do. ;  To  a  Robin,  do. ; 
Voice  of  Moonlight,  do.  ;  Loving  Voices,  do.     Songs :  A  Shadow ;  Arrow  and 
the  Song ;  Angels'  Gift ;  Adeline  ;  Boyhood's  Dream  ;  The  Bridge  ;  The  Brook- 
let ;  The  Bird  is  on  the  Tree-top ;  The- Baby  Song  ;  The  Barque  that  bears  thee  ; 
Bessie ;  Who  can  tell ;   Little  bird  so  sweetly  singing ;   The  Fisherman's  Wife ; 
Denis  ;   Katty  ;   The  Bridge  ;   The  Old  Mill ;    The  Sea  King  ;    Carillon  ;    The 
Children's  Hour  ;   Whither  away  ?    Unrest ;    Goat-bells  ;    Beware  ;    Marita ;   In 
Silence  and  Tears ;   'Twas  long  long  since  in  the  Springtime  ;  Settings  of  many  of 
Longfellow's  Songs,  and  others,  amounting  in  all  to  about  300.    -Pianoforte  and 
organ  music.     The  Scales  in  Music  and  Colours — their  Analogy,  from  The  Musical 
World.     New  Pianoforte  Tutor  and  School.     London,  n.  d, 

Allen  is  one  of  the  best  and  most  thoroughly  English  composers  now  living. 
His  works  abound  in  bright  melody  and  agreeable  harmony,  and  are  in  every 
respect  worthy  of  attention.  He  is  a  good  vocalist,  and  was  capable,  when  only 
about  twelve  years  old,  of  taking  Miss  Clara  Novello's  part  at  first  sight  at  a  con- 
cert at  which  she  could  not  attend.  His  church  music  is  stamped  with  more  than 
mere  cleverness  ;  while  his  songs  and  part-music  are  admittedly  among  the  best 
of  any  produced  within  recent  years. 

ALLEN  (Henry  Robinson).  Irish  vocalist,  B.  Cork,  1809.  Sung  in  opera  at 
Drury  Lane  Theatre,  and  gave  concerts  at  London,  D,  London,  Nov.  27, 

t6  A.Lt  — ALT 

"He  retired  early  from  an  active  professional  career,  and  devoted  himself  to  tuWon 
and  quiet  study.     He  was  undoubtedly  a  man  of  very  considerable  powers.  —Era. 
ALLEN  (Richard).    English  writer,  flourished  at  end  of  17th  ^nd  begin«f 
i8th  centuries.     Author  of  "An  Essay  to  prove  Smging  of  Psalms  with  con- 
joined  voices  a  Christian  duty,"  London,  1696. 
ALLISON  (Horton  Claridge).    English  comp.,  org-,  and  pianist,  B.  London, 
July  25,  1846.     Entered  R?  A.  M., I  856.     Received  instruction  in  music  from 
W.  H.  Holmes,  Sir  G.  A.  Macfarren,  Garcia,  Plaidy,  E.  F.  Richter,  Reinecke, 
Hauptmann,  and  Moscheles.     S.  at  Leipzig  Cons.,  1862-1865.     Gained  first 
prize  at  Leipzig  for    general   proficiency,    1865.      Played  at    Gewandhaus 
Concerts,   Leipzig,  during  his  stay  there.      Commenced  concert-giving  in 
London,  July,  1865,  and  has  since  appeared  in  the  principal  towns  of  the 
provinces.      Org.   of  St.   James',    Westminster   St,   London  (Rev.   H.  R, 
Haweis),  1867.     Married  in  1869.     A.  R.  A.  M.,   1862.      Examiner  (Man- 
chester) for  R.  A.  M.     Mus.  Bac,  Cambridge,   1877.     Mus.  Doc,  Dublin, 
1877.     M.  R.  A.  M.,  1880.     Examiner  to  Soc.  of  Professional  Musicians,  and 
one  of  H.M.  Examiners,  1884. 
Works. — Cantata  for  4  solo  voices,  chorus  and  orch.,  composed  in  1874  (MS.). 
Sacred  Cantata  for  4  solo  voices,  chorus  and  orch.,  1871  (MS.),  performed  in  1877. 
Symphony  for  full  orchestra,   1875  (MS.).     Suite  for  orchestra  (MS.).     Concerto 
for  Pf.  and  orch.,  composed  in  1870,  performed  in  1877  (MS.).     War  March,  Le 
Champ  de  Mars,  for  orch.,  1873.     Sonata  for  organ,  composed  in  1865,  published 
in  1879.     String  quartet,  composed  and  performed  in  1865.     Concert  duet  for  2 
pianofortes,  1865.     The  Oxford  Concert  Pieces,  for  Pf.  solo,  1872.     The  Cam- 
bridge Concert  Studies,  for  Pf.  solo,  1873.     Melodious  and  Characteristic  Pianoforte 
Studies  (in  two  books,  consisting  of  19  numbers  in  all),  1874.     Lyrics  in  Three 
Sets,  for  Pf.,  1874.     Other  Pieces  for  Pianoforte,  including  the  Marathon  March, 
Tarantella  in  A  minor,  Valse  (1869),  etc.      The  iioth,  117th,  and  134th  Psalms, 
for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  string  orchestra,  composed  in  1876  (MS.).      Behold, 
bless  ye  the  Lord,  anthem.      O  Praise  ye  the  Lord,  do.,  1873.     Boaz  and  the 
Reapers,  4-part  song.     The  Four  Friends,  do.     Sigh  no  more.  Ladies,  do.,  1871. 
Songs:  A  Song  of  Welcome;  Again  the  Woods,   i860;  Lovely  Flowers,  1872; 
The  Meeting  ;  Philomye,  1868.     Lord  Wolseley's  March,  1883. 

ALLISON  (Biicliard).  English  comp.,  flourished  in  the  i6th  cent.  D.  early  in 
17th  century. 
'•  He  was  one  of  the  ten  persons  who  composed  parts  to  the  common  psalm  tunes 
printed  by  Thomas  Est  in  1594."  Also  composer  of  I.  " The  Psalmes  of  David 
in  Meter,  the  Plaine  Song  being  the  common  tunne  to  be  sung  and  plaide  vpon 
the  lute,  or  pharyon,  citterne,  or  base  vioU,  severally  or  altogether,  the  singing  part 
to  be  either  tenor  or  treble  to  the  instrument,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  voyce, 
or  for  foure  voyces,"  etc.,  London,  fo.  1599.  2.  An  Hour's  Recreation  in  Musick, 
apt  for  Instruments  and  Voyces,  London,  1606. 

ALLON  (Rev.  Henry,  D.D.)  English  writer,  B.  Welton,  near  Hull,  Oct.  13, 
1881.  Editor  of  the  British  Quarterly  Review.  Author  of  I.  Church  Song 
in  its  Relations  to  Church  Life,  Lond.,  1862.  2.  The  Psalmody  of  the  Refor- 
mation, Lond.,  8vo,  1864.  3.  Congregational  Psalmist  (with  Dr.  Gauntlett), 
Lend.,  1868.  Other  Editions,  1875,  1883.  4.  Book  of  Chants,  i860.  5. 
Book  of  Church  Anthems,  1872.  6.  Children's  Worship  Hymns,  1878; 
Tunes,  1879.     7,  The  Worship  of  theChurch  (in  Reynold's  Ecclesia),  1870. 

ALMENR.£DER  (Charles).  German  bassoon  player  and  comp.,  B.  Ronsdorf, 
near  Dusseldorf,  Oct.  3,  1786.  D.  Bieberich,  Sept.  14,  1843.  Composed 
music  for  the  bassoon,  a  method  for  the  bassoon,  and  other  instrumental  works. 

ALTBNBURG    (Michael).      German    comp.,    B.    Trcechtelborn,    Thuringia, 
1583.     D.  12  Feb.,  1640.     Wrote  psalms,  chants,  motets,  etc. 

ALTES  (Joseph  Henri).     French  comp.  and  flute-player,  B.  Rouen    18  Tan., 
1826.     Instrumental  music.  >        j      > 

ALTES  (Ernest  Eugene),  brother  of  above.      French  violinist    B    Paris    28 
March,  1830.     Works  for  his  instrument.  '      '  ' 

kiiA  —  aMo  tj 

AMADEI  (Roberto).  Italian  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Loreto,  Nov.  29,  1840. 
Comp,  operas,  motets,  etc. 

AMAT  (Paul  Leopold),  French  comp.  of  romances,  songs,  and  operettas. 
Flourished  in  the  present  century.  B.  Toulouse,  1814.  D.  Nice,  Oct.  31, 

AMATI  (Andrea).     Italian  violin-maker,  B.  Cremona  [1520],     D.  [1577]. 

The  founder  of  the  ' '  Cremona  "  school  of  violin-making.  Connoisseurs  affect 
to  distinguish  this  maker's  instruments,  vfhich  are  very  rare,  by  their  small  build. 

AMATI  (Antonio).     Son  of  above,  Italian  violin-maker,  B.  1550.     D.  1635. 

This  maker  worked  some  time  with  his  brother  Hieronimo.  His  instruments 
are  small  in  size,  but  possess  a  pleasantly  sweet  tone. 

AMATI  (Hieronimo).     Son  of  Andrea,  Italian  violin-maker,  B.  ?    D.  1638. 

The  instruments  of  this  maker  are  generally  superior  to  those  of  Antonio  or 
Andrea.  The  tone  which  they  are  capable  of  producing  is  more  powerful,  and  of 
a  better  quality. 

AMATI  (INicolo).     Italian  violin-maker,  son  of  Hieronimo  Amati,  B.  Cremona, 
Sept.  3,  1596.     D.  Aug  12,  1684. 
The  most  celebrated  maker  of  this  family.     His  violins  are  accounted  superior  to 
those  of  Joseph  Guarnierius,  and  are  highly  valued. 

AMBBOS  (August  Wilhelm).  Hungarian  comp.,  writer,  and  pianist,  B, 
Mauth,  near  Prague,  Nov.  17,  1816.  D.  Vienna,  June,  28,  1876.  Author 
of  several  important  works  on  musical  history  and  criticism.  Prof,  of  music 
at  the  University  of  Prague,  1869.  Mem.  of  the  University  of  Vienna,  1S72. 
He  spent  the  years  i86o  till  1868  in  collecting  material  for  his  "  History  of 
Music,"  the  publication  of  which  is  now  completed. 
Works. — Die  Granzen  der  Poesie  und  Musik,  Prague,  1856;   Bunte  Blatter, 

Skizzen  und  Studien  fur  Freunde  der  Musik  und  der  bildenden  Kunst,  2  vols ; 

Die  Musik  als  Culturmoment  in   der  Geschichte ;    Robert  Franz,  eine  Studie  ; 

Geschichte  der  Musik,  Breslau,  1862-8.     Kinderstiicke  ;  Wanderstucke,  and  other 

pieces  for  the  Pf.     A  Stabat  Matir  ;  Two  Masses ;  Songs,  etc. 

His  history  is  written  in  a  very  readable  and  agreeably  brilliant  style,  and  is 

a  most  valuable  contribution  to  recent  musical  literature.     His  ideas  on  English 

music  require  revision. 

AMBROSE  (St.)  Eminent  Father  of  the  Christian  Church,  was  B.  in  Gaul, 
340  A.D.  Studied  at  Rome.  D.  [397]. 
Ambrose  introduced  into  the  church  service  the  practice  of  antiphonal  singing. 
This  usage  originated  in  the  Eastern  Church,  and  was  subsequently  transplanted  by 
S.  Ambrose  into  the  church  at  Milan,  of  which  he  was  bishop.  The  composition 
of  the  "Te  Deum  laudamus"  has  been  ascribed,  erroneously,  to  him. 

AMICIS  (Anna  Lucia  de).  Italian  vocalist,  B.  Naples,  1740.  DiiuS  in 
London,  1763.     Date  of  death  unknown. 

AMMON  (Antoine  Blaise).  French  comp.,  B.  Imot  in  the  Tyrol,  Jan.  2, 
1572.     D.  Munich,  9  April,  1614.    .Composer  of  Masses,  Motets,  Psalms,  etc. 

AMNER  (John).      English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  towards  end  of  l6th  century. 
Org.  and  choir-master  at  Ely  Cath.,  1610-41.      Mus.  Bac.  Oxon,  1613.      D. 
Works.— A  Sacred  Collection  of  Hymnes,  of  three,  foure,  five,  and  six  Parts, 
for  voices  and  vyols,  1615  ;  Anthems,  etc. 

AMNER  (Ralph).  English  bass  vocalist,  son  of  the  above,  was  a  lay  clerk  at 
Ely  in  1604,  and  Gent,  of  H.M.  Chapels  Royal.     D.  Windsor,  1644. 

AMON  (Johann  Andreas).  German  comp.,  B.  Bamberg.  1763.  Director  of 
music  at  Heilbronn,  1789.  Chap. -master  to  the  Prince  of  Wallerstein,  1817- 
182S.     D.  Mar.  29,  1825. 


i8  Amo  —  anG 

WORKS.-Op.  I.  Duets  for  violin  and  tenor  ;  op.  8.  Three  trios  for  violin  tenor 
and  bass;  op.  lo.  First  concerto  for  violin  and  orch.  ;  op.  1 1.  iMee  sonatas 
forPf.  and  violin;  op.  15.  Three  quartets  for  strings  ;  op.  19.  Three  sonatas  for 
Pf.  and  violin ;  op.  2S.  Three  quartets  for  horns ;  op.  26.  Six  songs  for  voice  and 
Pf.  ;  op.  30.  ;  Symphony  in  B  flat  for  orch.  ;  op.  33-  Six  songs  for  voice  and 
Pf.  ;  op.  34.  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  Orch.  ;  op.  36.  Six  songs  for  voice  and  Pf. ;  op. 
39.  Three  quartets  for  flutes  ;  op.  40.  Six  Pieces  for  Pf. ;  op.  42.  Ihree  quartets 
for  flutes ;  op.  43.  Six  songs  for  voice  and  Pf. ;  op.  44-  Concerto  for  flute  and  orch., 
in  G  ;  op.  48.  Three  sonatas  for  flute  and  'cello ;  op.  5°-  Six  variations  for  violin 
and  orch ;  op.  $1.  Six  songs  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  53,  54-  ^°-  >  °P-  55.  Sonata 
for  flute  and  Pf  ;  op.  58.  Three  trios  for  Pf ,  violin,  and  'cello  ;  op.  59.  Sonata  for 
flute  and  Pf.  ;  op.  60.  Symphony  in  16  parts,  for  orch  ;  op.  62.  Six  Songs  for 
voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  63.  Three  sonatas  for  Pf.  solo  ;  op.  64.  Six  songs  for  voice  and 
Pf.  ;  op.  67.  Sonata  for  Pf.  duet ;  op.  71.  Sonata  for  flute  and  Pf. ;  op.  72.  Twelve 
pieces  for  Pf.  ;  op.  76.  Three  sonatas  for  Pf.,  violin  and  'cello  ;  op.  83.  Sonata  for 
Pf.  ;  op.  86.  Nine  songs  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  92.  Three  sonatas  for  flute 
quartet  ;  op.  95.  Sonata  for  harp  and  flute ;  op.  99.  Two  sonatas  for  do. ;  op.  106. 
Two  quartets  for  clarinets;  op.  109.  Three  quartets  for  oboes;  op.  no.  Quintet  for 
flute,  horn,  viola,  and  bass;  op.  113.  String  quartet ;  op.  123.  Three  serenades  for 
Pf.  and  guitar.  Le  Sultan  Wampou  and  another  opera.  A  Requiem  and  several 

The  music  of  Amon  is  in  use  in  Germany  at  the  present  time,  but  we  are  not 
certain  that  any  of  it  has  been  publicly  given  in  Britain.  The  instrumental  works 
are  immeasurably  superior  to  the  vocal  pieces,  and  are  compactly  and  clearly 

AMOTT  (John).  English  comp.  and  org.,  was  org.  of  Abbey  Ch.,  Shrewsbury, 
1822-32.  Org.  of  Gloucester  Cath.,  1832-65.  D.  Goucester,  Feb.  3,  1865. 
He  conducted  the  Gloucester  Musical  Festival,  and  wrote  a  work  entitled,  "  The 
Annals  of  the  Three  Choirs,"  1864  [2nd  ed.  of  work  by  D.  Lysons] ;  as  well  as  ser- 
vices, anthems,  kyries,  etc.  He  was  a  good  organist,  and  trained  a  number  of 
musicians  of  wide  celebrity. — Musical  Standard,  Jan.  7i  18S2. 

ANACKER  (August  F.)     German  comp.,  B.  Freiberg,  Oct.  17,  1790.     S.  at 

Freiberg  and  Leipzig.      Appointed   teaches  of  music  in  Normal  School  of 

Freiberg,   1822.     Established  music  school  at  Freiberg,    1823.     Established 

annnal  concerts  and  a  choral  soc.  at  Freiberg.     D.  there,  Aug.  21,  1854. 

Works. — Overture:    Goetz   de    Berlichingen ;    Concert    Overture;    Cantata: 

Lebensblume  und  Lebensunbestand  ;  Part  Songs  ;  Songs  ;  Pianoforte  music. 
Anacker  was  universally  known  throughout  Germany  for  his  efforts  to_  promote 

the  study  of  music  in  a  district  which  had  been  neglected  previous  to  his  advent. 

The  fact  that  his  choral  society  was  composed  of  singers  drawn  from  dwellers  in  a 

mining  district  is  sufficient  to  prove  his  courage  and  perseverance. 

ANCOT   (Jean).      Belgian  comp.    and   violinist,   B.   Bruges,    Oct.    22,    1779. 
Received  first  instructions  in  music  in  choir  of  ch.  of  S.  Donat,  Bruges.    Went 
to   Paris  and   S.  violin  under   R.   Kreutzer  and  Baillot,  and  harmony  under 
Catel.      Returned  to  Bruges,  1804,  and  occupied  himself  with  concert-giving, 
teaching,  and  composing.     D.  Bruges,  July  12,  1848. 
Works. — Four  concertos  for  violin  and  orch.  ;  Three  quartets  for  strings  ;  Two 
masses  for  3  voices  and  organ  ;  Six  Tantum  Ergo,  for  3  and  4  voices  and  organ ; 
Four  Ave  Maria  for  4  voices  ;  Airs  with  variations  for  violin  and  orch.  ;  Two  over- 
tures for  fifteen  instruments  ;  Two  fantasias  for  fifteen  instruments  ;  Marches,  and 
other  instrumental  music  ;  Dance  music,  songs,  etc. 

ANCOT  (Jean).  Belgian  comp.  and  pianist,  brother  of  above,  B.  Bruges,  July 
6,  1799.  S.  at  Paris  under  Berton  and  Pradher.  Went  to  London,.  1823., 
Pianist  to  Duchess  of  Kent,  etc.  Left  London,  1825.  D.  Boulogne,  June 
5,  1829. 

Works.— Six  overtures  for  full  orch.  ;  Amelia,  dramatic  scene,  for  chorus 
and  orch.  ;  Mane  Stuart,  do.  ;  La  Resolution,  do.  ;  La  Philosophie  d'Aracreon, 
do. ;  Eight  fantasias  for  Pf.  duet.  :  Sonata  for  Pf.,  op.  4  ;  Nocturne  for  Pf.  and 
violin,  op.  8 ;  Grand  sonata  for  Pf.  and  violin,  op.  14 ;  Fantasias  for  Pf.  and  orch.; 
Concertos  for  Pf  and  orch.;  Five  concertos  for  violin  and  orch.;  Numerous  pieces 

And  —  ANt)  i5 

for  Pf.   solo,  consisting  chiefly  of  famasias,   variations,  etc. ;  Twelve  fugues  for 
organ,  etc. 

AITDEB  (Aloys).  Bohemian  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Liebitz,  Aug.  24,  1821.  Dibut 
at  Vienna  in  "Stradella."  Sang  in  various  parts  of  Europe  till  1864.  D. 
Dec.  II,  1864. 

ANDERSON  (George  Frederick).  English  violinist,  B.  London,  1793, 
Cond.  of  Royal  private  Band.  Hon.  Treasurer  to  Philharmonic  Soc.  Do.  to 
Royal  Soc.  of  Musicians.  Married  to  Miss  Lucy  Philpot  (the  pianist),  1820. 
D.  Dec.  14,  1876. 

Anderson  was  the  governing  poWer  in  the  Philharmonic  Society,  and  exercised 
much  influence  on  every  institution  with  which  he  had  connection.  He  wrote 
"Statement  of  Mr.  G.  F.  Anderson,  in  Reply  to  Calumnious  Charges  against  him 
as  Director  of  Her  Majesty's  Private  Band,'*  Norwich  [1855].     Privately  printed. 

ANDERSON  (Lucy),  nie  Philpot.  English  pianist,  B.  Bath,  1789  [1797]. 
Instructed  in  Music  by  Windsor.  Appeared  in  London  at  Philharmonic 
Soc.  Concert,  April  29,  1822,  and  gained  great  applause  by  her  playing. 
Married  G.  F.  Anderson,  July,  1820.  Teacher  of  Queen  Victoria  and  several 
other  members  of  the  royal  family.  D.  London,  Dec.  25,  1878. 
Mrs.  Anderson  played  [before  the  Philharmonic  Society,   being  the  first  lady 

pianist  who  ever  did  so,  and  was  acknowledged  in  her  day  to  be  the  best  pianist  in 


ANDERSON  (John).  Scottish  comp.,  who  flourished  in  Edinburgh  in  i8th 
century.  He  published  "A  Selection  of  the  most  approved  Highland  Strath- 
speys, Country  Dances,  English  and  French  Dances,  with  a  Harpsichord  or 
Violoncello  Bass,"  Edinburgh,  n.  d. 

ANDERSON  (Josephine).  English  vocalist,  B.  1808.  D.  1848.  Well-known 
in  her  day  as  a  singer  of  surpassing  merit.  She  appeared  in  London  and  the 

ANDERSON  CWilliam).  Scottish  writer,  Author  of  "  Remarks  on  Congre- 
gational Psalmody,"  Aberdeen,  1855. 

ANDERSON  (Rev.  William).  Scottish  divine  and  musician,  B.  Kilsyth, 
1800.  He  was  a  great  enthusiast  in  musical  matters,  and  his  able  "Apology 
for  the  Organ  as  an  assistance  of  Congregational  Psalmody,"  Glasgow,  1829, 
thoroughly  exposes  the  weak  basis  on  which  the  arguments  of  the  school  of 
Begg  and  Candlish  were  founded.  His  "  Exposure  of  Popery  "  is  a  standard 
work.     D.  Glasgow,  Sept.  15,  1872. 

ANDERTON  (Thomas).  English  amateur  comp.,  B.  Birmingham,  April  15, 
1836.     Editor  of  the  Midland  Counties  Herald,  Birmingham. 

'^ow&.i.— Cantatas:  The  Song  of  Deborah  and  Barak  (Solihull,  1871);  The 
Wreck  of  the  Hesperus ;  John  Gilpin ;  The  Three  Jovial  Huntsmen,  1881. 
Operettas:  Gentle  Gertrude,  Alexandra  Theatre,  Liverpool,  Feb.  21,  1881  ; 
The  Chiltern  Hundreds,  by  J.  E.  Pemberton,  Liverpool,  April  17,  1882; 
Artaxominous  ye  Great.  Symphony  for  orch. ;  Quartet  for  strings,  in  F, 
1884;  Overtures,  various,  and  an  oratorio  (MS.).  Part  songs,  numerous.  Songs: 
Blossoms ;  Be  with  uie  still ;  Come  to  me,  O  ye  children  ;  Crocus-gathering ; 
Dreaming  and  waking  ;  Felling  of  the  Trees  ;  Household  Fairies ;  Ivied  Cottage ; 
Little  Fishermaiden  ;  One  Summer  Time ;  Time  of  Roses ;  Vespers,  etc.  Pf. 
Music :  AUemande ;  Play  hours ;  Seaside  sensations ;  Satyr's  dance ;  Three 
sketches,  etc. 

Mr.  Anderton  is  one  of  the  most  successful  amateur  composers  of  recent  times, 
and  it  is  only  needful  to  point  to  his  cantatas,  part-songs,  and  some  of  his  songs  in 
support  of  this.  "  The  Wreck  of  the  Hesperus  "  has  been  frequently  performed  by 
choral  societies,  and  a  number  of  his  songs  are  very  popular.  His  music  is  tuneful 
and  bright,  without  undue  straining  or  scientific  display,  and  the  whole  of  his  pro- 
ductions are  of  high  general  merit.  His  brother,  John  Anderton,  is  a  clever  libret- 
tist, and  has  furnished  more  than  one  "  book  "  for  the  composer. 

ANDRE  (Johann).    Germancomp.,B.  Offenbach,  Mar.  28,  1 741.     Established 

AND  —  ANti 

a  large  silk  factory,  and  published  music.  Director  of  Music  at  the  Dbbblin 
Theatre,  Berlin.     D.  Offenbach,  June  l8,  1799-  ,,.  ,    ,      T^ 

WOKKS.-Oieras  :  Der  Toepfer  ;  Erwin  und  Elmire  ;  Herzog  Michel ;  Der 
Alte  Freyer  ;  Peter  und  Hannchen ;  Der  Fiirst  im  hcechsten  glanze  ;  Laura 
Rosetti ;  Claudine  ;  L'Alcheraist;  Das  Tartarisch  Gesetz  ;  Das  Friedens  Feyer; 
Die  Schaden  freude  ;  Kurze  Thor  heit  ist  die  beste  ;  Das  Wuthende  Heer  ;  Das 
Automat ;  Der  Barbier  von  Bagdad.     Songs.     Trios  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  cello,  1786. 

His  melody  is  spontaneous,  and  has  an  easy  flow,  quite  m  keeping  with  the 
graceful  originality  of  his  style.  "Der  Toepfer  "  (the  Potter)  is  a  fair  specimen  of 
his  style,  and  is  no  less  simple  and  unaffected  in  melody  than  rich  and  appropriate 
in  harmony. 

ANDRE  (Johann  Anton).    German  comp.  and  violinist,  son  of  above,  B.  Offen- 
bach, Oct.  6,  1775.     Educated  at  Jena.     Succeeded  to  his  father's  business, 
1799.     Issued  a  complete  list  of  Mozart's  works  (thematic).     D.  Offenbach, 
April  5,  1842. 
Works. — ^Twenty-one  symphonies  for  full  orchestra  ;  Three  concertos  for  violin  ; 

Seven  concertos  for  wind  instruments  ;  Seven  books  of  quartets  for  strings.    Two 

masses.    Rinaldo  et  Alcina,  opera,  1799.    Lehrbuch  der  Tonkunst,  6  vols.,  1823; 

Thematisches  Verzeichniss  sammtlicher  compositionen  von  W.  A.  Mozart,  1829 ; 

Anleitung  zum  violins  pielen,  etc. 

ANDBiE  (Johann  B. )  Son  of  above,  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Offenbach, 
1823.  Wrote  Studies  for  the  Pianoforte,  Fantasias  for  the  Pf.,  Duets  for 
violin  and  Pf.,  and  'cello  and  Pf.,  etc.     D.  Offenbach,  Dec.  9,  1882. 

ANDEE  (Peter  Friedrich  Julius).      German  org.  and  comp,,  brother  of 
above,  B.  Offenbach,  1808.     Org.  and  Prof,  at  Frankfort-on-the-Maine.     D. 
there,  April,  1880. 
Works. — Method  for  the  organ,   theoretical  and  practical ;    Anleitung  zum 
Selbstunterricht  im  Pedalspiel,   1834,  Trans,  into  English  by  J.  A.  Hamilton, 
Lond.,  n.  d.  ;  Songs  for  voice  and  Pf. ;  Twelve  pieces  for  the  organ,  op.  9  :  Do., 
op.  26  ;   Valses  and  Nocturnes  for  Pf.  ;  Organ  music,  consisting  of  fugues,  volun- 
taries, fantasias,  sonatas,  etc. 

ANDBEOZZI  (Gaetano).      Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  1763.      S.  at  Cons,  of 
Naples  under  Jommelli.     Went  to  Russia,  1784.    Returned  to  Italy,  1785.    D. 
Italy,  1826. 
Works. — Oferas :  La  Morte  di  Cesare,   1779;  II  Bajazet,  1780;  L'Olimpiade, 

1780;  Agesilao,  1781  ;  Theodolrinda,  1781  ;  Catone  in  Utica,  1782  ;  II  Trionfo  d' 

Arsace,   Rome,    1782;    La  Vergine  del  Sole,   1783;    Angelica  e  Medoro,   1783; 

Dido,  1784;  Giasone  e  Medea,  1784;  Argentina,  1786;  Sofronia  e  Olindo,  1789; 

II  finto  cieco,   1790;  La  Principessa  filosofa,    1790.     Oratorios:  Saul,  1789;  La 

Passione  di   Giesd  Christo,    1790.      Six  quartets  for  2  violins,  viola,  and  'cello, 

1786.     Songs,  etc. 

ANDBEVI  (Francesco).  Italian  comp.,  B.  near  Lerida,  1785.  D.Barcelona, 
Nov.  23,   1844.     Wrote  church  music,  etc. 

ANDREWS  (Richard  Hoffman).  English  writer  and  comp.,  B.  1803. 
Author  of  "Music  as  a  Science,"  1865  ;  "Sacred  Music,  adapted  for  Pub- 
lic and  Private  Devotion,"  Manchester,  8vo,  n.d.  "The  Family  Vocalist;" 
"Songs  of  the  Hearth;"  ';  Handel's  Songs;"  "The  German  Choral  Har- 
monist." He  has  also  published  numerous  pieces  for  the  Pf.,  glees,  duets, 
songs,  etc.  His  sons,  Richard  Hoffman  (B.  Manchester,  1831),  and  Ed- 
ward Hoffman  (B.  Manchester,  1836),  are  both  successful  composers  and 
teachers  in  the  United  States. 

ANDROT  (Albert  AugUSte).  French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  1781.  S.  Paris  Cons. 
Gained  prize  for  comp.,  1803.  S.  under  Guglielmi.  D.  Rome,  Aug.  19, 
1804.     Comp.  operas,  church  music,  etc. 

ANERIO  (Felice).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Rome,  1560.  Pupil  cf  G.  M.  Nanini. 
Chap. -master  at  Papal  Chap,,  1594.     D.   ? 

Works.— Three  books  of  madrigals,  1585  ;  Book  of  madrigals  for  5  voices,  1587; 

ANE  —  ANG  2t 

Two  books  of  concertos  for  use  in  the  church,  for  4  voices,  1593  ;  Book  of  hymns, 
songs,  and  motets  for  8  voices,  1596 ;  Second  book  of  hymns  and  motets  for  5,  6, 
and  8  voices,  1602 ;  Books  of  madrigals  for  6  voices ;  Litanies ;  Miscellaneous 
works,  as  psalms,  masses,  Ave  Regina,  etc. ,  are  preserved  in  many  church  libraries 
in  Italy. 

ANEBIO  (Giovanni  Francesco).  Brother  of  above,  Italian  comp.,  B.  Rome, 
1567.  Chap. -master  to  Sigismund  III.,  King  of  Poland.  Do.  of  Cath.  of 
Verona.  Chap.-master  of  Ch.  of  the  Madonna  di  Monti.  Do.  of  Lateran 
Chap.,  1600-13.  D.  [unknown.] 
Works. — II  Libro  primo  de  motetti  a  una,  due  e  tre  voci,  Rome,  1609  ;  II  libro 
secondo  de'  motetti,  con  le  litanie  a  le  quattro  antifone  maggiori  dopo  il  vespero,  a 
sette  e  otto  voce,  1611  ;  II  libro  terzo,  do.,  1613  ;  II  Libro  quarto,  do.,  1617  ;  II 
Libro  quinto,  do.,  1618  ;  Sacri  concenlus  quatuor,  quinque,  sex  vocibus  una  cum 
basso  ad  organum,  1619 ;  Ghirlanda  di  sacre  rose,  motetti  a  cinque  voci,  1613 ; 
Selva  armonica,  etc.,  1617  ;  Diporti  musicali,  madrigali  ad  una,  due,  tre,  quattro 
voci,  1617  ;  Antifone  sacri  concerti  per  una,  due,  tre  voci,  1613  ;  Libro  de'  Respon- 
sori,  1619 ;  Litanie  for  7  and  8  voices,  1626;  Messa  di  morti,  1620;  Libro  de 
salmi  a  tre  e  quattro  voci,  1620  ;  Antifonse,  vespera^,  etc.,  1620  ;  La  Recreazione 
armonica,  madrigali  ad  una  e  due  voci,  161 1  ;  Teatro  armonico  spiritualede  madri- 
gali a  cinque,  sei,  sette  e  otto  voci,  1619  ;  La  bella  clori  armonica,  canzonette  e 
madrigala  a  una,  due  e  tre,  voci,  1619  ;  Ghirlanda  di  sacre  Rose  a  5  voci,  1619  ; 
Dialogo  pastorale,  a  tre  voci  con  1'  intovolatura  di  cembalo  e  del  luito  in  rame,  1600. 
Other  works  of  this  composer  are  masses,  motets,  magnificats,  etc.  Several  of 
Anerio's  madrigals  are  published  in  English  collections,  but  the  most  of  his  works 
are  unknown  to  the  present  age. 

ANFOSSI  (Pasquale).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  1729  [1736].  Pupil  of  Piccinni. 
Resided  in  London  for  a  time.  Visited  France,  1780.  Returned  to  Italy, 
1784.  Chap.-master  at  the  Lateran  Chap.,  1791-97-  D.  Rome,  Feb.,  I797- 
Works. — Of  eras:  Cajo  Mario,  1769  ;  La  Clemenza  di  Tito,  1769  ;  I  Visionari> 
1771  ;  II  Barone  di  Rocca,  1772  ;  L'Incognita  persequitata  1773 ;  Antigono,  1773 ; 
Demofoonte,  1773 ;  Lucio  Silla,  1774 ;  La  Finla  Giardiniera,  1774 ;  II  Gelosa  in 
Cimento,  1775;  La  Contadina  in  Corte,  1775  ;  L'Avaro,  1775;  Isabella  e  Rodrigo, 
1776  ;  La  Pescatrice  fedele,  1776  ;  L'Olimpiade,  1776  ;  II  Curioso  indiscrete,  1778  ; 
Lo  Sposo  disperato,  1778  ;  Cleopatra,  1778  ;  II  Matrimonio  per  inganno,  1779  ; 
La  Forza  delle  donne,  1780  ;  I  Vecchi  burlati,  London,  1781  ;  I  Viaggiatori  felici, 
London,  1782;  Armida,  1782;  Gli  Amanti  canuti,  1784;  II  Trionfo  d' Ariana, 
1784;  II  Cavaliereper  Amore,  1784;  Chi  cerca  trova,  1784;  La  Vedova  scaltra, 
1785  ;  'I'Imbroglio  delle  tre  spose,  1786  ;  La  Pazzia  de'  Gelosi,  1787  ;  Creso,  1787 ; 
La  Villanella  di  Spirito,  1787;  Didone  abbandonata,  1785;  Artaserse,  1788; 
L'Orfanella  Americana,  1788;  La  Maga  Circe,  1788;  Le  Gelosie  fortunate,  1788; 
La  Gazetta,  1789;  Zenobia,  1790;  Issifile,  1791  ;  II  Zottico  iocivilito,  1792 ; 
L'Americana  in  Olanda  ;  La  Matilda  ritrovata  ;  Gli  Artigiani.  Oratorios :  La 
Fiera  del  Ascensione;  L'Assalone.  II  Figlinol  prodigo,  cantata.  Masses,  etc. 
The  works  of  Anfossi  attained  great  popularity  in  their  day,  but  are  now 
unknown  save  to  musical  antiquaries  and  curious  students. 

ANGEL  (Alfred).     English  org.  and  vocal  comp.,  B.  1816.    Org.  Exeter  Cath., 

1842-76.     D.  Exeter,  May  24,  1876. 
ANGELET  (Charles  F.)     Belgian  com.,  B.  Ghent,  Nov.  18,  1797.     D.  Ghent, 

Dec.  20,  1832.     Wrote  symphonies,  Pf.  music,  etc. 
ANGELO  DAPICITONE.     Italian  comp.  and  writer  of  i6th  century.    Author 

of  "  Fior  Angelico  di  Musica."    Venice,  1547,  etc. 
ANGELUCCI  (Angelo).     Italian  violin-maker  of  i8th  century.     D.  1765. 
ANGEB    (Ludwig).       German    comp.,    org.    and    pianist,    B.   Andreasberg, 

Hanover,  Sept.  5,  1813.     D.  Luneberg,  Jan.  18,  1870.      Writer  of  Pf.  music, 

Lieder,  overtures,  etc. 
ANGUS  (John).     Scottish  ecclesiastic  and  comp.,  B.  about  middle  of  1 6th  cen- 
tury.    Attached  to  Dunfermline  Monastery.     Embraced  the  Protestant  faith, 

and  became  chaplain  at  Stirling.     D.  1596. 

22  ANl  —  APO 

He  is  mentioned  in  the  "Wood  MSS."  as  a  co>°P°sV^.'^'^!f„?'"lumbLTf 
are  not  aware  of  any  of  his  compositions  being  extant.  He  is  one  of  a  number  of 
other  composers  mentioned  in  the  same  work. 

ANIMUCCIA  (Giovanni).     Italian  com?.,  B.  Florence  at  end  of  iSth  century 

[1505].      S.  under  Goudimel.      Chap.-master  at  the  Vatican,   1555-71.    D. 

Rome,  1571. 

Works.— II  primo  libro  di  madrigali  a  tre  voci,  1565;   Joannis  Animuccis 

magistri  capellse  sacro  sanctae  basilicae  vaticanse  Missarum  libn,    1567;   II  primo 

libro  de'  madrigali  a  quattro,  cinque  e  sei  voci,  1567  ;  Canticum  B.  Manse  Virginis, 

1568  ;  II  secondo  libro  delle  laudi,  etc.,  1570  ;  Credo  Dominicalis  quatuor  vocum, 

1567;    Magnificat  ad  omnes  modos,  liber  secundus,  1568;  Masses,  Agnus  Dei, 

Motets,  etc. 

Animuccia  was  one  of  those  composers  who,  in  conjunction  with  S.  Filippo  Neri, 
first  employed  music  as  a  means  of  attracting  audiences  to  the  orations  delivered  in 
the  New  Church  of  Rome.  He  composed  the  first  laudi  or  hymns  employed  for 
this  purpose,  and  may  reasonably  be  accredited  with  the  foundation  of  the  modern 

ANIMUCCIA  (Paolo).     Brother  of  above,  Italian  comp.,  B.  about  commence- 
ment of  i6th  century.    Chap.-master  at  the  Lateran,  1550-52.    D.  Rome,  1563. 
Works. — Madrigals  and  motets.     These  are  preserved  in  many  private  libraries, 
and  some  are  published  in  collections  which  appeared  in  his  time. 

ANNIBALI  (Domeuico).  Italian  vocalist  (soprano),  who  flourished  during 
the  l8th  century.  He  appeared  originally  in  Germany,  and  was  engaged  by 
Handel  for  the  Italian  opera  at  London  in  1736.  He  sang  in  Handel's 
operas  till  about  1737,  when  he  disappeared.  No  record  appears  to  have. 
been  kept  of  his  subsequent  doings. 

ANSANI  (Giovanni).     Italian  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Rome,  middle  of  18th  century. 

Appeared  at  London  in  1780  and  in  1781.     Sung  at  various  towns  throughout 

Italy,  etc.     D.  [after  1815]. 
He  wrote  vocal  music  and  an   opera  entitled  "La  Vendetta  di  Minos,"  1791. 
The  latter  years  of  his  life  were  spent  in  training  young  vocalists  for  the  stage. 

ANSCHiJTZ   (Karl).      German   comp.,   B.   Coblentz,    Feb.    1813.      Musical 

Director  at  Coblentz  till  1848.      Went  to  United  States  of  America,  1857. 

Established  German  opera  at  New  York,  1862.     D.  New  York,  Dec.  30,  1870. 

This  composer  wrote  several  operas  and  minor  works.      American  writers  speak 

in  high  terms  of  his  efforts  to  propagate  a  taste  for  music  in  New  York  at  a  time 

when  sensation  in  everything  was  the  rule  of  the  day. 

ANTHIOME  (Eugene  Jean  B.)  French  operatic  comp.  and  pianist,  B. 
Lorient,  Aug.  19,  1836. 

ANTON  (M.T.)    See  Paradis  (M.  T.) 

ANTONIOTTI  (Giorgio).  Italian  violinist  and  writer,  B.  Milan,  1692.  _  Ti.^ 
Milan,  1776.  Resided  for  a  time  in  England,  where  he  published  "L'Art^ 
Armonica  ;  or,  a  Treatise  on  the  Composition  of  Musick.  .  .  With  an  Introduc- 
tion on  the  History  and  Progress  of  Musick  from  its  beginning  to  this  time." 
London,  1760,  2  v. 

ANTONY  (Francois  Joseph).  German  writer  and  org.,  B.  Feb.  I,  1790.  D. 
Miinster,  1837. 

Wrote  on  Ecclesiastical  music,  the  organ,  etc. 

APELL  (Johann  David  A.  D').  German  comp.,  B.  Cassel,  1754.  D.  1833. 
Wrote  masses,  operas,  Cantatas,  symphonies,  etc. 

APOLLONI  (Giuseppe).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Vicenza,  A  living  writer  of 
operas,  etc. 

Works  _0/«-ar;   L'Ebreo,  1856;  Pietro  d'Albano,  1856;  Adelchi,  1856;  II 
Conte  di  Koenigsberg,  1866  ;  Gustavo  Wasa,  1872. 

APR  —  ARC  23 

APB.ILE  (Guiseppe).  Italian  vocal  teacher,  B.  Bisceglia,  1738.  Author  of  a 
treatise  on  vocalization  trans,  and  published  in  London  as  "  The  Modern 
Italian  Method  of  Singing."     Ed.  by  Cooke.     D.  between  1792-1800. 

APTOMMAS.  (Thomas.)  Welsh  harper,  B.  Bridgend,  Glamorgan,  1826. 
Known  all  over  Britain  as  a  harpist  of  great  execution  and  ability. 

ARAJA  (Francesco),    Italian  operatic  comp.,  B.  Naples,  1700.-    D.  1770, 

ARANAZ  (Don  Pedro).  Spanish  comp.,  B.  Soria.  D.  Cuenga,  at  an  advanced 
age,  1825.     Org.  and  writer  of  sacred  music. 

AKANGUBiEN  (Jose').  Spanish  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Bilbao,  May  25,  1821, 
Professor  of  music  at  Madrid  Cons.     Writes  Pf.  music,  songs,  etc. 

ABBAN  (Joseph  Jean  Baptiste  Laurent).    French  comp.  and  comet-player, 

B.  Lyons,  Feb.,  1825.     S.  at  Lyons  from   1841.     Gained  second  prize  for 

cornet-playing,    1844.      Professor   of  the   Sax-horn,   etc.,   at  the  school  for 

the  education  of  military  bands,  1857-69. 

Works. — Grand  Methode  complke  de  cornet-4-pistons  et  de  sax-horn,  Paris. 

Pieces  for  the  Pianoforte,  consisting  of  airs  from  operas,  shop-pieces  on  topics  of 

current  interest,  etc.  ;  Dance  music  for  orchestra  and  military  band ;  Fantasias,  etc., 

for  cornet. 

ABBUCKLB  (Matthew).  American  writer  and  bandmaster,  B.   1828.     D. 

New  York,  May  23,  1883.  Author  of  "  Arbuckle's  Complete  Cornet  Method. 

(Boston  :  Ditson,  n.  d.)  "  Compiled  partly  from  the  works  of  Jones,  Koenig, 
and  Levy. 

ABCADELT  (Jacob)  or  ABEADBLT.     Dutch  comp.,  B.  about  end  of  isth 

century  [1490].    Pupil  of  Josquin,    Singing-master  at  St.  Peter's,  Rome,  1539. 

Mem.  of  Coll.  of  Papal  singers,  1S40.     Private  musician  to  Cardinal,  Charles 

of  Lorrain,  Duke  of  Guise,  1555.  D.  Paris,  in  latter  part  of  i6th  century,  [1575]. 

Works. — II  Primo  Libro  de'  madgali  a  piu  voci,   Venice,   1538  ;    II  secondo 

libro  de'  madrigali  a  quattro  voci,  etc.,  Venice,  1539  ;  II  terzo  libro  de'  madrigali, 

etc.  ;    II  quatro  libro  de'  madrigali  d'  Archadelt  a  quattro  voci,   1539  ;   II  quinto 

libro  de'  madrigali  d'Archadelt  a  cinque  voci,  1556.     Masses  ;  Motets,  etc. 

One  of  the  most  popular  composers  of  his  time.  His  madrigals  are  fine  examples 
of  contrapuntal  skill,  and  have  been  reprinted  at  several  different  periods.  We  are 
informed  by  historians  that  his  motets  held  such  repute  in  Italy  that  publishers 
never  scrupled  to  attach  his  name  to  works  of  an  inferior  order  by  way  of  securing 
their  sale.  The  claim  laid  by  the  French  to  Arcadelt  as  a  countryman  is  founded 
on  error. 

ABCHAMBBATT  (Jean  Michel  d');  Belgian  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Herve, 
Liege,  1823.    Writer  of  masses,  organ  music,  etc. 

ABCHAMBEAU  (Edouard  d').  Brother  of  above,  B.  Herve,  1834.  Pianist 
and  comp. 

ABCHEB  (Frederic).      English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Oxford,  June  16,   1838. 
Chorister  of  Margaret  Chap.,  London.      Org.  at  Royal  Panopticon,  after  Dr. 
Chipp,  till  its  close.      Org.  of  Merton  Coll.      Org.  at  the  Alexandria  Palace, 
London.  Director  of  an  English  Opera  Company.   Cond.  for  a  season  (1878-80) 
of  Glasgow   Select'  Choir.      Resident    in  America,   as  org.   in    H.    Ward 
Beecher's  Ch.,  Brooklyn  etc.,  and  as  editor  of  the  Keynote. 
Works. — The  Organ  :  A  Theoretical  and  Practical  Treatise  intended  to  assist 
the  Student  in  acquiring  a  sound  knowledge  of  the  Instrument  and  its  proper  man- 
ipulation, with  a  series  of  Original  Exercises  and  Illustrative  Compositions  written 
specially  for  this  work,   London :   Novello  &  Co.,  n.d.  ;   The  Collegiate  Organ 
Tutor,  -London,  Weekes  &  Co.,  n.d.  ;  -Adagio  Maestoso  for  organ ;  Fugue  for  organ, 
in  D  minor  ;  Grand  Fantasia  in  F,  for  organ  ;  Andantes  for  organ,  in  D,  F,  and  A  ; 
Concert  Variations  for  organ  ;    Marche  Triomphale    for  organ ;    Set   of  twelve 
organ  pieces,  intended  chiefly  for  church  use  ;   Two  Gavottes  for  Pf.  in  D,  and  E 
flat ;  Polka  de  Salon,  for  Pf.  ;   Three  Impromptus  for  Pf. ;  Bourse  in  C,  for  Pf.  ; 
Requited  Love,  part  song  ;    Night,  part  song ;    The  Chase,  part  song ;   O  give 
thanks,  anthem  ;  The  glorious  majesty,  anthem.      Songs:  My  Lady's  Face  ;   I'm 

24  ARC — ARK 

sister  to  the  cure  (comic)  ;  King  Witlaffs  drinking  horn  ;  Arrangements  for  organ, 
Pf.,  choir,  etc.  ,  j      i  i  j 

Archer  is  a  very  good  organist,  a  successful  conductor,  and  a.  moderately  good 
composer.  His  organ  playing  is  marked  by  much  technical  ability  and  a  careful 
observance  of  the  composer's  leading  meaning.  In  many  respects-and  this  by 
reason  of  his  careful  regard  for  the  production  of  legitimate  eflects— he  niay  be  said 
to  rank  among  the  foremost  of  living  organists.  His  compositions  display  clever- 
ness,  but  are  neither  inspired  nor  inspiring.  He  is  most  successful  when  writing 
for  his  adopted  instrument,  the  organ. 

ABCHILACHUA.  Greek  musician,  who  flourished  700  B.C.  He  is  accredited 
with  the  invention  of  dramatic  music  and  the  epode.  This  dramatic  music 
probably  belonged  to  that  class  of  composition  described  in  such  flattering  lan- 
guage by  historians,  although  its  actual  existence  is  only  a  matter  of  conjecture. 

ABiDITI  (Luigi).  Italian  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Crescentino,  Piedmont,  July  16, 
1825.  S.  Milan  Cons..  Dibut  as  violin-player.  Director  of  ItaHan  Opera 
at  Vercelli,  1843.  Member  of  Academia  Filarmonice,  Vercelli.  Went  with 
Bottesini,  the  double-bass  player,  to  America,  1846 ;  remained  till  1857 ; 
cond.  and  produced  operas  in  New  York,  Philadelphia,  and  other  parts  of 
America.  Settled  in  London,  1857.  Musical  Director  at  H.  M.  Theatre, 
(Italian  opera),  1857.  Cond.  Italian  opera  at  St.  Petersburg,  1871-73,  Has 
visited  America  several  times  with  the  Royal  Italian  opera  company. 
Works. — Operas:  I  Briganti,  1841 ;  II  Corsaro,  1846 ;  La  Spia,  N.  Y.,  1856. 

Vocal  Music :   Kellogg  Valse  ;   L'Ardita ;  L'Orfanella ;  La  Farfalletta ;    Vuole 

amor  un  giovin  cor  ;  For  ever  thine,  duet ;   Let  me  love  thee  ;  Love's  presence ; 

They  ask  me  why  I  love  her ;  The  Clock ;  L'Orologio  ;  A  kiss  for  your  thought ; 

The  Page's  song ;  True;   II  Bacio,  vocal  valse;   Garibaldi;   Song  of  Joy.    Pf, 

Music:  L'Estasi;  HymneTurc;  lima,  valse;  La  Stella  ;  Forosetta ;  Vocal valses, 

above  noted,  arranged  for  Pf.  ;  Transcriptions,  etc. 
Arditi  is  celebrated  as  a  conductor  of  operatic  music,  in  which  capacity  he  has 

appeared  at  the  principal  towns  in  Britain.    His  compositions  are  brilliant,  and  his 

"vocal  valses"  require  great  flexibility  of  voice  on  the  part  of  the  performer. 

Some  of  them,  as  "II  Bacio,"  have  obtained  great  success  among  vocalists  and 


ABETINO.     See  Guide  de  Arezzo. 

ABIENZO  (Nicola  D').     Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  Dec.  24,  1843.    P'of-  of 

Harmony  in  Coll.  of  S.  Pietro,  Naples.     Obtained  second  prize  from  the. 

"Societa  del  Quartetto,"  for  4  vocal  nocturnes,  1869. 

Works.— 0/^raj.-  Monzii  Gnazio,  i860;  I  due  Mariti,  1866;  Le  Rose,  1868; 

II  Cacciatore  della  Alpi,  1870 ;  II  Cuoco,  1873 ;  Rita  di  Lister,  MS.  ;  I  Vi^gi, 

MS.    II  Cristo  sulla  croce,  cantata,  MS.    Songs.    Trio  for  strings,  in  C,  1 864,  etc. 

ABIOSTI  (Attilio).     Italian  comp.,  B.  in  Italy,  [1660].     Originally  a  priest  of 
the  order  of  S.  Dominick.     Obtained  the  papal  dispensation.     Chap-master 
to  Electress  of  Hanover,  1690-1716.     Appeared  in  London,  1716.     Produced 
operas  in  London  in  opposition  to  Handel,  1716-1727.     D.  [unknown]. 
Works. — i.    Operas:  Dafne,  1696;   Erifile,  1697;   La  Madre  de'  Maccabei, 
1704;   La  Festa  d'Imenei,    1700;  Atys,  1700;    Nabucodonosor,  1706;  La  piii 
gloriosa  fatica  d'ErcoIe,    1706;   Amor  tra  nemici,   1708;    Ciro,   London,   1721  j 
Mucins  Scevola,  London,  1721  (rst  act  only) ;  Coriolan,  Lond.,  1723  ;  Vespasian, 
Lond.,  1724;  Arastere,  Lond.,  1724;  Dario,  Lond.,  1725;  Lucius  Verus,  Lond., 
1726;  Tenzone,  Lond.,  1727.     2.  Cantatas.     3.  S.  Radegonda,  regina  di  Francis, " 
oratorio,  1693.     4.   Lessons  for  the  viol  d'amore, -i  728. 

Ariosti  was  for  some  time  a  rival  of  Handel  in  London,  and  was  associated  with 
him  and  Buononcini  in  the  composition  of  "Mucius  Scevola."  He  left  England 
about  1728,  and  was  afterwards  unknown  to  fame. 

AKKADELT.     SeeArcadelt. 

AKKWRIGrHT  (Mrs.  Robert).  English  song-writer,  authoress  of  numerous 
lyrical  pieces  which  had  some  favour  in  their  day.  Among  them  the  "Sailor's 
Grave,"  "Repentance,"  " Zara's  Ear-rings,"  and  other  songs.     D.  1849. 

ARM  —  ARN  25 

ARMES  (Philip).    English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Norwich,  1836.     Cher,  in  Nor- 
wich Cath.,  1846-48.     Do.  Rochester  Cath.,  1848-50.     Articled  pupil  of  J.  L. 
Hopkins,   Rochester,   1850-55.      Org.   of  Trinity   Ch.,    Milton,    Gravesend, 
1855-57.     Org.  of  St.  Andrew's  Ch.,  Wells  St.,  Lond.,  1857-61.     Mus.  Bac. 
Oxon.,  1858.     Org.  of  Chichester  Cath.,  1861-62.     Org.  of  Durham  Cath., 
1862.     Mus.   Doc.   Oxon.,   1864.     Degrees  also  conferred  by  University  of 
Durham  in  1863  and  1874.     Lecturer  on  Harmony  and  counterpoint  at  the 
Newcastle  Branch  of  Trinity  College,  Lond.     Examiner  for  Do. 
Works. — Hezekiah,  an  oratorio,  produced  at  Worcester  festival  in  1878.     St. 
John  the  Evangelist,  an  oratorio,  produced  at  York,  in  1881.    Communion  Service 
in  A ;  Communion  Service  in  B  flat ;  Te  Deum  in  G.    I  will  sing  anew  song,  verse 
anthem ;  O  send  out  Thy  light,  anthem  ;  We  wait  for  Thy  loving  kindness,  anthem. 
Morning  and  Evening  Service,  in  G. 

ARMINGAUD  (Jules).      French  violinist  and  comp.,   B.   Bayonne,  May  3, 
1824.     Writer  of  Fantasias,  etc.  for  his  instrument. 

ABMSDOBFF  (Andreas).     German  comp.,  B.  Muhlberg,  Sept.  9,  1670.     D. 
June  31,  1699.     Compositions  for  the  Church  exist  in  MS. 

ABMSTBONGr  (W.G.)    American  writer,  author  of  "A  Record  of  the  Opera 
in  Philadelphia."     Philad.,  1884. 

ABNE  (Michael).     English  comp.,  natural  son  of  Dr.  T.  A.  Arne,  B.  London, 

1741.      Educated  by  his  aunt,  Mrs.  Cibber,  for  the  stage.     Dibut  as  vocalist 

in  1751.     Married  Elizabeth  Wright,  a  vocalist,  November  5,  1766.    Director 

of  music  at  theatre  in  Dublin,  1779.      Director  of  oratorios  at  London,  1784. 

Devoted  himself  to  alchemy,  and  lost  a  fortune  in  an  endeavour  to  discover 

"the  philosopher's  stone."     D.  London,  Jan.  14,   1786.     [The  date,  1806, 

sometimes  given,  is  wrong.] 

Works. — The  Flow'ret,  a  new  Collection  of  English  Songs  ;  Songs  and  Ballads 

sung  at  Vauxhall.     Music  for  the  Dramas  of  The  Fairy  Tale,  1763  ;  Almena,  1764 

(with  Battishill) ;  Cymon,  1767;  The  Positive  Man;  Hymen,  1764;  The  Father, 

1778;   The  Belle's  Stratagem,  1780 ;   The  Choice  of  Harlequin,  1781 ;   Tristram 

Shandy,  1783.     Songs,  Glees,  etc. 

Arne's  single  songs  possess  much  grace,  though  not  the  refinement  of  his  father's, 
and  are  well  worthy  of  being  preserved,  if  only  as  specimens  of  pure  melody. 
Arne  embraced  the  doctrines  inculcated  by  the  learned  Dr.  Dee,  and  was  a  follower 
of  Paracelsus  in  two  manners,  inasmuch  as  he  practised  his  philosophy  and  imbibed 
his  invention. 

ABNE  (Thomas  Augustine).     English  comp.,  B.  in  King  Street,  Covent  Gar- 
den, London,  May  28,  1710,      Educated  at  Eton  Coll.     Designed  for  study 
of  the  Law.     Practised  privately  the  spinnet,  and  learned  musical  theory.     S. 
violin  under  Festing.     Instructed  his  sister  in  music.     Married  Cecilia  Young, 
daughter  of  Charles  Young,  organist,  1736.     Comp.  to  Drury  Lane  Theatre, 
1738.     Resided  in  Dublin,  1742-44.     Returned  to  London  and  became  comp. 
to  Vauxhall  Gardens,  1745.      Mus.  Doc.  Oxon,  July  6,  1759.      D.  London, 
Mar.  5,  1778,  buried  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral. 
Works.— 0/«?-aj.-  Rosamond  (Addison),  Lond.,  Mar.  7,  1733;   The  Opera  of 
Operas  or  Tom  Thumb,  Lond.,  1733;  Dido  and  .lEneas,  Lond.,  1734;  Comus,  amas- 
que,  Lond.,  1738  ;  The  Judgment  of  Paris,  a  masque,  Lond.,  1740 ;  Alfred,  a  mas- 
que, Lond.,  1740;  Britannia,  a  masque,  Dublin,  1743  ;  Eliza,  opera,  Dublin,  1743; 
Artaxerxes,  opera,  London,  1762;  The  Fairies,  1762;  Olimpiade,  1765.     Music  to 
the  following  plays :  The  Fall  of  Phaeton,  Lond.,  1736;  Zara,  1736;  The  Blind  Beg- 
gar of  Bethnal  Green,  1741  ;  Thomas  and  Sally,  Dublin,  1743  ;  The  Temple  of  Dul- 
ness,  1745;  King  Pepin's  Campaign,  1745;  Neptune  and  Amphitrite,  1746;  Don 
Saverio,  1749;  The  Prophetess,  1759;  The  Sultan,  1759;  Love  m  a  Village  (com- 
piled), 1762 ;  The  Birth  of  Hercules  (never  produced),  1763 ;  The  Guardian  Out- 
witted, 1764;  The  Ladies' Frolic,   1770;  The  Fairy  Prince,  1771;  The  Cooper, 
1772  ;  Elfrida  (Mason),  1772  ;  The  Rose,  1773  ;  The  Contest  of  Beauty  and  Virtue, 
1773 ;    Achilles  in  Petticoats,  1773 ;    May  Day,   1775 ;    Phoebe  at  Court,  1776 ; 
Caractacus  (Mason),  1776  (MS.  lost) ;  As  you  Like  it,  1740 ;  Twelfth  Night,  1741 ; 
The  Merchant  of  Venice,  1742 ;   The  Tempest,  1746      Romeo  and  Juhet,  1750. 

26  ARN  —  ARN 

Collections  of  Songs :  Lyric  Harmony,  for  voice,  harpsichord,  and  violin ;  The 
Syren,  a  Collection  of  Favourite  Songs  ;  The  Vocal  Grove  ;  Summer  Amusement ; 
The  Winter's  Amusement;  Vocal  Melody,  1753  ;  The  Agreeable  Musical  Choice; 
Six  Cantatas  for  a  voice  and  instruments ;  The  Monthly  Melody  .  .  .  Collection  of 
.  .  .  Music,  1760.  Ode  on  Shakspeare,  composed  for  the  Stratford  Jubilee,  1769. 
Songs  and  Glees  for  2,  3,  and  4  voices  (composed  for  the  Catch  Club).  Eight 
Sonatas  for  the  Harpsichord ;  Glees,  catches,  and  canons  in  Warren's  Collection. 
Organ  music,  consisting  of  lessons,  concertos,  &c..  Overtures  for  Orch. ;  Sonatas 
for  violin.  Oratorios:  Abel,  Mar.  12,  17SS ;  Judith,  Feb.  29,  1764.  The  Corn- 
pleat  Musician,  Lond.,  fo.  n.  d. 

The  compositions  of  Arne,  generally — but  more  particularly  his  songs— are 
marked  by  limpid  sweetness  of  melody,  great  refinement  and  grace,  spontaneity 
and  propriety  in  ideas,  and  a  fresh  and  thoroughly  English  character  which  should 
endear  them  to  every  admirer  of  genuine  melody.  The  freshness  of  his  songs  is  a 
feature  which  must  be  apparent  to  even  the  casual  observer,  and  their  merits  as 
agreeable  compositions  will  not  readily  be  excelled.  In  several  respects  he 
resembles  Purcell,  but  in  one  he  is  entirely  different.  While  he  is  occasionally 
energetic  in  a  marked  degree,  as  in  "Rule  Britannia"  (a  familiar,  instance),  it 
must  be  allowed  that  deeply  felt  and  vigorously  powerful  melodies  are  scarce 
throughout  the  body  of  his  works.  Purcell  exhibits  fire,  grandeur  of  conception,  and 
a  continual  flow  of  energy,  conjoined  with  a  faithful  perception  of  the  emotional 
requirements  of  his  text.  Arne  rarely  reaches  the  summit  of  dramatic  illustration. 
Briefly,_  Arne  is  one  of  those  musicians  who  seem  adapted  to  illustrate  the  more 
domestic  and  pleasing  traits  of  every-day  experience,  by  means  of  songs  set  to  fine 
melodies,  which  readily  appeal  with  a  refining  influence  to  the  most  unmusical. 

His  position  as  an  English  composer  is  high  in  the  school  of  Henry  Purcell, 
though  he  has  been  also  subject  to  Handel's  influence.  Other  composers,  notably  0, 
Gibbons,  Boyce,  Tallis,  and  Greene,  have  surpassed  him  in  dignity  and  loftiness  of 
expression,  but  none  ever  exceeded  him  in  purity  of  style  and  popularity  among  his 
own  countrymen.  The  following  lines  from  Churchill's  "Rosciad"  would  seem 
to  indicate  that,  to  a  certain  extent,  Arne  was  regarded  in  an  unfavourable  or 
jealous  light  by  contemporary  writers  : — 

"  Let  Tommy  Arne,  with  usual  pomp  of  style. 
Whose  chief,  whose  only  merit  s  to  compile, 
Who,  meanly  pilfering  here  and  there  a  hit. 
Deals  music  out  as  Murphy  deals  out  wit. 
Publish  proposals,_laws  for  taste  prescribe, 
And  chant  the  praise  of  an  Italian  tribe." 

He,  whose  only  merit  was  to  compile,  has  been  more  fondly  cherished  in  the 
memories  of  musicians,  than  the  once  formidable  satirist  has  been  among  poets. 
The  extent  to  which  Arne  stole  from  the  Italian  school  was  not  so  great  as  to  be 
broadly  evident.     Arne  was  in  a  very  wide  sense  a  thoroughly  English  composer. 

ARNOLD  (Carl).  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Neukirchen,  May  6, 
1794.  Resided  in  London  as  teacher.  Went  to  reside  at  Christiana  in 
1849.  D.  there,  11  Nov.,  1873.  Writer  of  Opera,  Concertos,  Sonatas,  Valses, 
Fantasias,  Quartets,  and  "The  Art  of  Singing,  or  Complete  Instructions  for 
Acquiring  the  Elementary  Parts  of  the  Science."    Lond.,  1828. 

ARNOLD    (George   Benjamin).      English    comp.    and    org.,    B.   Petworth, 

Sussex,  Dec.  22,  1832.      S.  under  Dr.  S.  S.  Wesley.     Org.  of  St.  Columba's 

Coll.,  1852.      Org.  of  St.  Mary's  Ch.,  Torquay,  1856;   Org.  of  New  Coll., 

Oxford,  i860.      Org.  of  Winchester  Cath.,  1865.      Mus.  Bac.  Oxon.,  1854. 

Mus.  Doc,  Oxford,  1861. 

Works.— Ahab,  oratorio,  Exeter  Hall,  London,  1863  ;  The  Second  Coming  of 

Our  Lord,  oratorio  (manuscript) ;  The  Song  of  David  (MS.  cantata) ;  Sennacherib 

(cantata),  Gloucester,  1883.     Communion  Service  in  G  major;  Te  Deum  in  C,  and 

Te  Deum  and  Jubilate,  in  D  ;  Magnificat  and  Nunc  Dimittis,  in  D  ;  and  Sanctus, 

Kyne  and  Credo,  in  B  minor ;    43rd  Psalm.      Anthems  and  Motets :    Praise  the 

Lord;   The  Lord  is  my  Shepherd;   Let  the  Righteous  be  glad;  The  Night  is  tar 

^£-^"''    S^   ^^?^   °^  ^"   '"^''  "P°"  Thee;    Give   Sentence.       Concerted    Vocal 

Music:  Thou  soft  Flowing  Avon;   Live  like  the  Rose;    Farewell;   No  Jewell'd 

Beauty;     Music    when   soft    voices    die;    Tricks   of   Love;    Oh  heart   of  deep 

unrest,   trio;    A  Widow  Bird,   duet;    The   Sweet    West    Wind,    do.      SonJ: 

ARN  —  ARN  27 

Go,  sit  by  the  Summer  Sea;  The  Colour  from  the  Flow'r  is  gone;  Hope; 
Orphan  hours  the  year  is  dead  ;  The  sea  hath  its  Pearls  ;  Night  Winds  ;  Harmony 
(Lancashire  Choral  Union  Prize  Glee),  for  5  voices ;  My  Dainty  Chloris,  madri-' 
gal ;  O  Queen  of  Love,  do.  Pianoforte  Music :  Sonata  in  F  minor ;  Sonata  in  D ; 
Minuet  and  Trio  ;  Prelude  and  Fugue  ;  Andante  ;  Air  varied,  etc. 

Arnold  is  one  of  the  leading  composers  of  English  church  music,  and  his  services 
and  anthems  possess  that  solidity  and  sacredness  of  character  with  which  English 
cathedral  music  has  always  been  identified.  His  songs  and  concerted  vocal  music 
are  well  worked  out  examples  of  modern  English  composition,  and  his  powers  as 
an  organist  are  reckoned  great. 

ARNOLD  (Johann  Gottfried).  German  comp.  and  violoncellist,  B.  Niedern- 
hall  in  Wiirtemberg,  1773.  Commenced  study  of  'cello,  1785.  'Cellist  at 
Theatre  of  Wertheim,  1789.  S.  under  Willmann  and  Romberg.  Travelled 
in  Germany  as  'cellist.  First  'cellist  at  Theatre  of  Frankfort-on-the-Maine, 
1798.  D.  Frankfort,  July  26,  1806. 
Works. — Five  concertos  for  violoncello,  and  orch.  in  C,  G,  F,  E,  and  D  ; 

Symphony  concertante  for  2  flutes  and  orchestra  ;  Six  themes  with  variations  for  2 

violoncellos,  op.  9  ;  Duets  for  guitar ;  Variations  for  flute  and  strings  ;  Music  for 

string  instruments,  etc. 

ARNOLD  (John).  English  comp.,  E.  Essex  [1720].  D.  1792.  Compiler  of 
"Essex  Harmony :  being  a  choice  Collection  of  the  most  celebrated  Songs, 
Catches,  Canons,  Epigrams,  Canzonets, ^nd  Glees,  for  2,  3,  4  and  5  voices," 
2  vols.,  8vo,  1767  and  1774.  "The  Complete  Psalmodist :  or,  the  Organist's, 
Parish-Clerk's,  and  Psalmodist's  Companion."     Various  editions. 

ARNOLD  (Samuel).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  London,  August  10,  1740. 
Educated  in  the  Chap.  Roy.  under  Bernard  Gates.    Comp.  to  Covent  Garden 
Theatre,  1763.    Purchased  Marylebone  Gardens  and  produced  several  dramatic 
entertainments  (the  librettos  of  two  being  by  Thomas   Chatterton),   1769. 
Retired  from  management  with  pecuniary  loss,  1771.     Married  Miss  Napier, 
1771.     Mus.  Doc.  Oxon.,  1773.     Succeeded  Dr.  Nares  as  comp.  and  org.  to 
Chap.  Roy.,  1783.     Sub-director  of  Handel  Commemoration,  1784.     Issuedan 
edition  of  Handel's  works  in  36  vols.     Cond.  of  Academy  of  Ancient  Music, 
1789.     Org.  of  Westminster  Abbey,  1793.     Cond.  the  annual  musical  perfor- 
mances at  St.   Paul's  Cath.   for  benefit  of  the  Sons  of  the  Clergy,   1796. 
Established  the  Glee  Club,  in  conjunction  with  Dr.  Callcott.     D.  London, 
Oct.  22,  1802. 
Works. — Music  for  Dramas,   etc. .  The  Maid  of  the  Mill,   1765  ;  Rosamond, 
1767;    The   Portrait,    1770;    Mother   Shipton,    1770;    The   Son-in-Law,    1779; 
Summer  Amusements,  1779;  Fire  and  Water,  1780;  The  Wedding  Night,  1780; 
The  Silver  Tankard,  1780 ;  The  Dead  Alive,  1781 ;  The  Castle  of  Andalusia,  1782  ; 
Harlequin  Teague,  1782  ;  Gretna  Green,  1783  ;  Hunt  the  Slipper,  1784  ;  Two  to 
One,  1784 ;  Turk  and  no  Turk,  1785  ;  Siege  of  Cuzzola,  1785  ;  Inkle  and  Yarico, 
1787;  The  Enraged  Musician,  1788;  The  Battle  of  Hexham,  1789;  New  Spain, 
1790  ;  The  Basket  Maker,  1790 ;  The  Surrender  of  Calais,  1791  ;  Harlequin  and 
Faustus,   1793 ;   The  Children  in  the  Wood,   1793 ;    Auld   Robin  Grey,    1794 ; 
Zorinski,  1795  ;  The  Mountaineers,  1795  ;  Love  and  Money,  1795  ;  Who  Pays  the 
Reckoning?  1795 ;   The  Shipwreck,    1796;    Bannian   Day,    1796;    The   Italian 
Monk,  1797  ;  False  and  True,  1798 ;  CambroBritons,   1798 ;  Throw  Physic  to 
the  Dogs,  1798 ;  Obi,  1800;  The  Review,  1801 ;  The  Corsair,  i8oi ;  The  Veteran 
Tar,   1801  ;   The  Sixty-third  Letter,  1802 ;  Fairies'  Revels,  1802 ;  The  Revenge  ; 
The  Woman  of  Spirit.     Oratorios:  The  Cure  of  Saul,  1767  ;  Abimelech,  1768  ; 
The  Prodigal  Son,  1773 ;  The  Resurrection,  1777  ;  Redemption  (compiled  from 
the  works  of  Handel),   1786;    Elijah,    1795.     Cathedral  Music;   a  collection  in 
score  of  the  most  valuable  and  useful  compositions  by  the  English  masters  of  the 
17th  and  i8th  centuries,  London,  1790.     Two  Services  for  the  Church,  in  A  (con- 
tinuing Boyce)  and  B  flat ;  Ode  for  the  Anniversary  of  the  London  Hospital.     Songs 
composed  for  Vauxhall  Gardens,  several  sets.     Concertos  ;  Overtures,  Lessons  and 
Sonatas  for  the  Harpsichord  or  Pf.     Anthems,  various.     Anacreontic  Songs,  for  i, 
2,  3  and  4  voices,  London,  1785. 
This  composer  furnishes  a  remarkable  instance  of  the  oblivion  into  which  men  of 

28  ARN  —  ART 

talent  fall,  who  write  merely  for  money  and  their  own  generation.  Of  the  whole 
body  of  Arnold's  works  scarcely  one  number  is  now  performed.  The  exceptions 
consist  of  anthems  ;  one  of  which,  in  A,  is  a  beautiful  piece  of  sacred  music.  Had 
Arnold  bent  his  talents  in  a  higher  direction,  confining  his  efforts  to  church  music, 
the  result  would  have  been  more  creditable  to  himself  and  his  period.  His 
oratorios,  according  to  Busby,  are  injudicious  efforts,  and  would  better  have 
remained  unwritten  ;  since  comparison  with  Handel's  works  displays  them  in  an 
aspect  anything  but  favourable  to  their  inspired  character.  His  songs  are  faithful 
imitations  of  those  of  Dr.  Arne,  but  are  pretty,  and  seem  to  have  been  received  with 
favour  by  Vauxhall  audiences  of  about  a  century  since.  His  collection  of  Cathedral 
music  is  the  most  substantial  monument  he  has  to  perpetuate  his  memory. 

ARNOLD  (Youry  von).  German  comp.  and  writer,  B.  St,  Petersburg,  Nov. 
I,  1811.     Prof,  in  Moscow  Cons. 

ARNOULD  (Madeleine  Sophie.)  French  soprano  vocalist  and  actress,  B. 
Paris,  Feb.,  1744  Dlbut,  Dec.  15,  1757.  She  was  the  original  "Iphigena" 
in  Gluck's  opera,   1779.     Retired  from  the  stage,  1778.     D.  1803. 

ABON  (Pietro).     Italian  writer,  B.  Florence,  about  end  of  15th  cent.,  [1480]. 

Canon  of  Rimini,   1516.     Founder  of  a  School  of  Music  at  Rome  Flliei 

D.  IS33- 
Works. — I  tre  libri  dell'  Istituzione  armonica,  Bologna,  1516;  Toscanelloin 
Musica,  Venice,  1523  [2nd.  ed.,  152Q;  scarce  ed.,  1532];  Trattato  della  natura  et 
cognitione  di  tutti  gli  tuoni  di  canto  figurato  non  da  altrui  piu  scritti,  Venice,  folio, 
1521; ;  Lucidario  in  Musica  di  Alcune  opinioni  antiche  et  moderne,  Venice,  1545  j 
Compendiolo  di  molti  dubbi  segreti  et  figuratio,  Milan. 

This  description  of  the  two  principal  works  of  Aron  is  taken  from  Busby's  "His- 
tory of  Music,"  vol.  2,  p,  69  : — "  The  first  book  of  the  Toscanello,  after  recognising 
the  divisions  of  music  by  Boetius  and  others,  into  mundane,  humane,  and  instrumen- 
tal, abruptly  proceeds  to  the  exposition  of  the  principles  of  the  Cantus  Mensurabilis, 
including  the  doctrine  of  the  ligatures  ;  all  which,  however,  candour  must  acknow- 
ledge Gafforio  and  his  predecessors  had,  already,  quite  as  well  explained."  The 
second  book  treats  of  the  intervals,  consonances,  and  genera  of  the  ancients ; 
musical  proportion,  and  the  tuning  of  instruments.  The  "Lucidario"  discusses 
"  The  use  of  extraneous,  or  accidental  semitones,  forbidden  by  the  pure  scales  of 
canto  fermo, "  and  recommends  their  adoption  ;  and  also  asserts  the  legitimacy  of 
the  false  fifth,  formerly  interdicted  by  Gafforio.  "This,  it  is  justice  to  allow,  opened 
the  door  to  modern  refinement,  and  introduced  intervals  and  modulations,  which, 
though  then  deemed  licentious,  have,  long  since  been  sanctioned  by  general 
adoption, " 

ABQUIEB  (Joseph).     French  comp.  and  'cellist,  B,  1763.     D.  1816. 

ABBIAGA  (Juan  Chrysostome  de).  Spanish  comp.,  B.  Bilbao,  1808.  D. 
1826.     Comp,  church  music,  symphony,  overtures,  songs,  etc. 

ABBIETA  (Don  Juan  Emilio).     Spanish  comp.,  B.  1823.     S.  at  Milan  under 
Cagnoni  from  1842.     Prof,  of  comp.  at  Madrid  cons.,  1857. 
Works.— 35  operas,   of  which  the  following  are  the   principal  : — Ildegonda, 
1847;  Marina,  1855  ;  EI  Sonambulo,  1856;  El  Conjuro,  1866;  La  Tabernera  de 
Londres,  etc.     Songs  and  other  vocal  music . 

ABBIGONI  (Carlo).     Italian  comp.  of  i8th  century.     [1708-1738.] 

ART  ARIA  (Dominico).  Italian  publisher,  B.  Blevio,  Tuscany,  Nov.  20,  1775. 
He  established  that  famous  publishing  house  at  Vienna  from  which  issued 
many  of  the  principal  works  of  Mozart,  Haydn,  Beethoven,  Moscheles,  etc. 
The  founder  D.  July  5,  1842,  at  Vienna. 

ARTEAG-A  (Stefano).  Spanish  writer  on  music  and  Italian  drama,  who 
flourished  during  the  i8th  century,  B.  Madrid  [1750].  D.  Paris,  Oct.  30, 
1799.  Wrote  Le  Rivoluzioni  del  teatro  Musicale  Italiano,  etc.  Venice, 
1783-8.     3  V. 

ARTHUR  (J.)  English  writer,  author  of  "  The  Modern  Art  of  Flute  Playing,,," 
etc.     Lond.,  1827.  '    ^ 

Art  —  Asii  i^ 


ARTOT  (Alexandre  Joseph  Montagny  d').  Belgian  violinist  and  comp.,  B. 
Brussels,  1815.     D.  near  Paris,  July  20,  1845. 

ARTOT  (Marguerite  J.  De'sire'e  Montagny  d').  French  soprano  vocalist, 
B.  Paris,  July  21,  1835.  Niece  of  A.  J.  Artot.  S.  under  Pauline  Viardot- 
Garcia.  Appeared  virith  much  success  in  London  and  Paris,  1857.  Appeared 
after  i860  successively  in  Brussels,  Amsterdam,  St.  Petersburg,  London, 
Vienna,  etc.  Married  to  Padilla  the  vocalist,  1869.  Her  repertory  includes 
parts  in  operas  by  Mozart,  Rossini,  Verdi,  Donizetti,  Gounod,  etc. 

ARTX7SI  (Giovanni  Maria).  Italian  wrriter,  B.  Bologna.  Canon  of  St. 
Saviour.  Flourished  in  the  i6th  century.  Author  of  L'Arte  del  Contrapunto, 
1586.  L'Artusi  overo  delle  impetufettioni  della  moderna  musica,  1660 ;  and 
other  works. 

ASANTSOHEWSKT  (Michel  von).  Russian  comp.,  B.  Moscow,  1838.  S. 
at  Leipzig.  Director  of  St.  Petersburg  Cons.  Comp.  of  music  for  orchestra, 
Pf.,  and  voice,  etc. 

ASCHENBRENNER  (Christian  Heinrich).  German  comp.,  B.  Stettin, 
Dec.  29,  1654.  D.  Jena,  Dec.  13,  1732.  Writer  of  sonatas,  preludes,  etc., 
for  Harpsichord. 

ASCHER  (Joseph).  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Lond.,  1831.  S.  under 
Moscheles.      Went  to  Paris,  where  he  chiefly  resided,  and  became  pianist  to 

■   the  Empress  Eugenie.     D.  London,  June,  1869. 

Works. — Pianoforte:  op.  i.  Tarentella  ;  op.  2.  Valse ;  op.  3.  Nocturne ;  op.  4. 
Valse  ;  op.  5.  Caprice  ;  op.  6.  Danse  ,■  op.  7.  La  Fileuse  ;  op.  8.  Reverie  ;  op.  9. 
Polka;  op.  10.  Poeme  ;  op.  11.  Mazurka;  op.  12.  Impromptu;  op.  13.  Polka; 
op.  14.  Barcarolle;  op.  15.  Les  Hirondelles;  op.  16.  Th^me  russe;  op.  17. 
Caprice;  op.  18.  Valse;  op.  19,  20.  Trans;  op.  21.  L'Orgie ;  op.  22.  Capriccio ; 
op.  23.  Dozia ;  op.  24.  Danse  (Spanish) ;  op.  25.  March ;  op.  26.  Impromptu- 
valse;  op.  27,  28.  Trans.;  op.  29.  Idylle ;  op.  30.  Caprice;  op.  31.  Galop;  op. 
32.  Le  Papillon;  op.  33-34,  367.  Trans.  ;  op.  35.  Styrienne;  op.  38.  Souvenir; 
op.  39.  Idylle ;  op.  40.  Fanfare  ;  op .  41 .  Mazurka  ;  op.  42.  Priire ;  op.  43.  March  ; 
op.  44,  45.  Trans.;  op.  46.  Valse;  op.  47.  Dans  ma  Barque;  op.  48.  Les 
Clochettes  ;  op.  49.  Galop ;  op.  50.  Trans.  ;  op.  51.  La  Sevillana ;  op.  52.  La 
Fanchonette ;  op.  S3.  Trans. ;  op.  54.  Three  Morceaux ;  op.  55,  56.  Trans.  ;  op. 
57.  La  Sylphide  ;  op.  58.  Tyrolienne  ;  op.  59.  Feuilles  et  Fleurs ;  op.  60.  Trans.  ; 
op.  5i.  Dance;  op.  62.  March  ;  op.  64.  Souvenir;  op.  65.  Impromptu;  op.  66. 
Aye  Maria;  op.  p.  63,  67-71,  75-77.  Trans.;  op.  72.  March;  op.  73.  La 
Zingara ;  op.  74.  La  Favorite ;  op.  78.  Reverie ;  op.  79.  Trans.  ;  op.  80. 
La  Cascade  de  Roses ;  op.  81,  82.  Impromptus;  op.  83.  Galop;  op.  84,  85,  86, 
87.  Trans.  ;  op.  88.  Berceuse;  op.  89.  Meditation;  op.  90.  Fantasia;  op.  91. 
Polka  ;  op.  92.  Serenade  ;  op.  93.  Le  Phaline  ;  op.  94.  Le  Chalet;  op.  95.  Chant; 
op.  96.  Galop;  op.  97.  Gardez  cette  Fleur;  op.  98.  Mazurka;  op.  99.  Impromptu; 
op.  100.  Valse ;  op.  101.  Trans.  ;  op.  102.  Rhapsodic ;  op.  103.  Trans.  ;  op.  104. 
La  Ronde  des  Elfes  ;  op.  105.  Impromptu  ;  op.  106.  La  Cloche  du  Convent ;  op. 
107.  Mazurka;  op.  108.  Valse;  op.  109.  Caprice;  op.  no.  Reverie;  op.  in. 
Caprice;  op.  H2.  I  Lazzaroni ;  op.  113.  Caprice;  op.  114,  115,  116,  117,  118. 
Trans.  ;  op.  119.  Le  Sylphes  des  Bois;  op.  120.  Vision  ;  op.  121.  Volhynia ;  op. 
122.  Trans.  ;  op.  123.  Invocation;  op.  124.  Pensee ;  op.  125.  Nocturne;  op.  126. 
Marinilla;  op.  127.  Rgverie ;  op.  128.  Idylle.  Songs:  Bygone  Love;  A  twilight 
dream  ;  Alice,  where  art  thou  ? ;  M^lanie  ;  I'll  think  of  thee,  etc. 

A  composer  who,  had  he  been  more  careful  in  his  worldly  relations,  might  have 
proved  one  of  the  greatest  among  recent  musicians.  As  it  stands,  his  music  is  more 
than  commonplace,  and  many  of  his  single  pieces  evince  genius  of  a  decidedly 
original  turn.  The  numerous  pieces  which  he  has  produced  for  the  Pf.  are  in 
general  brilliant  and  effective  in  character ;  while  several  of  them  show  tokens  of 
real  genius  inspiration. 

ASHDOWN  EDWIN,  a  music-publishing  firm  in  London,  established  originally 
by  Wessel  &  Co.  in  1825.  Messrs.  Ashdown  &  Parry  succeeded  to  the  business 
in  i860,  and  have  since  worked  it  with  considerable  success.     The  publications 



of  the  firm  consist  of  music  of  every  description,  instrumental  and  vocal.     The 
catalogue  of  vocal  music  contains  the  names  of  Abt,  Balfe,  Barnett,  BeneUict, 
Calkin     Glover   (S.),   Hatton,  Knight,  Linley,  Loder,   Macfarren,   Salaman, 
Smart,'  Sullivan,  Wallace,  etc.     The  catalogue  of  Pianoforte  music  contains 
works'  ty  F.   E.  Bache,  Bennett,  Calkin,   Heller,  Kullak,  Lett,  Macfarren, 
Osborne,  Oury,  Richards,  Silas,  Smith,  etc.     Besides  these  the  firm  publishes 
an  enormous  quantity  of  other  music,  chiefly  arrangements  of  popular  works, 
fantasias,  brilliant  morceaux  de  salon,  and  the  usual  amount  of  light  music. 
Of  large  important  works  published  by  this  firm  we  may  specify  "  The  Singer's 
Library  of  Concerted  Music,"  edited  by  John  HuUah,  a  very  valuable  publi- 
cation ;  "The  Devil's  Opera,"  and  "Helvellyn,"  operas  by  G.  A.  Macfarren; 
Concerted  instrumental  music  by  Beethoven,  Weber,  Spohr,  Oberthiir,  Mozart, 
and  others  ;  and  several  important  collections,  mostly  all  copyright. 
Messrs.  Ashdown  &  Parry  issued  for  a  time  a  monthly  magazine  of  instrumental 
and  vocal  music,  edited  by  L.  Sloper,  called  ' '  Hanover  Square. "    This  contained 
compositions  by  eminent  living  and  recent  composers,  and  was  a  good  idea  well 
executed.     The  sole  business  is  now  [1884]  carried  on  by  Mr.  Edwin  Ashdown. 

ASHE  (Andrew).  Irish  flute-player,  B.  Lisburn,  Ireland,  I7S8[I7S6?]  Educated 
at  Woolwich,  where  he  learned  the  violin.  Adopted  by  General  Bentinck, 
with  whom  he  went  to  the  Island  of  Minorca.  Travelled  with  Bentinck 
through  Spain,  Portugal,  France,  Germany,  and  Holland.  Commenced  study 
of  flute  at  Hague,  receiving  instructions  from  Wendling.  Went  to  Brussels 
and  became  family  musician  to  Lord  Torrington.  Competed  with  Vanhall  for 
place  of  first  flute-player  at  the  Brussels  opera-house,  and  gained,  I779-  Went 
to  Dublin,  1784,  remained  till  1791.  Played  concerto  for  flute,  of  his  own 
composition,  at  Saloman's  second  concert  in  1792.  Became  principal  flutist 
at  Italian  opera.  Married  Miss  Comer,  a  singer  of  some  note,  1799.  Director 
of  Bath  concerts,  1810-1822.  D.  Dublin,  April,  1838. 
His  compositions  consist  of  concertos  and  other  music  for  the  flute,  none  of  which 

ASHLEY  (Charles  Jane).    English  violoncellist,  B.  1773.    One  of  the  founders 

of  the  Glee  club.   Secretary  to  Royal  Soc.  of  Musicians.   Mem.  of  Philharmonic 

Soc.     Was  a  prisoner  for  debt  nearly  twenty  years,  in  King's  Bench  prison, 

London.     Proprietor  of  Tivoli  Gardens,  Margate,  1843.    D.  August  20,  1843. 

Ashley  played  in  the  band  organized  by  his  father,  John  Ashley.    Contemporary 

accounts  speak  highly  of  his  excellence  as  a  performer  on  the  violoncello.    No 

compositions  by  him  have  come  down  to  this  period. 

ASHLEY  (John),  father  of  above,  English  bassoon-player  andcond.,  B.  first 
quarter  of  the  i8th  century.     Assistant  cond.  under  Joah  Bates,  of  Handel 
Commemoration,  1784.     Director  of  oratorio  performances  at  Covent  Garden 
Theatre,  1795.     Organizer  of  the  band  (in  which  his  sons,  C,  General,  J.  J., 
and  Richard  played)  which  travelled  throughout  the  provinces  of  England 
giving  concerts  of  instrumental  music.     D.  about  beginning  of  19th  century. 
His  sons  were  General,  a  violin-player,  who  died  in  1818;  John  James  [l77'> 
London,  Jan.,   1815],  an  org.  and  teacher  of  vocalization,  who  instructed  Mrs, 
Salmon,  Mrs.  Vauchan,  and  others ;  and  Richard,  a  violinist  who  played  in  pro- 
vincial orchestras. 

ASHLEY  (Josiah  or  John),  of  Bath.     English  comp.,  vocalist,  and  bassoon- 
player,  B.  Bath,  1780.     He  resided  chiefly  in  Bath,  where  he  was  a  teacher  of 
music  and  concert  vocalist.     D.  Bath,  1830. 
Works. — Songs.     Reminiscences  and  Observations  respecting  the  origin  of  our 

National  Anthem,  1827  (an  answer  to  Clark's  work).    A  Letter  to  the  Rev.  W.  L. 

Bowles,  supplementary  to  the  Observations,  etc.,  1827. 

ASHTON  (Hugh)  or  ASHTAN.  English  comp.,  flourished  during  the  l6th 
century.  Comp.  of  several  masses  and  anthems,  which  are  preserved  in  the 
Music  School  of  Oxford. 

ASHWELL  (Thomas).     English  comp.,   flourished  during  first  half  of  16th 

Ash  — As*  ^t 

century.     His  works,  consisting  ol  motels,  etc.,  .ire  preserved  in  MS.  in  the 
Music  School  at  Oxford. 

ASHWOEiTH  (Calel)).     English  writer,  B.  Northampton,   1721.     Director  of 
Theological  Institution  founded  upon  Coward's  bequest,  Northanapton.     D. 
Daventry,  1775. 
Works. — Introduction  to  the  Art  of  Singing,  London,  1787  ;    Collection  of 

Tunes  and  Anthems,  London,  n.  d.  ;  Sermons ;  A  Hebrew  Grammar ;  etc. 

ASIOLI  (Bonitacio),     Italian  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Correggio,  April  30,  1769. 

S.  under  Crotti,  an  org.,  and  Morigi.     Resided  successively  at  Turin,  Venice, 

and  Milan.     Censor  at  Milan  Cons.     Director  of  Music  to  Viceroy  of  Italy. 

D.  Correggio,  May  26,  1832. 

Works. — Cinna,  opera  ;  Cantatas;  Motets  and  other  church  music ;  Theoretical 

works,  etc. 

Of  these,  "A  Compendious  Musical  Grammar ''  was  translated  by  Jousse,  Lond., 
1825;  and  " Introductory  Exercises  to  the  Art  of  Singing"  was  translated  by  T. 
Rovedino,  1826. 

ASFA  (Edwin).     Italian  comp.,  B.  London,  May,  1835.     D.  Lincoln,  August 
17.  18S3. 
Works. — The  Gipsies,  cantata ;  Endymion,  cantata ;  Songs  ;  Pf.  pieces,  etc. 
"The  composer  has  evidently  much  feeling  for  that  important  element  in  a 
Cantata  obviously  written  to  catch  the  public  ear,  which  we  should  perhaps  rather 
call  '  tune '  than  '  melody  ;'  and  throughout  his  composition  (The  Gipsies)  he  has 
liberally  used  this  power    .     .     .     ." — Musical  Times. 

ASFA  (Mario).      Italian  comp.,  uncle  of  preceding,   B.   Messina,   1799.     D. 

there,  Dec,  1868. 

Works. — Operas:  Giovanni  Banier,  1830  ;  11  Carceu  d'  Ildegonda,  1831  ;  La 

Burla,  1832 ;   II  Litigante  senza  lite,  1833 ;  La  Finta  grega ;  II  Marinaro,  1839 ; 

Guglielmo  Colman,  1843;  Paolo  e  Virginia,  1843;  La  Verga  majica;  Werther,  etc. 

ASFA  (Rosario).     Italian  comp.,  brother  of  Edwin,  B.  Messina,  Januay,  1827. 
Is  engaged  as  a  Pianoforte  dealer  at  Leamington. 
He  has  written  a  large  number  of  songs,  pianoforte  pieces,  and  an  opera  entitled, 

"The  Artist's  Stratagem;"   also  a  work  entitled,    "Exercises  and  Observations 

intended  to  assist  in  the  Cultivation  of  the  Voice,"  N.  D. 

ASFELMAYEB  (Franz).  German  comp. ,  ballet-master  to  Emperor  of  Austria, 
D.  1786. 

ASFITLL  (George),  English  pianist,  B.  Manchester,  1813.  He  displayed  a 
precocity  in  musical  matters  only  equalled  by  Dr.  Crotch,  and  on  appearing  in 
London,  was  hailed  as  a  pianist  of  the  first  rank.  This  favourable  opinion  was 
afterwards  indorsed  by  Rossini,  who  pronounced  him  one  of  the  most  remark- 
able persons  in  Europe.  His  works,  published  after  his  death,  consist  of  a 
volume  of  Pianoforte  music,  and  a  few  songs.  His  age  and  education  con- 
sidered, AspuU  was  certainly  one  of  those  inspired  geniuses  who  occasionally 
astonish  the  world  with  the  exceptional  brilliancy  of  their  attainments.  Accept- 
ing contemporary  accounts  of  his  playing  as  correct,  England  never  produced 
one  who  would  have  made  a  greater  pianist.     D.  Leamington,  Aug.  20,  1832. 

ASSMAYER  (Ignaz).  Austrian  comp.,  B.  Salzburg,  Feb.  11,  1790.  Org.  S. 
Peter's,  Salzburg,  1808.  D.  Vienna,  Aug.  31,  1862.  Comp.  oratorios, 
masses,  and  much  secular,  vocal  music,  etc. 

ASTON.     See  Ashton  (Hugh). 

ASTORGA  (Emanuele,   Baron   d').     Italian  comp.,  B.  Palermo    1681. 
Educated  and  instructed  in  music  in  Spain.     Member  of  the  Italian  diplomatic 
body,  under  title  of  Baron  d'  Astorga,  1705.     Visited  England,  Spam,  etc. 
Went  to  Prague,  Bohemia,  and  D.  there,  Aug.  21,  1736. 
Works.— Stabat  Mater,  Oxford,  17 13;  Dafne,  opera,  1709;  Cantatas,  etc. 

ASTRUA  (Giovanna).     Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  1725.     D.  1758- 


Atk — AUB 

ATKINSON  (Frederick  Cook).      English  comp.  and  org.,  B   Norwich,  Aug. 
21   i8di     S  under  Dr.  Z.  Buck.    Assistant  to  do.    Org.  of  Manmngham  Ch., 
Bradford.     Mus.  Bac,  Cantab.,  1867.     Org.  of  Norwich  Cath.,  1881. 
Works.— Services,  Anthems,  volume  of  masonic  music,   Songs,   Part-Songs, 

Pianoforte  pieces,  etc. 

ATKYNS  (B.  K.)     English  writer.     Author  of  "  Choir-master's  Manual ;  con- 
taining full' instructions  for  Training  a  Choir,"  8vo,  n.  d. 

ATTERBUEY  (Luffman).     English  corap.,  B.  London,  in  first  half  of  iSth 
century,  [circa,  1735-40].     Musician  in  ordinary  to  George  III.     Obtained 
several  prizes  from  the  Catch  Club  about  178c.     D.  London.  June  11,  1796. 
Works. — Glees  and  catches,  contained  in  Warren's  collection  ;  Goliah,  oratorio, 

produced  in  1773  ;  A  collection  of  glees,  etc.,  op.  3,  1790.     Collection  of  catches 

and  glees,  Lond.  [1777]. 

ATTEY  (John). — English  comp.  [159 ?-i640],  flourished  during  the  commence- 
ment of  17th  century.  Wrote  a  work  entitled  "  First  Booke  of  Ayres  of  Four 
Parts,  with  Tableture  for  the  Lute,  so  made  that  all  the  parts  may  be  plaid 
together  with  the  Lute,  or  one  voyce  vrith  the  Lute  and  bass  viol."  London, 

ATTWOOD  (Thomas).      English  comp.,  and  org.,   B.  Lend.,    1767   [1765]. 

Chorister  in  the  Chap.  Roy.,  1776.     S.  under  Nares  and  Ayrton,  1776-1781. 

Sent  to  Italy  by  George  IV.  (then  Prince  of  Wales)  to  study,  1783.     Received 

instruction  from  Latilla,  Mozart,  etc.,  1783-87.     Returned  to  England.     Org. 

of  St.  George  the  Martyr's  Ch.,  Lond.     Mem.  of  Prince  of  Wales'  chamber 

band.     Instructor  (musical)  of  several  members  of  the  Royal  family,  1791-95. 

Org.  of  St.  Paul's  Cath.,  June,  1796.     Comp.  to  Chap.  Roy.,  1796.     Org.  to 

George  IV.,  1821.     Mem.  of  Philharmonic  Soc,  1813.     Org.  of  Chap.  Roy,, 

1836.     D.  London,  March  24,  1838. 

Works. — Music  to  Dramas,  it'c. :  The  Prisoner,  1792;  The  Mariners,  1793; 

Caernarvon  Castle,   1793;    The  Adopted  Child;   The  Poor  Sailor,   1795;  The 

Smugglers,  1796  ;  The  Devil  of  a  Lover,  1798  ;   The  Mouth  of  the  Nile,  1798;  A 

Day  at  Rome,  1798  ;  The  Red  Cross  Knight,  1799;  The  Castle  of  Sorrento,  1799; 

The  Magic  Oak,  1799;   The  Old  Clothesman,   1799;   The  Dominion  of  Fancy, 

1800  ;  True  Friends,  1800;   The  Escapes,  or  the  Water  Carrier  (from  Cherubini), 

1801  ;  The  Curfew,  1807.  Services  in  F,  A,  D,  and  C.  Anthems:  Come, 
Holy  Ghost ;  Enter  not  into  judgment ;  Grant,  we  beseech  Thee ;  I  was  glad 
when  they  said  unto  me  ;  Let  the  words  of  my  mouth  ;  0  God,  who  by  the  leading 
of  a  Star  ;  O  Lord,  we  beseech  thee  ;  Teach  me,  O  Lord  ;  Teach  me  Thy  way,  0 
Lord ;  They  that  go  down  to  the  Sea  ;  Turn  Thee  again,  O  Lord  ;  Turn  Thy  face 
from  my  sins ;  Withdraw  not  Thou  Thy  mercy.  Nine  Glees  for  3,  4,  5,  and  6 
voices  (Lond.,  1828).  Son^^s :  Soldier's  Dream;  Young  Lochinvar ;  The 
Spacious  Firmament ;  The  Sigh ;  Dear  Vale,  whose  green  retreats ;  and  numerous 

Dismissing  the  music  which  Attwood  wrote  for  the  plays  above  enumerated  as 
forgotten  and  consequently  non-existant,  we  find  that  his  fame  rests  entirely  on  his 
compositions  for  the  church,  his  glees,  songs,  and  other  detached  pieces.  While  it 
can  not  be  admitted  that  Attwood  is  ever  sublime  in  his  conceptions,  yet  his  anthems 
and  services  will  be  found  to  contain  passages  in  which  are  united  nobility  and 
dignity,  with  science  and  that  finished  grace  which  is  usually  the  attribute  of  an 
artistic  mind.  While  he  occasionally  affects  the  manner  of  the  modern  school  in 
straining  after  dramatic  effect,  he  rarely  omits  to  infuse  into  his  compositions  that 
lofty  and  sacred  character  which  is  admittedly  the  special  feature  of  English  church 
music.  His  concerted  vocal  music  (glees,  etc.)  is  remarkable  for  melody  and  care- 
ful finish,  and  in  such  works  is  chiefly  noticeable  that  clear  method  of  writing 
which  was  no  doubt  the  fruits  of  Mozart's  preceptorship. 

AUBER  (Daniel  Fran90is  Esprit).  French  comp.,  B.  Caen,  Jan.  29, 1782. 
Intended  for  commercial  life,  Auber  was  sent  to  London  in  1802,  where  he 
remained  for  a  time  as  clerk  in  a  merchant's  office.  He  subsequently  returned 
to  Paris,  where  he  remained  till  his  death.    He  never  held  any  public  appoint- 

kvb  —  A  u  d  si 

ments,  but  devoted  his  time  to  the  production  of  operas.  Mem,  of  the 
"  Institut,"  1829.  Commander  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  1847.  Grand 
Officer  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  1861.  D.  Paris,  May  13,  1871. 
Works. — Operas:  Le  S^jour  militaire,  1813  ;  Le  Tesiament  et  les  Billets-doux, 
1819  ;  La  Berg^re  chatelaine,  1820 ;  Emma,  1821 ;  Leicester,  1822 ;  La  Neige, 
J823 ;  Vendome  in  Espagne,  1823  ;  Les  Trois  Genres,  1824  ;  Le  Concert  k  la  cour, 
1824;  Leocadie,  1824;  Le  Ma^on,  1825;  Le  Timide,  1826;  Fiorella,  1826;  La 
Muette  de  Portici  (Masaniello),  1828 ;  La  Fiancee,  1829 ;  Era  Diavolo,  1830 
(London  1831) ;  Le  Dieu  et  la  Bayadere,  1830  ;  La  Marquise  de  Brinvilliess  (with 
others),  1831 ;  Le  Philtre,  1831  ;  Le  Serment,  1832;  GustavelH.,  1833;  Lestocq, 
1834;  Le  Cheval  de  Bronze,  1835;  Acteon,  1836;  Les  Chaperons  Wanes,  1836; 
L'Ambassadrice,  1836  ;  Le  Domino  Noir,  1837  ;  Le  Lac  des  F^es,  1839  ;  Zanetta, 
1840 ;  Les  Diamants  de  la  couronne,  1841  ;  Carlo  Broschi,  1842 ;  Le  Due 
d'Ulonne,  1842;  La  Part  du  Diable,  1843;  La  Sirtoe,  1844;  La  Barcarolle, 
1845;  Haydee,  1847;  L'Enfant  prodigue,  1850;  Zerline,  1851;  Marco  Spada, 
1852;  Jenny  Bell,  1855;  Manon  Lescaut,  1856;  Le  Reve  d' Amour,  1869;  Le 
premier  jour  de  bonheur,  1869.  Concertos  for  violin,  and  violoncello  and  orches- 
tra ;  Detached  Pianoforte  pieces ;  Overture  for  the  London  International  Exhi- 
bition, 1862. 

The  production  of  a  succession  of  works  almost  equally  original,  brilliant,  and 
catching  in  character,  is  undoubtedly  the  outcome  of  a  properly  economised  genius. 
We  emphasize  the  last  word  because  of  our  intention  of  applying  it  to  Auber  and 
his  works,  and  because  of  certain  unjust  strictures  which  a  number  of  writers  of  a 
recent  school  have  passed  upon  him,  and  which  may  be  regarded  as  the  result  of 
that  professional  feeling  which  is  cherished  by  different  schools  against  the  methods 
and  means  employed  by  each  other  in  affecting  certain  results.  The  amount  of 
dramatic  or  pleasing  effect  gained  by  Auber,  considering  the  comparatively  humble 
means  he  employs,  is  greatly  in  excess  of  what  many  more  recent  composers,  with 
an  apparatus  unparelleled  in  magnitude,  have  readily  achieved.  We  see  on  one  hand 
a  huge  array  of  combined  scenic,  mechanical,  musical,  and  histrionic  efforts,  work- 
ing to  affect  a  certain  end,  that  end  being  dramatic  effect.  On  the  other  hand  we 
see  the  ordinary  efforts  which  an  intelligent  musician  would  practise,  combined  with 
musical  illustration  clear  enough  to  be  easily  comprehended.  On  these  grounds 
Auber  is  entitled  to  the  respect  of  the  large  body  of  musicians  who  prefer  compre- 
hensible music  of  an  agreeable  character,  to  music  which  repels  by  its  complication, 
and  failure  to  make  the  advertised  impression. 

AUBEEY  DU  BOULLEY  (Prudent  Louis).     French  comp.  and  writer,  B. 
Verneuil,  Dec.  9,  1796.     D.  Verneuil,  Feb.  1870. 
Writer  of  masses;  quartets,  etc.,  for  various  instruments ;  sonatas;  theoretical 

works,  etc. 

AUDBAN  (Edmond).  French  comp.,  B.  Lyons,  April  11,  1842.  Composer 
of  operas,  church  music,  Pf.  music,  etc.  Among  his  operas  may  be  named 
"  La  Mascotte  "  and  "  Olivette,"  both  among  the  recent  operatic  successess  m 

AUEB  (Leopold).     Hungarian  violinist,  B.  Veszprem,  Hungary,  May  28,  1845. 

Pupil  of  Dont  and  Joachim.  Appeared  in  London  in  1863. 
■  AUGENER  &  CO.  German  firm  of  music-sellers  and  publishers  established  in 
London,  1853.  Their  catalogues  contain  many  good  writers  names,  and  their  pub- 
lications are  remarkable  for  a  high  standard  of  excellence  where  engraving, 
paper,  and  typography  is  concerned.  They  publish  the  arrangements  of  Ernst 
Pauer,  and  Pianoforte  pieces  by  Ascher,  Beethoven,  Brahms,  Chopin,  Scotson 
Clark,  Clementi,  Gade,  Haydn,  Liszt,  Mendelssohn,  Mozart,  Reinecke, 
Scharwenka,  Schumann,  Weber,  etc.  Their  publications  for  the  organ  are 
represented  by  Bach,  Best,  Clark  (S.),  F.  E.  Gladstone,  Handel,  Lef^bure- 
Wely,  Mendelssohn,  Prout,  Rinck,  etc.  Among  the  composers  of  vocal 
music  may  be  mentioned  Abt,  Arne,  Beethoven,  Bishop,  Brahms,  Goldschmidt, 
Hatton,  HuUah  (valuable  editions  of  English  classical  songs),  Mendelssohn, 
Reinecke,  Schubert,  Schumann,  Weber,  and  many  others.  '  The  Monthly 
Musical  Record"  (1870)  published  by  them  is  a  well  conducted  magazine, 
worked  on  German  lines. 

i4  AUk ;AYfe 

AUMONT  (Henri  Raymond).  French  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Paris,  July  31, 
1818.     Writer  of  violin  music. 

AUSTIN  (W.  Frank).  English  musician,  author  of  "  A  National  School  of  Opera 
for  England ;  the  Substance  of  a  paper  read  before  the  Licentiates  of  Trinity 
College,  1882,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1883.     Songs  and  Pf.  music. 

AUSTIN  (G.  L.)  American  wrriter,  author  of  "Life  of  Franz  Schubert." 
Boston,  i2mo,  1873. 

AUSTIN  (Jobn).  Scottish  writer,  B.  Craigton,  near  Glasgow.  Wrote  "A 
System  of  Stenographic  Music,"  London,  410,  n.  d. 
' '  The  principal  object  -of  the  author  was  to  simplify  the  prevailing  method  of 
notation.  In  place  of  five  lines,  his  system  consisted  of  only  one,  written  upon  by 
certain  characters  (six  in  number)  which,  reversed  and  inverted,  were  held  capable 
of  expressing  every  variety  in  music."  For  the  purpose  quoted  the  work  is  useless. 
However  good  theoretically  it  may  be,  it  is  impossible  in  practice.  The  writer, 
who  was  also  an  inventor  of  some  note  in  connection  with  machinery  for  use  in  the 
manufacture  of  textile  fabrics,  is  mentioned,  and  a  portrait  of  him  given,  in  "  Kay's 
Original  Portraits,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  376.     Edinr.  1838.  , 

AUSTIN  (Walter).  English  comp.  of  present  time,  has  written  "The  Fire 
King,"  a  cantata;  "The  Stepmother,"  an  operetta;  Overtures  for  orchestra ; 
Songs,  Pianoforte  Pieces,  etc. 

AUTRIVE  (Jacq.ues  F.  de).  French  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  St.  Quentin,  1758. 
D.  Mons,  Belgium,  Dec.  1824.     Good  violinist  and  comp.  for  his  instrument. 

AUVEEGNE  (Antoine  d').  French  comp.,  director  of  R.  A.  M.,  Paris, 
B.  1713.     D.  1797. 

AVENABIUS  (MathseUS  A.)  Germancomp.  of  church  mus.,B.  1625.  D.  1692. 

AVERY   (Jolm).      English  org.   builder,   B.  about  middle  of  i8th  century. 
D.  Carlisle,  1808. 
Erected  organs  at  Carlisle,  Winchester,  Cambridge,  and  other  places  throughout 

AVISON  (Charles).  English  writer,  comp.,  and  org.,  B.  Newcastle,  1710.  S. 
in  Italy.  S.  in  England  under  Geminiani.  Org.  of  St.  Nicholas  Ch.,  New- 
castle, 1736.     D.  Newcastle,  May  10.  1770. 

Works. — An  Essay  on  Musical  Expression,  London,  8vo,  1752  (other  editions, 
with  reply  to  Hayes,  1753;  Third  edition,  1775;  German  edition,  Leipzig,  1775); 
Marcello's  Psalms,  edited  by  Avison  and  Garth,  1759;  Sonatas  for  violin  ;  Con- 
certos for  organ  or  harpsichord,  op.  9,  etc. ;  Concertos  for  strings  and  harpsichord, 
op.  2,  3,  4,  and  6,  1740-58 ;  Songs,  etc. 

This  writer's  chief  work  is  the  "  Essay  on  Musical  Expression."  It  is  evidently 
intended  to  present  in  this  work  an  exposition  of  musical  aesthetics,  as  well  as  to 
fix  a  standard  of  criticism  whereby  works  of  abiding  interest  may  be  judged.  This 
design,  however,  is  partly  destroyed  by  a  number  of  comparisons  which  the  author 
has  chosen  to  institute  between  composers  of  such  diverse  genius  as  Handel,  Mar- 
cello,  Rameau,  etc. 
AXT  (Friedricll  Samuel).     German  comp.  of  sacred  music,  B.  1684.     D.  1745. 

AYLWARD  (Theodore).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  [1731].  Gained  prize 
medal  from  Catch  Club,  1769.  Prof,  of  music  in  Gresham  Coll.,  June,  1771. 
Assistant  Director  at  Handel  Commemoration,  1784.  Org.  and  choir-master 
at  St.  George's  Chap.,  Windsor,  1788.  Mus.  Bac.  Oxon,  Nov.,  1791.  Mus. 
Doc,  Oxon,  1791.  D.  London,  Feb.  27,  1801. 
Works. — Op.  i.  Six  Lessons  for  the  Harpsichord,  Organ,  or  Pianoforte  ;  op.  2. 

Elegies  and  Glees  [1785]  ;  Music  for  Dramas  of— Harlequin's  Invasion,  Midsummer 

Night's  Dream,  etc.  ;  Eight  Canzonets  for  2  soprano  voices ;  Glees,  various  single ; 

Church  Music  in  MS. 

AYRTON  (Edmund).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Ripon,  Yorkshire,  I734. 
Pupil    of   Dr.    Nares.      Org.   of  Collegiate  Church,    Southwell.      Gent,  of 

aVJi  — fiAC  ^S 

Chap.  Roy.,  1764.  Vicar-choral,  St.  Paul's  Cath.,  London.  Lay-clerk  of 
Westminster  Abbey.  Master  of  Children  of  Chap.  Roy.,  1780-1805.  Mus. 
Doc.  Oxon,  1784.  Assistant  director  of  Handel  Commemoration,  1784.  D. 
London,  May,  1808. 
Works. — Two  Services  for  the  Church;  Anthems;  "Begin  unto  my  God," 
Degree  Anthem,  1784,  etc. 

AYRTON  (William).     English  writer  and  editor,  son  of  above,  B.  London, 
Feb.  24,  1777.     Married  to  a  daughter  of  Dr.  S.  Arnold.     Unsuccessful  can- 
didate for  Gresham  Professorship,  1801.     Mem.  of  Royal  Soc.  ;  Antiquarian 
Soc.  ;    Athenseum  Club;    the  Philharmonic   Soc,   etc.  ,  Critic  of  Morning 
Chronicle,    1813-26.      Do.  of  Examiner,   1837-51.      Editor  of  Harmonicon, 
1823-33.     D.  London,  May,  1858. 
Works. — Critiques  in  Journals ;    Editor  of  Knight's  Musical  Library,  1834,  8 
vols ;    Editor  of  Sacred  Minstrelsy :    a  collection  of  sacred  music  by  the  Great 
Masteis  of  all  Ages  anj  Nations   .with  Biographies.     2  vols,  (o.,  1835  ;  etc. 

Ayrton  was  the  founder  of  that  healthy  school  of  criticism  which  is  now  practised 
almost  universally  by  living  English  writers.  The  "Harmonicon"  was  a  most 
admirably  conducted  magazine,  and  furnished  readers  with  a  perfect  storehouse  of 
interesting  facts  and  speculations  concerning  music  and  musicians.  The  criticisms 
were  uniformly  just,  and  reflect  great  honour  on  the  integrity  of  their  writers. 

AZAIS  (Pierre  Hyacinthe).    French  comp.,  B.  1743.    D.  1796. 

AZPILCnHJA  (Martin  D').    Spanish  theoretical  writer,  B.  Verasoin,  Navarre, 
1491.     D.  Rome,  1586. 


BAAEE  (Perdinand  Gottfried).  German  org.,  pianist,  and  comp.,  B. 
Hendeleer,  April  15,  l8oo.  S.  under  Hummel.  Comp.  much  music  for  Pf. 
and  voice. 

BABBINI  (Matteo).  Italian  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Bologna,  1754.  S.  medicine. 
Dibut  in  [?J  Engaged  for  the  opera  of  Frederick  the  Great.  Sang  in  Russia, 
and  entered  employment  of  Catherine  II.  Sang  at  Vienna,  1785.  Sang  in 
London,  1786-87.  Sang  on  Continent  from  1789  till  1802.  D.  Bologna, 
Sept.  2],  1816. 

BABELL  (William).     English  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  1690.     S.  under  Dr. 

Pepusch.     Mem.  of  Royal  Band  of  Music.     Org.  of  All  Hallows  Ch.,  Bread 

Street,  London.     D.  1723. 
Works. — Twelve  solos  for  violin  or  oboe  ;  Twelve  solos  for  flute  or  oboe,  op.  2; 
Six  concertos  for  the  piccola  flute  and  violins,  etc.  ;  Suits  of  the  most  celebrated 
Lessons  collected  and  fitted  to  the  Harpsichord  or  Spinet,  fo.  n.d. ;  Arrangements 
for  Harpsichord,  etc. 

BACCELLI  (Padre  Matteo).     Italian  comp.  of  church  music,  etc.,  B.  Lucca, 

1680.     D.  Lucca,  1756. 
BACCHINI  (Cesare).     Italian  comp.,  B.  Florence,  1846.     Writer  of  songs, 

operas,  etc. 
BACCUSI  (Ippolito).     Italian  priest  and  comp.  of  i6th  century.     Chap,  master 

at  Cath.  of  Verona.      Comp.   masses,   psalms,  madrigals,  etc.      Flourished 

BACH  (Alberto  B.)     German  writer  and  teacher,  author  of  "Musical  Education 

and  Vocal  Culture,"  Edin.,  8vo,  1880 ;  2nd  ed.,  1881  ;  3rd  ed.,  1883. 
BACH.    This  name  is  one  of  the  most  important  in  Musical  history.     The  family 

consists  of  fourteen  principal  members ;  but  only  the  historical  four  noticed 

below  are  worthy  of  attention  as  having  influenced  musical  art. 


B  AC  — BAC 

BACH  (Johann  Christian).     German  comp.  and  org.,  eleventh  son  of  J.  S. 
Bach,  B.  Leipzig,  1735.     S.  under  his  father.     Lived  with  K.  P.  E.  Bach  at 
Berlin  on  death  of  his  father  in  1750.    S.  under  K.  P.  E.  Bach.     Org.  of  Milan 
Cath.,   1754.      Married  to  Cecilia  Grassi,   1759.      Went  to  London,    1759. 
Established  concerts  in  conjunction  with  K.  F.  Abel,  which  lasted  between 
1764-84.     D.  London,  1782. 
Works. — Operas :  Catone,  1758  [London  1764]  ;  Orione,  1763  ;  Zanaida,  1763  ; 
Berenice   (with   Galuppi   and   Hasse),    1764;    Adriano  in    Seria,    1764;     Cara- 
ttaco,  1767;  L'Olimpiade,  1769;  Ezio  ;  Orfeo,  1770 ;  Temistocle;  Siface;  Lucio 
Silla  ;  La   Clemenza   di   Scipione.      [Produced  mostly  in   London.]      Oratorio: 
Gioas  re  di  Giuda.      Magnificats ;    Glorias ;    Laudates  ;    and   other  ch.   music. 
Cantatas.     Fifteen  symphonies  for  8  instruments.      Eighteen  concertos  for  clavi- 
chord.     Six  quintets  for  flutes  and  violins.      Thirty  trios  for  clavichord,  violin, 
and  bass.   Quartets  for  clavichord,  2  violins,  and  bass.   Sonatas  for  the  clavichord. 
Songs,  etc. 

This  composer,  sometimes  called  En^ish  Bach,  was  received  with  much 
enthusiasm  on  his  first  appearance  in  London.  The  concerts  which  he  gave  along 
with  Abel  were  very  successful,  and  latterly  were  denominated  Professional  Con- 
certs. Of  his  works  little  can  be  said,  as,  with  a  few  exceptions,  all  of  them  are 
now  forgotten.  His  chief  claim  to  notice  lies  in  the  fact  that  he  greatly  raised  the 
quality  of  instrumental  music  in  his  day,  by  introducing  works  which  were  con- 
sidered advanced  in  tendency.  His  compositions  are  in  general  sound  in  character, 
but  by  no  means  are  they  similar  to  those  of  his  father,  either  in  skilful  oonstruction 
or  inspiration. 

BACH  (Johann  Sebastian).      German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Eisenach,  March 
21,  1685.      Taught  violin  by  his  father,  Johann  Ambrosius  Bach,  a  violinist. 
Self-taught  to  a  considerable  extent.     S.  under  his  brother,  Johann  Cristoph, 
at  Ohrdruff,  from  1693.      Chor.  in  Coll.  of  St.  Michael  at  Liineburg,  1700. 
Mem.  of  band  of  Prince  Johann  Ernst  of  Weimar.      Org.  of  Arnstadt  Ch., 
1703.      Went  to  Muhlhausen  as  org.  of  St.  Blasius  Church,   1707.      First 
married  Oct.  17,    1707.      Court   Org.  at  Weimar,    1708.      Court   concert- 
master  at  Weimar,  1714.     Went  to  Dresden,  17 17.     Chap. -master  at  Kothen, 
1717.     First  wife  died,  1720.     Competed  for  Organist's  place  at  the  "Jacobi 
Kirche,"  Hamburg,  unsuccessfully,  1 72 1.     Married  to  his  second  wife,  Dec. 
3,  1721.      Cantor  of  the  Thomas-Schule,  Leipzig,  1723.      Court  comp.  to 
Elector  of  Saxony,  1736.     Chap.-master  to  Duke  of  Weissenfels,  1736.    D. 
Leipzig,  July  28,  1750. 
Works.  —  Church    Music :    Grosse    Passionsmusik    nach    dem    Evangelium 
Matthei  (Passion  according  to  St.   Matthew),    1729 ;    Passionsmusik  nach  dem 
Evangelium  Johannis   (Do.   St.   Pohn),    1729.      Two  other  passion-oratorios  are 
ascribed  to  him,  one  being  on  St.  Luke ;  but  both  are  disputed,  and  one  is  entirely 
lost.      Cantatas  for  the  Church,  scored  for  solo  voices  and  chorus,  organ  and 
orchestra.     Of  those  works  230  only  survive,  out  of  an  estimated  total  of  400. 
Motets.     Masses  in  B  minor,  G.  minor.  A,  G,  F,  C,  etc.     Christmas  Oratorio, 
1734.     Magnificats  in  various  keys.    Psalms,  the  7th,  117th,  149th,  etc.,  for  double 
choirs,  organ,  and  orch.     Litanies.     Offertoires.     Kirchengesasnge  fur  solo  und 
chorstimmen  mit  Instrumental  begleitung.   Miscellaneous  pieces,  as  psalms,  hymns, 
chorales,  etc.      Organ  Music:   Die  Kunst  der  Fuge  (The  art  of  fugue),  1749  ; 
Clavierubung,  bestehend  in  verschiedenen  Vorspielen  iiber  die  Cathechismus  und 
andere  Gessenge  vor  die  Orgel,  Leipzig,  1739  ;  Sechs  Chorcele  verschiedener  Art, 
auf  einer  Orgel  mit  zwei  Clavieren  und  Pedal  vorzuspielen,   1740  ;    Canonische 
Versenderungen  liber  das  Weinachtslied,   1747 ;  Choral- Vorspiele  fiir  die  Orgel  mit 
einem  und  zwei  Clavieren  und  Pedal ;   44  Kleine  Choral- Vorspiele ;    15  Grosse-Cho- 
ral-Vorspiele  ;  52  Choral-Vorspiele  verschiedener  Form  ;   18  Choral- Vorspiele  mit 
den  5  variationem ;  Prakische  Orgelschule,  enthaltend  6  sonaten  fiir  2  Manuale  und 
oblig.  Pedal,  Zurich ;  Passacaglia  fur  Orgel,  1 736.     Miscellaneous  pieces  consisting 
of  Pastorals,   Preludes,   Fugues,   Themes,   etc.     Music  Jor  the  Clavichord:   Das 
Wohltemperirte  Clavier  (The  well-tempered  clavichord),  48  fugues  and  48  pre- 
ludes, v.  I,  1725,  V.  2,  1740.    Clavierubungen,  bestehend  in  Prsludien  Allemanden, 
etc.,  Leipzig,  1728-31  ;  Part  two,  do.,  1735  5  Part  three,  do.,  1739 ;  Part  four,  do., 
1742.     Chromatische   Fantaisie.     Toccattos.     Fifteen  inventions.      Fifteen  sym- 

BAC  —  BAC  37 

phonies  in  3  parts.  Fantasias.  Six  Suites.  Suites  Angloises.  Six  sonatas 
for  clavier  witli  violin  oblig.  Miscellaneous  pieces.  Concerted  Instrumen- 
tal Music :  Three  sonatas  for  violin  ;  Five  duets  for  2  violins ;  Six  sonatas  for 
violoncello  ;  Six  concertos  for  various  instruments  ;  Overtures  in  B.  minor,  D,  etc. ; 
Symphonies  in  D,  D  minor,  etc.  ;  Caprices  for  lute  ;  Concertos  for  violin  and  orch. 
A  great  quantity  of  miscellaneous  pieces.  Secular  Vocal  Music :  Secular  Cantatas, 
various.  Two  of  those  cantatas  were  introduced  to  the  London  musical  public  for 
the  first  time  by  Mr.  S.  Reay  of  Nevirark-on-Trent,  in  1879  ;  their  titles  were  "The 
Ciiffee  Cantata,"  and  "The  Peasant's  Cantata."    Odes,  Choruses,  Songs,  etc. 

It  is  remarkable  that  Bach  should  have  attained  such  eminence  as  he  now  occu- 
pies when  the  quiet,  unvarying,  domestic  nature  of  his  life  is  considered.  With 
vejy  few  exceptions — and  Bach  is  one — men  of  genius  pass  lives  of  great  bustle  and 
activity  ;  their  minds  are  more  or  less  strongly  exercised  by  many  outward  circum- 
stances ;  their  whole  lives  are  in  continual  and  ever  changing  relation  to  the  many 
exciting  circumstances  which  crowd  everyday  experience ;  and  destiny  seems  to 
have  conspired  to  augment  the  bitterness  attendant  on  a  moiling  journey  through 
life.  Indeed,  it  may  be  truly  said  that  a  life  of  homely  or  domestic  felicity  is  h'ghly 
incongenial  to  artistic  development,  and  prejudicial  to  the  ambitious  aspirations  of 
genius.  Comparatively  few  men  of  genius  are  blessed  during  their  sojourn  on 
earth  with  any  surprising  degree  of  happiness ;  Mozart,  Burns,  Beethoven,  Scott, 
and  Milton  occur  as  familiar  examples  of  those  who  have  had  their  aspirations 
clouded  by  misfortune  and  annoyance  in  various  forms.  But  this,  far  from  deterring 
them  from  the  active  pursuit  of  their  chosen  study,  seems  to  have  spurred  them  to 
continued  and  greater  efforts. 

On  this  argument  is  based  the  belief  that  Bach  was  not  only  a  great  genius,  but 
recognising  the  untoward  conditions  of  his  career,  a  great  example  of  direct  musical 
inspiration ;  qualified,  however,  to  a  vast  extent  by  education.  His  life  was  as 
appears  by  the  chronicles  of  his  biographers,  one  of  the  direst  monotony,  unrelieved 
by  those  stirring  events  which  direct  and  qualify  the  efforts  of  genius.  His  oc- 
casional appearances  at  different  courts,  and  the  unfortunate  state  of  impoverishment 
which  clogged  his  latter  days,  had  no  direct  influence  on  the  artistic  quality  of  his  works. 
Indeed  he  is  always  spoken  of  as  having  been  quite  indifferent  to  contemporary  ap- 
plause, and  the  poverty  which  eventually  overtook  him  could  have  had  no  effect  on 
his  works,  since  they  were  mostly  composed  previous  to  the  advent  of  bad  circum- 
stances. The  whole  tenor  of  his  career  was  that  of  a  dull,  monotonous,  homely  con- 
tent, which  fact  alone  is  sufficient  to  prove  that  his  works  were  the  outcome  of  intense 
inward  impulse,  neither  governed  nor  inspired  by  the  passing  events  of  his  time.  Do- 
mestic life  is  entirely  opposed  to  artistic  ideals,  and  the  instinctive  feeling  shown  by 
Bach  for  what  was  truly  poetical  in  art  would  seem  to  place  him  in  the  first  rank  of 
nature-born  artists.  The  deeply  devotional  tone  which  pervades  most  of  his  church 
music  is  obviously  the  result  of  heartfelt  emotions,  and  an  intuitive  perception  of 
what  was  appropriate  and  beautiful. 

Coming  directly  to  his  works,  the  first  thing  that  will  strike  the  student  is  the 
polyphonic  texture  of  his  concerted  writings,  whether  vocal  or  instrumental,  and  the 
surprising  dexterity  with  which  he  interweaves  the  various  independent  melodies 
which  constitute  the  score.  Careful  examination  will  further  reveal  that  this  method 
of  making  each  part  an  independent  melody  is  in  many  instances  destructive  to 
perspicuity.  On  the  other  hand  there  is  abundance  of  earnest  purpose  and  loftiness 
of  endeavour  to  counterbalance  this  defect.  The  whole  body  of  his  music  is  in 
advance  of  his  period,  and  a  considerable  portion  of  it  is  even  now  beyond  the 
discerning  capacities  of  many  amateurs  and  no  small  number  of  professional 
musicians.  Until  the  musical  knowledge  of  amateurs,  and  the  musical  public 
generally,  has  been  extended  in  many  directions,  his  music  will  continue  to  be-dis- 
liked,  and  regarded  as  dry  unsympathetic  exercises  in  counterpoint.  A  superficial 
knowledge  of  composers  and  their  works  will  not  enable  anyone  to  grow  enthusiastic 
over  the  compositions  of  this  master.  To  be  enjoyed  Bach  must  be  conscientiously 
studied,  and  patiently  followed  throughout  his  several  ramifications. 

The  instrumental  music  of  Bach  when  examined  side  by  side  with  that  of  his 
contemporaries  exhibits  an  immense  degree  of  difference  in  the  method  of 
orchestration  employed.  The  string  band,  occasionally  strengthened  by  trumpets, 
oboes  and  flutes,  constituted  Handel's  sole  means  of  instrumental  colouring,  l-or 
many  succeeding  years  this  method  was  employed  by  every  musician  except  Bach, 
and  until  the  appearance  of   Haydn  the    method  was   thought  unsurpassable. 

3*  BAC  —  BAC 

Turning  to  Bach's  scores  we  find  that  almost  constant  use  is  made  of  the  wind 
instruments  which  Handel  employed,  together  with  a  number  of  others  now  obso- 
lete. This  fact,  coupled  with  the  skilful  manner  in  which  he  treated  the  orchestra, 
proves  that  he  was  so  far  in  advance  of  his  time  ;  and  though  his  instrumentation 
was  widely  different  from  that  of  Haydn  or  Mozart,  his  general  constructive  method 
was  not  less  perfect  than  that  of  the  composers  mentioned,  nor  less  an  advance  on 
the  productions  during  and  anterior  to  his  time.  His  instrumental  music  is  a  great 
source  of  enjoyment  to  every  one  who  can  take  pleasure  in  quaint  and  pretty  forms, 
and  original  and  beautifully  worked  out  periods.  To  say  nothing  of  his  fugues, 
which  are  universally  known,  the  pianist  has  an  unfailing  supply  of  sterling  music  in 
his  other  pieces,  which,  if  continually  practised,  will  be  very  profitable  as  a  means 
of  refining  his  taste,  and  giving  strength  and  consistency  to  his  style  of  performance. 
His  organ  music  is  too  well  known  to  need  much  comment,  but  his  fugues,  preludes, 
etc.  are  generally  allowed  to  be  unrivalled.  His  other  instrumental  works  are 
becoming  more  and  more  known  as  each  succeeding  season  passes,  and  they  are 
bidding  fair  to  earn  more  attention  than  is  readily  accorded  similar  works  of  the 
same  period. 

The  general  characteristics  of  Bach's  vocal  music  are  deep  religious  feeling,  care- 
ful and  intricate  elaboration  of  parts,  refined  and  beautiful  melody,  and  an  ever 
fresh  and  original  thematic  treatment.  Many  of  his  pieces  present  difficulties  of  an 
extraordinary  character ;  the  parts  being  obviously  written  without  the  least  regard 
for  the  executive  abilities  of  the  performers.  Indeed,  it  seems  to  have  been  a  lead- 
ing idea  with  the  composer  never  to  deviate  from  his  original  design  for  the  mere 
sake  of  securing  an  adequate  interpretation.  This  feature  is  apparent  in  the  writings 
of  many  other  composers  whose  works  are  equally  unpopular,  though  much  less 
deserving  of  notice  than  those  of  Bach.  Before  quitting  the  subject  of  his  vocal 
music  we  may  say  that  beautiful  editions  of  these  works  are  issued  by  the  Bach 
Society  of  Leipzig. 

As  time  advances  more  attention  will  be  given  Bach  and  his  productions.  In 
the  past  his  music  was  cultivated  in  a  moSt  desultory  fashion,  its  present  advance  in 
public  esteem  being  due  to  the  efforts  of  Wesley  in  England  and  Mendelssohn  in 
Germany.  The  latter,  indeed,  may  fairly  be  accounted  the  originator  of  the  present 
favourable  feeling  which  is  manifested,  and  quietly  but  surely  spreading,  in  Bach 
and  his  music.  Numbers  of  musicians  now  exist  in  Britain  where  formerly  there 
was  but  a  few,  who  cherish  the  most  affectionate  regard  for  Bach  and  his  works  ; 
who  know,  appreciate  and  can  afford  to  make  earnest  endeavours  in  promoting  a 
general  knowledge  of  his  compositions. 

In  conclusion  we  may  say  that  Bach  is  one  of  the  great  masters  whose  influence 
has  been  long  and  forcibly  exercised  on  succeeding  epochs  of  musical  history.  He 
shares  with  other  composers  the  honour  of  being  one  of  the  fountainheads  of  musical 
thought.  His  importance  in  musical  art  cannot  be  overvalued,  since  the  whole 
body  of  his  works  is  a  lasting  monument  of  profound,  beautiful,  and  withal  pleasing 
musical  imagery,  unequalled  in  its  peculiar  style.  There  is  no  plea  of  imme- 
diate recognition  to  urge  on  his  behalf,  as  a  large  body  of  the  musical  public  are 
conscious  of  his  manifold  merits,  and  strive  to' extend  the  general  knowledge  of  his 
powers ;  while  we  have  also  a  substantial  assurance  of  his  vitality  and  coming 
popularity  in  his  steady  onward  progress  in  the  past,  and  extensive  cultivation  in 
the  present. 

BACH  (Earl  PMlipp  Emanuel).  German  comp.,  third  son  of  the  above,  B. 
Weimar,  Mar.  14,  1714.  S.  at  the  Thomas  School,  Leipzig.  S.  at  Leipzig 
University  and  at  Frankfort- on-the-Oder,  for  the  Law.  Appeared  in  Berlin, 
1737.  Chamber  musician  and  accompanist  to  Court  at  Berlin,  1746.  Went 
to  Hamburg  as  Choirmaster,  1751.  Director  of  Music  in  succession  to  Tele- 
mann  at  the  Court,  Hamburg,  1767.     D.  Hamburg,  Dec.  14,  1788. 

Works. — Solos  for  the  Clavichord ;  Trios  for  Clavichord,  violin  and  'cello ; 
Eighteen  Symphonies  for  orchestra,  1741-1776;  Sonatas  for  the  Clavichord ;  Solos 
for  Flute,  Oboe,  Harp,  etc. ;  Quartets  for  Clavichord,  Flute,  Alto,  and  'cello,  1788. 
Church  music,  consisting  of  Motets,  Services  (3  for  the  Fete  of  S.  Michael,  1756-78- 
8'),  Sanctuses,  Litanies,  Magnificats,  22  Cantatas  (1 768- 1788),  etc.  Philis  et 
■lircis,  cantata,  1766;  Der  Wirth  und  die  Gaste,  do.,  1796.  Die  Israeliten  in  der 
Wuste,  oratorio,  1779.    Versucb  uber  die  wahre  Art  das  Klavier  zu  spielen,  mit 

BAC  — BAC  39 

Exemplen  und  t8  Probstucken  in  6  Sonaten,  1752-1762  (Treatise  on  clavichord 
playing) ;  A  work  on  Counterpoint,  1757  ;  Memoir  of  his  Father,  J.  S.  Bach,  etc. 
This  musician  is  placed  by  authorities  next  to  his  great  father,  by  reason  of  the 
uniformly  excellent  character  of  his  works  and  their  value  as  marking  a  historic 
development  in  instrumental  music.  His  vocal  music  is  by  no  means  of  such  good 
quality  as  his  instrumental  music  would  seem  to  warrant.  There  exists  in  it  a 
decided  want  of  those  salient  features  which  in  vocal  music  should  command  instant 
attention,  these  being  spontaneity  and  melody.  His  church  cantatas  are  not 
worthy  of  resuscitation.  His  instrumental  music — of  which  considerable  quantities 
survive — is  perhaps  equal  to  anything  produced  during  the  same  period.  The  form 
is  strictly  pure,  and  the  ideas  are  not  lacking  of  a  certain  grace  which  at  all  times 
has  been  a  recommendation.  We  miss,  however,  the  fancy  and  powerful  expres- 
sion of  Haydn  and  Mozart.  Bach  lived  at  a  time  when  artificial  forms  were  made 
subservient  to  every  form  of  Art.  This  has  been  most  strikingly  exposed  where 
painting  is  concerned  by  Hogarth  in  his  "Analysis  of  Beauty."  The  same  cold, 
unsympathetic  features  which  are  apparent  in  much  of  the  poetry  of  the  period  are 
observable  in  the  music.  Very  few  composers,  excepting,  of  course,  Handel,  J.  S. 
Bach,  and  others,  had  during  K.  Bach's  time  surmounted  the  contrapuntal  severity 
of  the  former  age ;  but  the  effort  once  made  to  escape  the  trammels  of  distorted 
polyphony,  the  whole  character  of  the  music  became  entirely  changed  until  the 
transition  to  Mozart  and  Beethoven  became  a  matter  easy  to  understand.  With 
the  development  of  Pianoforte  music  K.  Bach  had  much  to  do.  He  brought 
chamber  music  to  a  certain  height  of  refinement  which  was  never  attained  so  com- 
pletely before ;  but  he  introduced  no  radical  reforms  either  as  regards  style  or  form, 
and  cannot  therefore  be  regarded  as  a  great  light  in  history.  His  music  is  elegant, 
not  inspiring,  and  for  this  feature  he  received  in  an  elegant  period  marks  of  approval 
which  were  not  accorded  men  of  greater  mental  powers  in  other  branches  of  art 
who  were  his  contemporaries.  It  remains  only  to  be  said  that  at  one  period  of  his 
career  Bach  studied  tor  the  Law,  but  that  like  other  musicians,  his  ardent  love  for 
music  compelled  him  to  relinquish  the  dry-bones  of  jurisprudence  for  the  more  con- 
genial study  of  harmony.  As  a  whole,  his  compositions  are  creditable  to  his  period 
and  his  education. 

BACH  (Wilhelm  Friedemann).      German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Weimar,  1710. 

Educated  by  his  father,  J.  S.  Bach.      Org.  of  the  Ch.  of  S.  Sophia,  Dresden, 

1733.      Choirmaster  and  org.  of  S.  Mary's  Ch.,  Halle,  1747-67-      D.  Berlm, 


Works.— Sonatas,   Polonaises,    Concertos,   Fugues,    Fantasias,    etc.,   for   the 

Clavichord;  Symphonies  for  2  vns.,  viola,  2  flutes,  and  bass;  Trios  for  2  flutes 

and  bass ;  Cantatas  ;  Church  music,  etc.,  chiefly  in  manuscript. 

Bach  was,  as  judged  by  contemporary  opinion,  the  greatest  organ-player  of  his 
time.  How  far  he  influenced  the  art  cannot  now  be  fixed,  but  it  seems  evident 
that  in  many  respects  his  good  example  has  been  followed  by  many  organists  down 
to  the  present  time.  We  have  no  means  of  determining  whether  or  not  W.  Bach 
excelled  his  father,  but  popular  opinion  would  seem  to  decide  in  favour  of  the 
Cantor  of  Leipzig.  His  compositions  are  now  almost  unknown,  with  perhaps  the 
exception  of  a  few  transcribed  pieces  for  the  organ.  Their  claims  to  immortality 
need  not  be  disturbed.  In  his  private  relations  Bach  was  a  drunkard  and  a  profli- 
EACH  (Otto).      German  comp.,   B.    Vienna,    1833.      Writer  of  symphonies, 

quartets,  songs,  Pf.  music,  etc.     "Lenore,"  opera,  Augsberg,  1884. 

BACHE  (Francis  Edward).     English  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Birmingham,  14th 

Sept.,    1833.      Gave  early  tokens  of  musical  precocity.      S.    under  Alfred 

Mellon.     Played  violin  at  Birmingham   Festival,  under  Mendelssohn,   1846. 

S.  under  W.   S.  Bennett  at  London  from   1849.      S.  under  Hauptmann  and 

Plaidy  at  Leipzig,  1853.     S.  under  Schneider  at  Dresden,  1854.     Returned  to 

London,  1855.     Went  to  Algeria  for  his  health,  1856.     Visited  Leipzig,  1856. 

Returned  to  England,  1857.     D.  Birmingham,  Aug.  24,  1858, 

Works.— Which  is  Which,  an  opera,  1851 ;   Rubezahl,  an  opera,  1853 ;    Six 

songs  for  voice  and  Pf.,  op.  16;  Trio  for  Pf.  and  strings,  op.  25  ;  Four  mazurkas 

for  Pf.,  op.   13;  Five  Characteristic  Pieces  for  Pf. ;  Drmkmg  Song;  Beloved; 

40  BAC  —  BaC 

Forsaken;  Barcarolle;  A  village  merry-making;  Two  Romances  for  Pf.  ;  Deux 
Morceaux  caract^ristiques  for  Pf.  ;  La  Penserosa  e  TAUegra;  Two  Polkas  for  Pf., 
in  E  and  E  flat' ;  Transcriptions  and  Miscellaneous  pieces  for  Pf.  ;  Andante  and 
Rondo  Polonaise  for  Pf.  and  orch  ;  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch. ,  in  E.  Morceau  de 
Concert  for  Pf.  and  orch.  ;  Trio  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello.     Songs,  etc. 

Bache  is  an  example  of  one  of  the  many  highly  talented  artists  who  have  been 
cut  off  in  the  midst  of  a  most  promising  career.  It  seems  to  be  universally  acknow- 
ledged that,  had  he  attained  to  full  maturity,  he  would  have  been  an  honour  and  an 
ornament  to  English  musical  art.  The  existing  specimens  of  his  powers  must  of 
course  be  regarded  as  the  initial  efforts  of  an  aspiring  genius  and  not  as  examples  of 
what  might  have  been.  His  Pianoforte  music  is  brilliant  and  highly  wrought,  but 
in  other  respects  does  not  evince  much  greatness  of  conception.  Like  his  brother 
Walter,  he  was  a  remarkable  performer  on  the  Pianoforte,  and  equally  expert  at 
interpreting  works  by  masters  old  and  new. 

BACHE  (Walter).      English  pianist,  B.  Birmingham,  June  19,  1842.     Fourth 
son  of  the  Rev.  Samuel  Bache.     Lived  at  Birmingham,  studying  at  the  Pro- 
prietary School  till  1858.     S.  the  Pianoforte  and  theory  of  music  under  James 
Stimpson,  org.  of  Birmingham  Town  Hall.     8.  at  Leipzig  under  Plaidy,  Mos- 
cheles,  Hauptmann,  and  Richter,  Aug.,  1858,  till  1861.      Visited  Milan  and 
Florence,  1861.     S.  under  Liszt  at  Rome,  1862-65.      Gave  first  concerts  and 
commenced  teaching,  1862-65.     Returned  to  London  in  May,  1865,  where  he, 
has  since  resided  as  a  teacher  of  the  Pianoforte  and  concert-giver. 
Mr.  Bache  is  a  musician  of  the  advanced  school,  who,  being  imbued  with  an  in- 
tense regard  for  the  compositions  of  Liszt,  endeavours  assiduously  to  extend  the 
public  knowledge  of  them  whenever  a  suitable  opportunity  occurs.    His  efforts  have 
been  the  principal  means  of  introducing  to  the  London  public  the  works  of  that 
remarkable  though  unquestionably  whimsical  composer  ;   and  around  the  concerts 
at  which  those  works  are  brought  forward  is  centered  the  most  lively  interest.    The 
works — instrumental  and  choral — which  he  has  brought  forward  comprise,  among 
others,  the  following  :— "  The  Legend  of  S.  Elizabeth ; "  "A  Faust  Symphony  ; " 
"Mazeppa,"  symphony  (twice  performed);    "Orpheus,"  symphony  (twice  per- 
formed); "Tasso,     symphony  (twice);    "Festklange"  (twice)   "Les  Preludes" 
(thrice);  "The  13th  Psalm "  (twice) ;  Concertos  for  Pianoforte  in  E  flat  and  A. 
AH  of  the  foregoing  works,  excepting  ' '  Mazeppa  "  and  the  Pianoforte  concerto  in 
A,  were  produced  in  England  for  the  first  time  by  Mr.  Bache. 

Although  Mr.  Bache  has  shown  himself  zealous  in  the  cause  of  Liszt  and  modern 
music,  he  has  not  been  indiscreet  in  the  matter  of  selection ;  his  programmes,  as  a 
rule,  being  composed  of  music  of  many  schools  and  periods.  Mr.  Bache  has  not 
yet  composed  or  edited  any  music,  but  he  is  one  of  the  foremost  among  British 
pianists.  His  school  is  essentially  modern  or  romantic  in  principle,  but  his  training 
and  catholic  taste  may  easily  enable  him  faithfully  to  interpret  the  great  classics 
of  bygone  times.  While  Mr.  Bache  has  become  in  England  the  acknowledged 
exponent  of  Liszt's  music,-  he  must  also  be  credited  with  having  boldness  enough  to 
produce  side  by  side  works  of  ancient  and  present  fame  ;  thereby  challenging  com- 
parison of  their  respective  merits. 

BACHMANN  (Gottlob).     German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Bornitz,  Mar.  28,  1763. 
Org.  at  Zeitz  from  1791.      D.  (?)      Writer  of  Cantatas.    Operas:  Phsedon  et 
Naide,  Orfeo,  etc.     Songs ;  Odes.    Symphonies  ;   Quintets  and  Quartets  for 
strings,  etc.  ;  Organ  music ;  Pf.  music ;  Theoretical  works,  etc. 
This  very  prolific  composer  is  now  almost  unknown,  save  by  a  few  fine  songs. 

BACHOPEN  (Johann  Caspar),    Swiss  comp.,  B.  Zurich,  1692.   Singing-master 
and  choir-master  at  Zurich.     D.  Zurich,  1755. 
Bachofen  has  written  numerous  pieces  for  the  church  service,  but  is  chiefly  known 
by  his  hymns  and  psalms,  a  few  of  which  stillremain  popular. 

BACHSMIDT  (Anton).  Austria^  comp.  and  trumpeter,  B.  Moelk,  1709.  D. 
1780.     Writer  of  symphonies,  masses,  concertos,  operas,  songs,  etc. 

BACK  (Sir  George).  English  naval  oflScer  and  collector.  B.  Stockport, 
1796-  D.  1878.  Published  "Canadian  Airs  collected  by  Lieut.  Back, 
R,N.,  during  the  late  Arctic  Expedition  under  Captain  Franklin.     With  Sym- 



phonies  and  Accompaniments  by  E.  Knight,  jun.,  the  words  by  George  Soane. 
Lond.,  1823." 

BACKUS  (A.)  American  writer,  author  of  a  treatise  entitled,  "History,  Theory, 
and  Analysis  of  Music."    Troy,  U.S.A.    8vo,  1839. 

BACON  (Richard  Mackenzie).  English  writer  and  teacher,  B.  Norwich,  1776. 
D.  Norwich.  1844. 

Works. — The  Science  and  Practice  of  Vocal  Ornament,  Lond.,  n.d.  Elements 
of  Vocal  Science ;  being  a  Philosophical  Enquiry  into  some  of  the  Principles  of 
Singing.  Lond.,  8vo,  1824.  Art  of  Improving  the  Voice  and  Ear,  and  of  increas- 
ing their  Musical  Powers  on  Philosophical  Principles.    8vo,  1825. 

A  critic,  and  writer  of  many  useful  musical  and  other  works.  Editor  of  the 
"Quarterly  Musical  Magazine  and  Review." 

BADARZEWSKA  (Thecla).  Polish  female  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Warsaw, 
1838.  D.  1862.  Writer  of  many  meritorious  works  for  the  pianoforte, 
including  the  well-known  ' '  Maiden's  Prayer,  "or  "La  Priere  d'une  Vierge. " 

BADIA  (Luigi).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Tiramo,  Naples,  1822.  Writer  of  Operas 
and  Songs. 

BADIALI  (Cesare).      Italian  bass  vocalist,   B.    i8oo.      Dibut  at  Trieste  in 
1827.     Sang  in  Italy,   Spain,  England,   France,  and  America.      D.  Imola, 
Nov.  18,  1865. 
Badiali  has  written  a  few  songs.    He  is  written  of  as  having  been  a  great  singer  : 
one  of  the  best  of  his  day. 

BAEHR  (Johanu).  German  ecclesiastic,  writer,  comp.,  and  vocalist,  B.  1652.  D. 

BAERMANN.     See  Barmann. 

BAGGE  (Selmar).     German  critic  and  comp.,  B.  Coburg,  June,  1823.     S.  at 
Prague,  under  D.  Weber,  1837.     S.  under  Sechter.    Prof,  of  comp.  at  Vienna 
Cons.,   1851.     Org.   at  Vienna,  1853-55.     Edited  journal  at  Leipzig,   1863. 
Director  of  Music  School  at  Basle,  1868. 
Works. — Instrumental  music,  consisting  chiefly  of  music  for  Pf.,  and  combin- 
ations of  stringed  and  other  instruments. 

Beigge  is  a  conservative  and  has  attacked  Wagner  with  a  vehemence  worthy  of  a 
thorough  Teuton.  He  adores  Beethoven,  Schumann,  and  other  masters,  and  his 
writings  are  remarkable  for  acumen  and  clearness.  His  compositions  are  not  so 
good  as  those  of  Wagner  or  Raff,  but  are,  for  educational  purposes,  all  that  can 
be  desired. 
BAI  (Tommaso),  or  Baj.     Italian  comp.,  B.  Bologna,  in  latter  half  of  17th 

century  [1680].  D.  Rome,  1714.  Comp.  of  a  famous  miserere,  popularly 
believed  to  be  one  of  the  finest  specimens  of  this  class  of  devotional  music ; 
also  of  masses,  motets,  etc. 

BAILDON  (Joseph).     English  comp.  and  vocalist,  B.   1727.      Gent,  of  the 
Chap.  Roy.     Lay-vicar  of  Westminster  Abbey  about  middle  of  i8th  century. 
Gained  a  first  prize  given  by  the  Catch  Club,  1763.     Gained  another  prize, 
1766.     Org.  of  St.  Luke's  Ch.,  Old  Street,  London.    Org.  of  All-Saints'  Ch., 
Fulham.     D.  London,  May  7,  1774. 
Works. — Collection  of  Glees  and  Catches,   Lond.   [1768].     Catches.     "The 
Laurel,"  a  collection  of  Songs.     Songs  in  "Love  in  a  Village."    Ode  to  Con- 

BAILEY  (Thomas  and  Daniel).  American  music  publishers  and  composers. 
Established  about  1755.  They  issued  various  collections  of  psalmody,  in- 
cluding "A  Complete  Melody  in  Three  Parts"  [from  Tansur],  1755.  They 
also  put  forth  "  New  and  Complete  Introduction  to  the  Grounds  and  Rules  of 
Music,"  1764. 

BAILLIE  (Peter).  Scottish  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Libberton,  Mid-Lothian, 
1779.  Educated  by  his  Parents.  Learned  to  be  a  Mason.  Mem,  of  the 
private  bands  of  several  noble  families,     D,  after  1825. 

42  BAI  —  BAK 

Works.— "A  Selection  of  Original  Tunes  for  the  Pianoforte  and  Violin,"  Edin- 
burgh, fo.,  1825.     Scotch  dance  music,  etc. 

The  contents  of  No.  I  consist  of  Reels,  Jigs,  and  Strathspeys,  named  after  various 
persons.     Other  pieces  in  manuscript  are  still  in  existence. 

BAILLOT  (Pierre  Marie  Francois  de  Sales).    French  comp.  and  violinist, 
B.  Passy,  Oct.  i,   1771.      Gave  early  signs  of  a  love  of  music.     S.  under 
Polidori  and  Sainte-Marie.      Sent  to  Rome  by  M.  de  Boucheporn,  a  French- 
man who  had  adopted  him,  where  he  was  further  instructed  in  violin-playing,  by 
Pollani,i783.  Played  in  the  orchestra  of  the  Paris  opera,  1791.  Received  Govern- 
ment appointment  in  Finance  department.     Joined  Army,  1793.     Returned  to 
Paris,  and  became  a  teacher,  1795.     Mem.  of  Napoleon's  private  band,  1802. 
Travelled  with  Lemare  in  Russia,  1805-8.     Established  chamber  concerts  in 
Paris,  1814.     Played  in   England,  etc.,  during  1815-16.     Leader  of  orch.  at 
Paris  Opera,  1821-31.     Leader  of  Royal  Band,  1825.     Prof,  of  violin  in  Paris 
Cons.     D.  Paris,  Sept.  15,  1842. 
Works. — "  Methode  de  Violon  adoptee  par  le  Conservatoire,"  1824  (written  in 
conjunction  with  Rode  and  Kreutzer).     Six  duets  for  2  violins.     Fifteen  trios  for 
2  violins  and  'cello.     Twelve  caprices  and  studies  for  solo  violin.     Nine  concertos 
for  violin  and  orchestra.     Thirty  airs  with  variations  for  violin  and  orchestra. 
Three  nocturnes  for  5  instruments.     Three  quartets  for  2  violins,  tenor,  and  'cello. 
Sonata  for  Pf.  and  vioUn.     Twenty-four  preludes.     Fantasias,  etc.     Contributions 
to  periodical  literature. 

During  his  various  tours,  Baillot  was  received  with  enthusiasm,  and  audiences 
took  a  wholesome  delight  in  listening  to  his  legitimate  playing.  His  whole  style 
was  more  noble  in  purpose  than  that  of  Paganini,  and  he  did  not  descend  to 
trickery.  This  is  greatly  in  his  favour,  and  places  him  with  Joachim  and  F.  David 
as  a  truly  artistic  violinist.  Baillot's  compositions  are  not  of  much  value  considered 
as  music,  but  as  violin  practice  they  are  invaluable;  the  "Methode"  and  the 
"Studies"  being  especially  useful.  Baillot  was  a.  thorough  master  of  his  instru- 
ment, and  showed  to  every  advantage  in  works  demanding  dignified  and  refined 

BAIN  (John).  Scottish  musician  and  teacher  in  Glasgow.  Published  "The 
Vocal  Musician,  being  a  Collection  of  Select  Scots  and  English  Songs,  adapted 
to  two,  three,  or  four  Voices,"  Glasgow,  1774. 

BAIITI  (G-iuseppe,  Abbe).     Italian  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Rome,  Oct.  21,  1775. 

Chorister  in  Pontificial  Chapel,  1802.    S.  under  Jannaconi.    Admitted  to  holy 

orders.     D.  Rome,  May  21,  1844. 

Works. — Memorie  storico-critiche  della  vita  e  delle  opere  di  Giovanni  Pierluigi 

da  Palestrina,  Rome,  2  v.,  4to,  1828.     Saggio  Sopra  I'identiti  de'ritmi  Musicale  e 

poetico,  Florence,  8vo,  1S20.     Church  Music,  including  a  famous  Miserere,  etc. 

His  biography  of  Palestrina  is  the  most  trustworthy  one  written.  It  has  been 
translated  into  German  (Leipzig,  1834),  and  is  a  standard,  though  one-sided,  work 
of  individual  musical  biography. 

BAITZ  (Heinricb  Hartmann).  Dutch  organ  builder  of  Utrecht,  flourished 
1 708- 1 770. 

BAKEB  (Benjamin  Franklin).  American  writer  and  comp.,  B.  Wenham, 
Mass,  July  10,  181 1.  S.  music  in  Salem,  1831 ;  and  under  J.  Paddon  at 
Boston.  Director  of  Music  in  Dr.  Channing's  Ch.,  1839.  Vice-President  of 
Handel  and  Haydn  Soc.  Editor  of  Boston  Musical  fournal.  Principal  of 
Boston  Music  School,  etc. 
Works. — Theoretical  and  Practical  Harmony,  Boston  (Ditson),  n.  d.     Vocal 

Method,   with   L.    H.    Southard  (Do.)     Elementary  Music  Book   (Do.)     School 

Music  Book  (Do.)     Church  Chorals  (collected).     The  Burning  Ship,  a  Cantata. 

The    Storm    King,    a    Cantata.       Normal    School    Teacher,    with    M'^Trimmer 

(Brainard's,  Cleveland,  n.  d.)     Songs,  etc. 

BAKEB  (George).  English  comp.,  B.  Exeter,  1768  [1750].  Instructed  in 
music  by  Jackson  of  Exeter  and  Hugh  Bond.  Entered  family  of  the  Earl  of 
Uxbridge,  1775.     Placed  by  Earl  of  Uxbridge  under  W.  Cramer  and  Dussek 

BAK  —  BAL  43 

for  instruction.     Ore.  at  Stafford.     Mus.  Doc,  Oxon.,  1801.     D.  Rueelev. 
Feb.,  1847. 

Works. — "The  Caffres,"  musical  entertainment,  London,  1802.  Sonatas  for 
the  Pf.  Organ  Voluntaries.  Six  Anthems,  for  4,  5,  and  6  voices.  Glees,  for  3 
and  4  voices.     Songs,  etc. 

BAEEB  (Sir  Henry  Williams,  Bart.)     English  divine  and  musician,   B. 

London,  May  27,  1821.     Educated  at  Cambridge.    B.A.,  1844.    M.A.,  1847. 

Vicar  of  Monkland,  near  Leominster,  1851.  D.  near  Leominster,  Feb.  1877. 
He  was  one  of  the  principal  compilers  of  "Hymns,  Ancient  and  Modern,"  for 
which  he  wrote  original  hymns. 

BAEEB  (James  Andrew).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Birmingham,  Nov.  8, 
1824.     Comp.  vocal  and  instrumental  music. 

BALABT  (Gabriel).     Spanish  operatic  comp.,  B.  Barcelona,  June  8,  1824. 

BALATEA  (Hans).  Austrian  cond.  and  comp.,  B.  Hoffnungsthal,  Moravia, 
March  5,  1827.  Chor.  in  Olmutz  Cath.  S.  at  Vienna  under  Proch  and 
Sechter,  1843.  Director  of  the  "  Academa"  choir  at  Vienna,  1844.  Went 
to  New  York  in  June,  1849.  Settled  at  Milwaukee,  1850.  Established  the 
Milwaukee  Musical  Society,  1850.  Resided  at  Chicago  as  Teacher  and  Cond. 
from  i860.  Established  at  Chicago  "The  Philharmonic  Society,"  "The 
Musical  Union,"  "The  Liederkranz, "  and  the  "Orpheus  Society."  Director 
of  the  "Chicago  Sangerfest,"  or  Musical  Festival. 
Works.— "The  Power  of  Sound,"  Cantata,  1856.  Pf.  Concertos.  Songs. 
Pianoforte  Music,  etc. 

Balatka  has  a  wide  reputation  throughout  the  Northern  States  of  America  for  his 
great  organising  powers.  He  has  done  much  to  promote  the  study  and  taste  for 
good  works  in  Chicago  and  district,  and  has  produced  among  other  works  ' '  The 
Creation  ;"  "  Masaniello ;"  "Der  Freischiitz ;"  Symphonies  by  Beethoven,  Mozart, 
and  Haydn ;  Instrumental  works  by  Wagner  and  others.  He  has  also  conducted 
numerous  Festivals  in  different  parts  of  the  United  States. 

BALBASTBE  (Claude).  French  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Dijon,  Dec.  8,  1729, 
D.  Paris,  April  9,  1799.     Writer  of  organ  music,  etc. 

BALDENECEEB  (Johann  Bernard).  German  comp.  of  chamber  music, 
B.  [?]     D.  1849. 

BALDENECEEB  (Johann  Bernard),  the  younger,  B.  Mayence,  Aug.  23, 
1791.     D.  June  25,  1855.     Pianist  and  comp.  for  his  instrument. 

BALDENECEEB  (Nicolas),  brother  of  the  above,  B.  Mayence,  March  27, 
1782.     D.  [?]     Writer  of  organ  and  Pf.  music. 

BALDEWEIN  (Johann  Christian).     German  comp.  of  songs  and  Pf.  music, 

B.  Cassel,  1784.     D.  [?] 
BALDWIN  (W.)     English  writer,  author  of  "  The  Science  of  Music,"  London, 

l2mo,  1829. 

BALFE  (Victoire).  Irish  soprano  vocalist,  daughter  of  M.  W.  Balfe,  B.  Paris, 
Sept.  I,  1837.  S.  under  W.  S.  Bennett,  Balfe,  and  Garcia.  Dibut  as 
"Amina"  in  "La  Sonnambula,"  May  28,  1857.  Sang  in  Ireland  and  Italy. 
Married  to  Sir  John  F.  Crampton.  Divorced  from  him.  Married  to  the  Duke 
de  Frias,  a  Spanish  noblemen.  D.  Madrid,  Jan.  22,  1871. 
Miss  Balfe  sang  in  the   "  Bohemian  Girl,"  "Don  Giovanni,"  and  other  operas, 

but  was  by  no  means  suited  for  heavy  parts.     Her  voice  was  light  and  pleasant  in 

quality,  but  not  powerful. 

BALFE  (Michael  William).  Irish  comp.  and  vocalist,  B.  in  Pitt  Street,  Dub- 
lin, May  15,  1808.  S.  in  Ireland  under  C.  E.  Horn,  O'Rourke  (Rooke)  and 
Lee.  Taken  to  England  by  Horn.  Violinist  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  1824. 
Dibut  as  vocalist,  London  and  the  provinces,  1824.  Adopted  by  Count 
Mazzara,  1825.  Taken  to  Italy  by  Mazzara.  Married  to  Mdlle  Lina  Roser, 
vocalist.     Sang  in  Italy,  and  in  Paris,  1827.     Remained  on  the  Continent  till 

44  BAL  —  BAL 

1835.  Appeared  in  London  as  vocalist,  1835.  Manager  of  Lyceum  Theatre, 
1839.  Cond.  National  Concerts  at  Drury  Lane,  1850.  Appeared  m  Russia, 
1852.  Cond.  at  H.  M.  Theatre,  1845-52.  Engaged  as  Composer,  1852-70. 
D.  Rowney  Abbey,  Herts,  Oct.  20,  1870. 
Vfo^KS.— Operas :  I  Rivali  di  se  Stessi,  Palermo,  1829;  Un  Avertimento  di 
Gelosi,  Pavia,  1830;  Enrico  Quarto  al  passo  della  Marno,  Milan,  1831 ;  Siege  of 
Rochelle,  Lond.,  1836;  The  Maid  of  Artois,  Lond.,  1836;  Catherine  Grey,  do., 
1837;  Joan  of  Arc,  do.,  1837;  Diadeste,  do.,  1838;  Falstaff,  do.,  1838;  Keol- 
anthe.  do.,  1841  ;  Le  Puits  d' Amour,  Paris,  1843;  The  Bohemian  Girl,  London, 
Nov.  27,  1843  ;  The  Daughter  of  St.  Mark,  Lond.,  1844 ;  Les  Quarte  Fils  Aymon, 
Paris,  1844;  The  Enchantress,  Lond.,  1845;  L'Etoile  de  Seville,  Paris,  1845; 
The  Bondman,  Lond.,  Dec.  11,  1846  ;  The  Devil's  in  It,  Lond,,  1847;  The  Maid 
of  Honour,  Lond.,  1847;  The  Sicilian  Bride,  do.,  1852;  Pittore  e  Duca,  do., 
1856;  (revived  as  "The  Painter  of  Antwerp,"  1881);  The  Rose  of  Castille, 
Lond.,  1857 ;  Satanella,  do.,  1858 ;  Bianca,  do.,  i860 ;  Blanche  de  Nevers, 
do.,  i860;  The  Puritan's  Daughter,  do.,  1861  ;  The  Armourer  of  Nantes, 
do.,  1863;  The  Sleeping  Queen,  Lond.,  1863;  II  Talismano,  do.,  June 
II,  1874.  Cantatas:  Mezeppa,  Lond.  [?];  The  Page  [?];  one  produced 
at  Bologna,  one  produced  at  Paris.  Moore's  Irish  Melodies  harmonised, 
1859  (Novello).  Six  nev\f  Songs  and  a  Duet,  Longfellow,  1856.  Trio  for 
Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello,  in  A.  Glees,  Part-Songs,  etc.:  Hark!  'tis  the  Hunter's 
jovial  horn  ;  Trust  her  not ;  Excelsior.  Songs  and  Ballads:  The  Angels  call  me  ; 
Annie  of  Tharaw ;  The  Arrow  and  the  Song ;  As  the  sunshine  to  the  flower ;  A 
home  in  the  heart ;  Ah,  would  that  1  could  love  thee  less  ;  Anabel  Lee  ;  A  Simple 
Rose  ;  Bird  of  the  twilight ;  Beneath  a  Portal ;  The  Bells  ;  Bridal  Ballad ;  Come 
into  the  Garden,  Maud  (Tennyson) ;  Daybreak  ;  The  day  is  done  ;  Fortune  at  her 
Wheel ;  Fandango ;  The  First  Kiss ;  Fairy  and  the  Flowers ;  Flowers,  sweet 
flowers ;  Good  night,  beloved  ;  The  Green  trees  whispered  ;  Hidden  voices  ;  Long 
ago  ;  Once  more  ;  That  last  light  of  sundown  ;  The  Lonely  Rose  ;  The  joy  of 
Tears  ;  I'd  rather  be  a  Village  Maid  ;  Maureen ;  Merry  and  Free  ;  Merry  May ; 
Noble  Foe ;  Sea  hath  its  Pearls ;  Sing,  Maiden,  sing ;  Spirit  of  Light ;  The 
Happiest  Land  ;  Margaretta  ;  Nelly  Grey  ;  The  Power  of  Love  ;  The  Rainy  Day ; 
Scenes  of  Home  ;  Stars  of  the  Summer  Night ;  What  does  little  Birdie  say ;  I  love 
you  ;  Mary  ;  Fresh  as  a  Rose ;  Phoebe  the  Fair  ;  Old  Friends ;  Zillah ;  Killarney  ; 
Defence,  not  Defiance  ;  The  Three  Fishers  ;  Lady  Hildred ;  Maggie's  Ransom ; 
O  let  the  solid  ground ;  Kathleen  Machree ;  Rose  of  the  Heath  ;  The  Evening 
chime  is  sounding.  Vocal  Duets.  New  Universal  Method  of  Singing  without  the 
use  of  Solfeggi,  Lond.,  fo.  n.d.     Miscellaneous  Instrumental  Music. 

If  lovely  melodies,  appropriate  orchestration,  and  good  dramatic  illustration  can 
constitute  a  claim  on  the  sympathies  of  musicians,  Balfe  is  fairly  entitled  to  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  popularity.  Always  rising  to  the  poeiical  level  of  his  book,  and 
palpably  improving  lame  situations,  he  seems  to  have  been  successful  in  his  treat- 
ment of  whatever  fell  to  his  lot.  The  librettos  which  he  set  were  almost  invariably 
puerile  ;  their  poetical  merits  were  commonplace  ;  and  they  abounded  in  unskilfully 
devised  situations.  The  "  Bohemian  Girl,"  his  most  popular,  but  not  most  artistic 
work,  is  a  fair  specimen  of  what  he  could  do  with  absolutely  absurd  poesy.  Wit- 
ness : — 

"  In  the  Gipiy's  life  you  read 
The  life  that  all  would  like  to  lead 
Sometimes  under  roof,  and  sometimes  thrown 
Where  the  wild  wolf  makes  his  lair. 
For  he  who's  no  home  to  call  his  own 
Will  find  a  home  somewhere." 

Shade  of  Dryden !  The  sentiment  of  this  lovely  lyric,  to  say  nothing  of  its  rhythm, 
is  entirely  wrong.  Gipsies  even  in  the  i6th  century  preferred  to  sleep  in  barns. 
The  attraction  of  a  "wild  wolfs  lair"  seems  somewhat  at  variance  with  the  details 
narrated  in  Fielding's  veracious  history  of  "Joseph  Andrews,"  of  the  doings  of 
modern  Egyptians  in  the  last  century.  The  above  rhyme  is  a  very  favourable 
sample  of  the  style  of  libretto  which  not  only  Balfe,  but  Barnett,  Wallace,  and 
Macfarren,  had  to  contend  against.  The  good  music  which  has  been  lavished  on 
the  trash  called  operatic  poetry  warrants  the  assertion  that  English  composers  have 
invariably  raised  their  themes  to  a  height  of  excellence  immeasurably  superior  to 
the  quality  of  their  books.     Sufficient  allowance  has  rarely  been  made  by  British 

)3aL— Sal  4^ 

■"  - '  - — - '-  - '-  -. — . ■ 

writers  for  the  shortcomings  of  such  librettos,  and  it  remains  a  surprising  fact  that 
they  still  maintain  that  the  musical  faculty  was  denied  native  composers  of  thirty 
odd  years  ago. 

Balfe's  genius  is  exclusively  lyrical,  and  he  is  most  successful  in  those  melodies 
which  colour  and  enforce  passages  of  human  interest.  "The  Bondman,"  "The 
Bohemian  Girl,"  "  The  Talisman,"  "  The  Daughter  of  St.  Mark,"  "  The  Siege  of 
Rochelle,"  and  "  Satanella,"  are  his  finest  creations  ;  and  in  point  of  melody  need 
bow  to  no  other  English  work.  They  are  exquisite  musical  works  when  regarded 
in  their  proper  aspect  as  relaxing  and  amusing  entertainments  for  the  public,  and 
they  should  not  be  judged  or  measured  by  the  absolute  standards  of  more  preten- 
tious works.  Many  of  his  songs  are  still  in  vogue  among  cultivated  musicians,  and 
at  least  two  of  his  operas,  "The  Bohemian  Girl "  and  "The  Rose  of  Castille" 
(on  e  of  his  worst),  are  constantly  being  performed  in  the  English  provinces. 

A.  life  of  Balfe  written  by  C.  L.  Kenny  was  published  in  1876,  and  contains  an 
account  of  his  last  opera,  "II  Talismano,"  written  by  Desmond  Ryan.  In  other 
respects  the  book  is  chiefly  remarkable  for  much  gossipy  writing,  and  a  great 
absence  of  dates.  Mr.  Ryan  seems  to  consider  this  last  work  (II  Talismano)  of  Balfe's 
as  being  quite  superior  in  merit  to  anything  else  he  produced.  Although  a  more 
artistic,  better  elaborated,  and  certainly  more  musicianlike  work  than  any  of  his 
others,  it  does  not  contain  those  elements  of  popularity  which  are  now  required  to 
ensure  success  with  the  public.  French  light  opera  has  made  the  public  adverse  to 
any  melody  not  catchy,  and  although  Balfe  has  shown  himself  in  former  works 
possessed  of  this  virtue  to  a  great  extent,  he  does  not  appear  in  the  present  instance 
to  have  desired  to  sacrifice  his  good  name  to  popularity.  Should  English  Opera 
ever  be  establishe  d  on  a  thoroughly  national  footing,  it  will  be  necessary  to  draw 
largely  on  the  many  works  which  Balfe  has  produced.  Of  those  works,  "The 
Bondman,"  "The  Daughter  of  St.  Mark,"  "The  Siege  of  Rochelle,"  "The 
Talisman,"  and,  of  course,  "The  Bohemian  Girl,"  appear  most  likely  to  prove 
acceptable.  It  would  be  truly  gratifying  to  see  such  operas  mounted  with  all  the 
elaborate  stage  accessories  now  deemed  necessary  for  works  of  even  fourth-rate 
merit.  We  have  formerly  mentioned  his  songs  as  being  possessed  of  many  attractive 
features,  and  would  reproduce  that  statement  with  the  additional  remark  that  they 
seem  to  be  embued  with  considerable  vitality,  despite  many  unfavourable  critiques 
which  greeted  their  original  appearance.  As  a  vocalist  Balfe  was  considered  of  a 
high  order  of  merit,  and  it  has  been  asserted  that  he  was  one  of  the  leading  bary- 
tones of  his  time.  His  acting  was  of  only  medium  quality,  and  was  only  balanced 
by  the  surpassingly  fine  quality  of  his  voice.  He  played  the  violin  in  the  earlier 
part  of  his  career,  but  like  Wallace,  never  attained  to  first-rate  ability. 

Regarded  as  a  whole,  Balfe's  career  seems  romantic  when  read  in  conjunction 
with  the  ordinarily  prosaic  records  of  concerts  and  appointments  which  comprise 
the  general  substance  of  other  musicians'  lives.  The  life  endeavour  of  Balfe  was 
one  great  struggle  to  establish  English  opera  on  a  secure  foundation  ;  and  to  a  small 
degree  he  succeeded.  Since  his  time  there  has  always  existed  a  company  more  or 
less  national  in  character  which  has  been  accepted  by  the  public  as  a  standard  insti- 
tution, and  at  the  present  date  a  warm  and  increasing  interest  is  manifested  in  the 
operatic  productions  of  living  Englishmen, 

BALL  (William).  English  writer  and  adapter,  B.  1784.  D.  London,  May  14, 
Ball  was  the  writer  of  the  English  version  of  Mendelssohn's  "  St.  Paul,"  Rossini's 
"  Stabat  Mater,"  and  several  Masses  by  Mozart,  Haydn,  and  Beethoven,  and 
others.  He  also  contributed  to  the  musical  press,  and  wrote  the  verses  of  many 

BALTZAE   (Thomas).      German  violinist,   B.  Lubeck,    1630.      Appeared  in 
England  in  1656.     Mem.  of  the  King's  private  band,  1663.     D.  [1664J. 
The  best  violinist  of  his  period,  famed  alike  in  England  and  on  the  Continent  for 
the  vigour  and  purity  of  his  style.     Baltzar,  though  unknown  in  general  musical 
history,  was  nevertheless  one  of  the  founders  of  classical  violin-playing. 

BALTZARINI      Italian  violinist  of  i6th  century.     First  came  into  notice  as 
leader  of  the  band  of  Italian  violinists,  brought  from  Piedmont  to  the  Court  of 

46  BAM  —  BAN 

Catharine  cle':vledecis,  by  Marshal  de  Brissac.  He  is  commonly  credited  with 
the  introduction  of  the  Ballet  into  France  ;  the  work  usually  regarded  as  the 
first  being  "Circe,"  produced  in  1581  for  the  nuptials  of  the  Duke  of  Joyeuse 
with  Mdlle.  de  Vaudemont,  sister  ot  Catharine  de'Medecis. 

BAMFOBD  (H.  A.)  English  musician,  author  of  "The  Rudiments  of  the 
Theory  of  Music,  Designed  for  the  use  of  pupil-teachers  and  students  in 
Training  Colleges,"  Manchester,  8vo,  1881. 

BANASTEB  (Gilbert).  English  poet  and  musician  who  flourished  in  latter 
half  of  isth  century.  His  works  are  "The  Miracle  of  Saint  Thomas,"  in 
verse,  contained  in  Stone's  "History  of  the  Monks  of  Christ  Church  (Canter- 
bury) ;"  "The  Story  of  Guiscard  and  Sigismond,"  trans.,  in  verse;  and  numer- 
ous prophecies.  These  latter,  however,  are  said  by  Warton  to  have  emanated 
from  a  William  Bennett. 

Banaster  received  in  1482,  40  marks  yearly  as  ' '  Master  of  the  Song  assigned  to 
teach  the  children  of  the  King's  Chapel."  His  musical  attainments,  spoken  of  as 
great,  are  not  known  beyond  his  contributions  in  the  Fairfax  MS. 

BANCHIEBI  (Adriano).  Italian  comp,  and  writer,  B.  Bologna,  1567.  S. 
under  Guami.  Org.  of  Ch.  of  Imola.  Org.  of  S.  Maria,  Regola.  Org.  of 
Ch.  of  S.  Michael,  Bosco,  near  Bologna,  1603.  D.  1634. 
Works. — Primo  libro  di  Madrigali  a  5  voci,  1593 ;  Tanie  et  Concert!  a  otto 
voci ;  II  primo  libro  di  madrigali  a  3  voci,  1 594 ;  Salutazione  loretane  a  otto  voci, 
1594 ;  Primo  Libro  di  Canzonette  a  quattro  voci,  1595  ;  Secondo  Libro  di  Canzon- 
ette  a  4  voci,  1595  ;  Terzo  libro  di  Canzonette  a  4  voci,  1596 ;  II  quarto  libro  di 
canzonette  a  4  voci,  1597  ;  II  quinto  libro  di  Canzonette  a  4  voci,  1598 ;  La  Pazzia 
senile,  raggionamenti  vaghi  e  dilettevoli,  composti  e  dati  in  luce  colla  musica  a  tre 
voci,  1598;  Salmi  a  quattro  voci,  1598  ;  Missa  Solenne  a  otto  voci,  1599;  Secondo 
libro  di  Madrigali  a  5  voci,  1600 ;  Sinfonie  Ecclesiastiche  ossia  canzoni  fr.mcesi 
per  cantare  et  sonare  a  4  voci,  1601  ;  Terzo  libro  di  Madrigali  a  5  voci,  1602 ; 
Fantasi  e  Canzoni,  1603 ;  Conclusioni  nel  suono  dell'  organo,  novellamente 
tradotte  et  dilucidate  in  scrittori  musici  ed  organisti  celebri,  op.  20,  1609  (second 
edition) ;  Motetti  a  due  voci,  op.  21,  1609  ;  Li  Metamorfosi  musicali,  quarto  libro 
delle  canzonette  a  tre  voci,  1606  ;  Carta  di  Sacre  Lodi  a  4  voci,  1605  ;  L'Organo 
suonarino,  opera  ventesima  quinta,  Venice,  1605  ;  La  Prudenza  Giovenile  (musical 
comedy),  1607.  Cartella  musicale  nel  canto  figurato  (2nd  ed.),  1610;  Concerti 
moderni  a  2  voci,.. .1617  ;  A  number  of  single  masses  and  madrigals;  other  collec- 
tions of  church  music  and  madrigals. 

This  composer,  at  one  time  greatly  admired,  is  now  known  only  to  the  curious 
antiquary.  His  music,  if  melodious  is  also  extremely  learned,  and  on  this  account 
would  not  accord  with  present  tastes.  His  madrigals  are  not  equal  to  those  of  the 
English  school,  nor  is  his  sacred  music,  though  profound,  marked  by  much 
devotional  expression. 

BANCK  (Carl).  German  comp.,  E.  Magdeburg,  1804.  S.  under  Schneider, 
Zelter,  and  Klein.  "Writer  of  Lieder  and  Pf.  music,  of  which  a  number  of 
pieces  are  issued  by  Breitkopf  and  Hartel. 

BANDEBALI  (Davide).  Italian  vocal  instructor,  B.  Palazzo,  Jan.  12,  1789. 
D.  Paris,  June  13,  1849.  Prof,  solfeggi  at  Paris  Cons.  Wrote  songs  and 
vocal  exercises. 

BANISTER  (Henry  Charles).  English  comp.,  pianist,  and  writer,  B.  London, 
June  13,  1831.  Son  of  H.  J.  Banister,  noticed  below.  S.  under  his  father,  origi- 
nally, but  principally  self-taught.  Gained  the  King's  Scholarship  at  R.  A.  M., 
Dec,  1846.  8.  at  the  R.  A.  M.  under  C.  Potter,  Jan.,  1847— Dec,  1848. 
Gained  King's  Scholarship  again,  and  S.  at  the  R.  A.  M.  till  1850.  Assistant 
Prof  of  Harmony  and  Comp.  at  R.  A.  M.,  Jan.,  1S51.  Appointed  Prof,  of 
Harmony  and  Comp.  (full  post)  at  the  R.  A.  M.,  1853,  a  position  which  he 
now  (1885)  holds.  Gave  First  Concert,  Nov,,  1855.  Prof,  of  Harmony  at 
Guildhall  School  of  Music,  London,  1880.  Prof,  of  Harmony  at  the  Royal 
Normal  College  for  the  Blind . 

feAN  —  BAN  4j 

Works. — Op,  i.  Canzonet — Lay  a  garland  on  my  hearse,  1846;  op.  2.  Three 
Bagatelles  for  the  Pf.,  ist  set ;  op.  3.  Canzonet — Go,  you  may  call  it  madness, 
folly;  op.  4.  Three  Bagatelles  for  the  Pf.,  2nd  set ;  op.  5.  Seven  Variations  on  an 
original  air.  Dedicated  to  Cipriani  Potter  ;  op.  6.  Three  Bagatelles  for  the  Pf.,  3rd 
set ;  op.  7.  Sonata  in  F  sharp  minor,  for  Pf.  duet,  produced  1852  ;  op.  8.  Gather  ye 
rosebuds,  part  song ;  op.  9.  Second  air  with  variations  for  Pf.  ;  op.  10.  Trifles  for 
Pf. ;  op.  II.  Tarantella  (No.  i)  in B  flat,  for  Pf. ;  op.  12.  Song— The  Hemlock  Tree; 
op.  13.  Mazurka — Coralie,  for  Pf. ;  op. 14.  Barcarolle — La  Gondoletta,  for  Pf.  ;  op.  15. 
Trio — A  Morning  in  May,  for  female  voices  ;  op.  16.  Three  Songs — Rose  and  Violet, 
Maiden  wrap  thy  Mantle  round  thee,  O  Heart,  my  Heart ;  op.  17.  The  Wind  goes 
by,  sacred  song ;  op.  18.  Capriccietto  for  Pf.  ;  op.  19.  Felice,  ma  non  gajo,  for  Pf.  ; 
op.  20.  Two  Winter  Songs;  op.  2i.  Trio — Summer  Days,  female  voices;  op.  22. 
Good  Wishes,  piece  for  Pf. ;  op.  23.  Song — Bonnie  wee  Thing ;  op.  24.  Song — 
The  Lark  and  the  Nightingale ;  op.  25.  Anthem — O  satisfy  us  early ;  op.  26. 
Souvenirs,  for  Pf.,  composed  for  Miss  C.  E.  Burr  ;  op.  27.  Ricordanza,  for  Pf.  ; 
op.  28.  Low  dies  the  Day,  part  song ;  op.  29.  Farewell,  for  Pf. ;  op.  30.  Part 
song — Hail !  bright  Springtime,  5  voices  ;  op.  31.  Andante  with  Variations  for  Pf. 
duet,  in  F  major ;  op.  32.  Sacred  Song — My  voice  shalt  Thou  hear  in  the  Morn- 
ing ;  op.  33.  Sacred  Song — I  will  lay  me  down  in  peace ;  op.  34.  Allegretto  alia 
Marcia  for  Pf.  35.  Chants :  contained  in  "The  Psalter  and  Canticles,  edited  by  W. 
H.  Monk.  36.  MSS.  Works :  Sonata  in  E,  for  Pf. ;  First  Symphony  in  D,  for  orches- 
tra, 1847;  Second  Symphony  in  E  flat,  for  orchestra,  1848;  First  Quartet  for 
Strings,  in  F  sharp  minor,  1848  ;  First  Overture  in  E  flat,  for  orchestra,  1849 ; 
Third  Symphony  for  orchestra,  in  A  minor,  1850  ;  Second  l?f.  duet,  Sonata,  in  G 
minor,  1850  ;  Second  Quartet  for  Strings,  in  D,  1850 ;  Sacred  Cantata  for  chorus, 
solo  voices  and  orchestra,  April,  1851  ;  Second  Overture — Cymbeline,  July,  1852  ; 
Andante  and  Rondo  for  Pf.  and  orchestra,  in  E  flat,  March,  1852  ;  Third  Overture 
in  E  minor,  for  orchestra,  June,  1852 ;  Fourth  Symphpny  in  A,  for  orchestra, 
April,  1853;  Third  Sonata  for  Pf.  duet,  in  A  flat;  Fourth  Sonata  for  Pf.  duet,  in 
A  minor ;  Capriccio  in  A  minor,  for  Pf.  and  orchestra ;  Fourth  Overture — The 
Serenade,  in  E,  for  orchestra;  Fantasia  in  D,  for  Pf.  and  orch..  Musical  Soc,  1863  ; 
Intermezzo  in  E,  for  orch.,  Alexandra  Palace,  1875  ;  Fifth  Overture — From  Sorrow 
to  Joy,  in  B  flat,  1876;  Sonatas  for  Pf.  in  B  flat,  F  sharp  minor  (*),  F  minor,  F 
sharp  minor  (•>) ;  Fantasia  in  F  minor,  for  Pf.,  1874;  String  Quartet  in  E.  minor  ; 
Cantata — The  Sea  Fairies,  words  by  Tennyson,  for  female  voices  and  orch., 
R.A.M.,  1861  ;  Cantata — The  Maiden's  Holiday,  for  female  voices  (composed  for 
private  choir  of  Madame  Bassano).  37.  Text-book  of  Music,  London,  Dec,  1872, 
i2mo,  and  other  editions.     Numerous  Songs,  Part-Songs,  etc. 

Number  37  of  the  foregoing  list  is  perhaps  that  work  by  which  Mr.  Banister  is 
most  widely  known.  The  neat,  clear,  and  concise  language  in  which  it  is  written, 
makes  it  a  refreshing  and  agreeable  study  for  musical  students.  The  fact  that  an 
eleventh  edition  has  been  called  for  is  a  sufficient  witness  to  its  importance  and 
widespread  popularity  among  musicians.  Mr.  Banister  has  likewise  lectured  on 
"Some  of  the  underlying  principles  of  Structure  in  Musical  Composition,"  before 
the  Musical  Association  of  London ;  a  subject  on  which  he  is  an  eminent  authority  ; 
and  on  "Some  Musical  Ethics  and  Analogies,"  published  London,  1884,  i2mo. 

BANISTER  (Henry  Joshua).  English  violoncellist,  father  of  above,  B. 
London,  1803.  D.  London,  1847.  Wrote  a  work  entitled  "  Domestic  music 
for  the  wealthy ;  or  a  Plea  for  the  Art  and  its  Progress,"  London,  8vo,  1843. 
Banister  was  one  of  the  best  of  English  instrumentalists,  and  played  violon- 
cello at  many  of  the  principal  concerts.  He  published  the  "  Tutor's  Assistant 
for  the  Violoncello  ;"  "Lessons  on  Double-notes"  (cello)  ;  and  "Exercises  on 
the  use  of  the  Thumb."  His  father,  Charles  William  [1768-1831],  was  a 
comp.,  and  published  a  "Collection  of  Vocal  Music,"  London  [1803],  hymns, 
songs,  etc, 

BANISTER  (Jollll).  English  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  London,  1630.  Sent  by 
Charles  II.  to  France,  where  he  studied  the  violin.  Returned  to  England  and 
became  leader  of  the  King's  band.  Established  and  carried  on  concerts  in  the 
"Musick  School,"  Whitefriars,  1672-78.  Dismissed  from  the  King's  band 
for  upholding  the  superiority  of  English  over  French  violin-players.  D. 
London,  Oct.,  1679. 

48  BAN  —  BAP 

Works. — Music  for  Sir  William  Davenant's  "Circe"  (with  P.  Humphrey), 
1676.  Music  for  Shakespeare's  "Tempest,"  1676.  Songs.  New  Ayres  and 
Dialogues  composed  for  voices  and  viols  of  two,  three,  and  four  parts,  Lond.,  1678 
(with  Thomas  Low).     Lessons  for  viols  or  violins,  etc. 

Banister's  songs  are  good  specimens  of  vocal  writing,  and  are  thoroughly  English 
in  style.  He  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  capable  performers  on  the  violin 
living  in  the  17th  century  in  England,  and  was  evidently  bold  in  his  expressions  of 
opinion,  when  he  could  uphold,  in  the  face  of  a  royal  patron,  the  superior  powers 
of  his  countrymen  as  violinists. 

BANISTER  (John,  Junior).  English  violinist,  son  of  above,  one  of  the  musi- 
cians in  the  private  bands  of  Charles  IL,  James  IL,  and  Anne.  Principal 
violinist  at  the  Italian  opera,  London. 

BANKS   (Benjamin).      English   violin-maker,   B.   Salisbury,  July  14,    1727. 
Worked  chiefly  at  Salisbury.     D.  Salisbury,  Feb.  18,  1795. 
This  maker,  who  is  one  of  the  greatest  among  the  English,  copied  Amati,  and 
produced  violins,  violas,  and  'cellos  of  very  fine  quality  and  good  tone.     These 
instruments  are  now  rare,  and  command  good  prices. 

BANKS  (James  and  Henry).  Sons  of  the  above,  worked  together  and  pro- 
duced many  fine  instruments.  Benjamin  Banks,  junior  (1754-1818)  worked 
with  his  father,  and  produced  a  number  of  fair  copies  of  Amati.  The  general 
characteristics  of  the  work  of  Banks'  family  are  pure,  sweet  tone  ;  pale  yellow 
colouring ;  high  Amati  model ;  and  general  excellent  finish. 

BANNISTER  (Charles),  English  comp.  and  vocalist,  B.  Gloucestershire, 
1760.  Joined  travelling  theatrical  company  as  actor,  and  played  "  Romeo," 
"Richard,"  etc.,  1778.  Appeared  in  London  as  actor  in  Foote's  "The 
Orators."  Sang  at  Ranelagh  and  Mary-le-bone  Gardens.  Sang  at  the 
"  Royalty,"  London,  and  in  the  English  provinces.  D.  Loud.,  Oct.,  1804. 
Bannister  was  a  fair  actor  and  a  better  vocalist,  excelling  in  buffo  pieces.     His 

imitations  of  Champness,  Tenducci,  and  other  vocalists  were  at  one  period  features 

in  the  entertainments  at  which  he  appeared.     Shield  composed  for  him  "The 


BANTI  (Brigitta  Giorgi).  Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Crema,  Lombardy, 
1759.  Appeared  in  London,  1779-80,  and  again  in  1799,  as  "Semiramide" 
in  Bianchi's  opera  of  that  name.  This  vocalist  was  originally  a  street  singer, 
and  made  her  dibut  on  the  operatic  stage  at  Paris  in  1779.  D.  Bologna, 
Feb.  18,  1806. 

BANWART  (Jacob).  Swedish  comp.  who  flourished  during  the  17th  century. 
D.  about  1657.     Wrote  music  for  church  and  chamber. 

BAPTIE  (David).     Scottish  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Edinburgh,  Nov.  30,  1822. 

Self-taught  in  music.      Music-seller  in  employment  of  Swan  &  Pentland, 

Glasgow,  etc. 
Works. — Descriptive  Catalogue  of  upwards  of  23,000  Secular  part-songs,  con- 
sisting of  Glees,  Madrigals,  Elegies,  Trios,  Quartets,  etc.  (MS.);  commenced 
about  1846.  Harmonium  Tune  Book,  1867-68  (edited  with  Wm.  Hume).  Har- 
monium Chant  Book,  1868-69  (do.)  Union  Song-Garland,  1874  (do.)  The 
Scottish  Book  of  Praise  (with  Lambeth),  1876.  Academy  Vocalist  (selected), 
1879.  Richard  Werner's  Hymn  Book  (revised),  1881.  Moody  and  Sankey's 
Hymn  Book,  1881.  Vocal  Composiiions:— Glees  and  Part-songs  (Original) :  A 
rosy  gift  I  twine  for  thee  ;  Evening  (It  is  the  hour) ;  Soft  pity  never  leaves ;  Grati- 
tude (Sweet  is  the  breath)  ;  The  Haaf  Fishers  ;  Jolly  Shepherd  !  ;  The  hour  is  lovely ; 
When  pleasure  sparkles;  Beautiful  Spring;  Breathe  softly,  flutes;  Come  away, 
come  away,  Death  !  ;  Come,  gentle  Peace  ;  Come  to  the  sunset  tree  ! ;  Glide  along, 
our  bonny  boat ;  The  Lark  (Lo !  the  blithesome  lark)  ;  Let  not  dull  sluggish  sleep ; 
May  song  (Beautiful  flow'rs) ;  Morning  (Hark  !  the  lark  begins) ;  Now  the  bright 
morning  star  ;  The  Shepherd's  Holiday  ;  Spring  Morning  (See  !  the  Spring) ;  The 
murmur  of  the  merry  brook  ;  The  sun's  bright  orb  ;  By  dimpled  brook  ;  Call  the 
loves  around ;    Come  from  the  cloud  of  night ! ;    Hark  !  the  speaking  strings ; 

Bap  —  BAk  4^ 

Martilmasse  Day  ;  Soft  thro'  the  woodland  ;  Sweetly,  sweetly  tune  the  Lyre  ;  Wind 
thy  horn,  my  hunter  boy  !  Glees,  hamimized  or  adapted :  Banks  of  the  Yarrow  ; 
Bells  of  Aberdovey ;  Bells  of  St.  Michael's  Tower ;  Down  the  burn,  Davie ; 
Waters  of  Elle  ! ;  Erl-King ;  Fair  Flora  decks  ;  Hark  !  Apollo  strikes  the  Lyre  ! ; 
Hence,  gloomy  care  I ;  Hope  told  a  flatt'ring  tale ;  It  was  a  friar  of  orders  grey ; 
Kelvin  Grove;  Pretty  Fairy!  when  I  view;  Rosabelle  (O  listen,  listen);  Row', 
gently  row  ;  Rule  Britannia  ;  The  Storm  ;  Winds  gently  whisper  ;  The  midges 
dance  aboon  the  burn ;  The  Maid  of  Islay.  Anthems :  Calm  on  the  bosom  of  thy 
God ;  My  soul  truly  waiteth  ;  Sing  aloud  unto  God  ;  The  Prodigal  Son  (I  will  arise) 
adapted;  also,  hymn  tunes,  chants,  school  songs  harmonized,  rounds,  etc.  ;  Hand- 
book of  Musical  Biography.     London,  i2mo,  1883. 

BAPTISTE  (Ludwig  Albert  Friedrich.)  French  comp.,  B.  Attingen, 
Swabia,  Aug.  8,  1700.     D.  Cassel,  1764.     Composer  of  instrumental  music. 

BABBA  (Joze).  Spanish  comp.,  B.  Barcelona,  April  15,  1804.  Writer  of 
church  music.     D.  Barcelona,  1883. 

BABBAJA  (Domenico).  Italian  impresario,  B.  Milan,  1778.  D.  Posilippd, 
Oct.  l5,  1841.  Produced  operas  by  Rossini,  Bellini,  and  Donizetti,  and  brought 
fsrward  a  number  of  famous  vocalists, 

BABBANDT  (Charles).  German  org.  and  comp.,  was  org.  of  Chap,  of  Count 
Haslang,  the  Bavarian  Ambassador,  London,  1764.  Writer  of  symphonies 
for  orchestra,  and  sonatas  for  harpsichord,  etc.  Teacher  of  Samuel  Webbe, 
and  compiler  of  "Sacred  Hymns,  Anthems,  and  Versicles,"... 1766. 

BARBARA  (Pierre  Henri).  French  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Orleans,  April  28, 
1823.     D.  Libourne,  May  9,  1863. 

BABBABiINO  (Bartolomeo).  Italian  comp.  of  motets  and  madrigals,  issued 
during  1609-1617. 

BABBATI  (Aniello).  Italian  professor  and  comp.,  B.  Naples,  Sept.  4,  1S24. 
Writer  of  masses,  operas,  etc. 

BABBEDETTE  (Henry).  French  writer,  B.  1825.  Author  of  works  on 
Beethoven,  Chopin,  Weber,  Schubert,  Mendelssohn,  Heller,  etc.  The  work 
on  Heller  has  been  translated  into  English  by  the  Rev.  R.  Brown-Borthwick. 

BABBEB  (Abraham).  English  comp.  of  this  name  wrote  a  "Book  of  Psalm 
Tunes,  in  four  parts,"  1686;  which  in  1715  had  reached  a  7th  edition. 
Barber  was  a  bookseller  in  Wakefield. 

BARBEBEAU  (Mathurin  Augnste  B.)      French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  Nov.  i.|, 
1799.     S.  at  Paris  Cons,  from  l8lo.     Gained   "Grand  Prix  de  Rome"  (with 
"Agnes  Sorel,"  cantata),  1824.      Leader  at  Th^Stre  des  Nouveautfe,  Paris. 
D.  Paris,  1879. 
Barbereau's  works  consist  of  some  orchestral  pieces  and  a  number  of  vocal  pieces 
of  varying  extent.     He  is  principally  known  in  France  as  a  theorist,  while  in  Eng- 
land he  is  scarcely  known  at  all.     He  travelled  in  Germany  and  Italy  after  gaining 
the  Grand  Prix,  and  while  there,  laid  the  foundation  of  that  profound  theoretical 
knowledge  for  which  he  has  been  made  famous.      His  compositions  are  not  numer- 
ous, and  they  do  not  seem  to  possess  any  of  those  features  which  claim  popularity. 

BABBIEB  (Frederic  Btienne).     French  comp.,  B.  Metz,  Nov.  15,  1829. 
Resided  in  Paris,  where  he  lived  as  teacher  and  leader  at  the  Thesttre  Inter- 
Works. — Operas :  Le  Mariage  de  Colombine ;  Une  Nuit  i  Seville,  1853  ;  Rose  et 
Narcisse,  1855;  Le  Pacha,  1858;  F/ancastor,  1858;  Le  Page  de  Mme.  Malbrough, 
1858  ;  Le  Faux  Faust,  1858  ;  Le  Docteur  Tam-Tam,  1859  ;    Monsieur  Deschalu- 
meaux,  1859  ;  Le  Grand  Roi  d'  Yvetot,  1859  ;  Le  Loup  et  I'Agneau,  1862  ;  Simon 
Terre-Neuve,  1863  ;  Deux  Permissions  de  dix  heures,  1864;  Panne  aux  Airs;  Les 
Amours  d'un  Shah,    1861  ;    Flamberge  au  vent,   1861  ;    Versez,  marquis,   1862 ; 
La  Cigale  et  la  Fourmi,   1862;    La  Gamine  du  Village,  1863;    Les  Trois  Nor- 
mandes,  1863 ;  Achille  cbez  Chiron,  1864 ;  Le  Bouqetiere  de  Trianon,  1864;  Mme. 



Pygmalion,  1865  ;  Un  Congres  de  Modistes,  1865 ;  Une  Femme  qui  a  perdu  sa 
clef,  1866 ;  Gervaise,  1867 ;  Les  Oreilles  de  Midas,  1866 ;  Les  Legendes  de 
Gavarni,  1867  ;  Le  Soldat  malgre  lui,  1868  ;  Mam  'zelle  Pierrot,  1869 ;  Mam  'zelle 
Rose,  1874 ;  Le  Souper  d'  Arlequin.     Ballets,  Duets,  Romances,  etc. 

A  typical  French  composer  of  the  school  of  A.  0.  Adam,  M.  Barbier  has  pro- 
duced a  number  of  light .  operas,  each  with  a  sufficiency  of  evanescence  to  render 
them  acceptable  to  the  Parisian  public.  Their  sparkling  lightness  is  the  only 
recommendation  they  possess. 

BABBIEBiI  (Francisco  A.)  Spanish  comp.  B.  Madrid,  Aug.  3,  1823.  S. 
Madrid  Cons.  Cond.  of  Italian  opera  company.  Mem.  of  numerous  Spanish 
societies,  etc. 

Works. — Operas:  Gloria  y  Peluca,  1850;  Tramoya,  1850;  La  Jacara,  ballet, 
1851  ;  Jugar  con  fuego,  1851  ;  La  Hechicera,  1852;  La  Espada  de  Bernardo, 
1853;  Don  Simplicio  Bobadilla,  1853;  Galanteos  en  Venecia,  1853;  El  Sar- 
gento  Federico,  1855  ;  El  Barberillo  de  Lavapi^s,  1874.  Other  ballets,  operas, 
etc.,  to  the  number  of  Ji.     Instrumental  music  and  songs. 

Barbieri's  operas  have  been  favourably  received,  but  will  not  outlive  their  gifted 

BABBIBrOLLI  (Lorenzo).     Italian  operatic  comp.,  B.  Rovigo,  1813. 

BABCBOFT  (Thomas).  English  comp.  and  org.,  flourished  in  the  i6th  century. 
Org.  of  Ely  Oath.,  1535.  Anthems,  and  a  Te  Deum  and  Benedictus  in  F  are 
contained  in  the  Tudway  MSS.,  British  Museum. 

BABGrlEL  (Woldemar).    German  comp.  and  pianist.     B.  Berlin,  Oct.  3,  1828. 

S.  under  Dehn.     S.  at  Leipzig  Cons.,  1846.     Returned  to  Berlin,  and  resided 

there  as  a  teacher,  1850-59.     Professor  at  Cons,  of  Cologne,  1859-65.     Chap.- 

master  and  musical  director  at  Rotterdam  School  of  Music,  1865-74. 

Works. — Three  Notturnos  for  Pf.,  op.  3 ;   Six  Bagatelles,  do.,  op.  4 ;   Three 

Pantasiestiicke  for  Pf ,  op.  9  ;  Octett  for  4  violins,  2  violas,  and  2  'cellos,  op.  15a; 

Third  Quartet  in  A  minor,  for  strings,  op.  15*  ;    Suite  for  Pf.  and  violin,  op.  17 ; 

Suite  for  Pf.,  op.  21  ;   Drei  Tanze,  for  Pf.  (4  hands),  violin  and  'cello,  op.  24. 

Suite  for  Pf.,  op.  31  ;  Eight  Pianofortestiicke,  op.  32 ;  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  C,  op.  34. 

Third  Trio  in  B  flat  for  strings,  op.  37  ;   Adagio  for  violin  and  Pf.,  op.  38.    6ist 

Psalm,   Hore,   Gott,  mein  geshrei,  for  chorus,  barytone  solo,  and  orch.,  op.  43  ; 

Allemanden,  for  Pf.,  op.  71 ;  A  Symphony  ;  2  Overtures — Medee,  and  Prometheus. 
A  polished  dulness  may  be  said  to  be  the  peculiar  characteristic  of  this  composer's 

works,  which  are  thoroughly  inspired  by  Schumann. 

BABEEB  (Charles  Spackman).    English  organ-builder  and  inventor,  B.  Bath, 

Oct.  10,  1806.      Resided  chiefly  on  the  Continent;   having  failed  to  receive 

encouragement  from  English  organists  in  the  furtherance  of  his  invention.    D. 

Maidstone,  Nov.  26.  1879. 

Barker  invented  the  pneumatic  lever  (which  is  also  claimed  for  David  Hamilton) 

and  electric  action  for  the  organ,  both  of  which,  after  being  worked  by  a  French 

firm,  have  been  adopted  by  all  the  leading  organ-builders. 

BABEEB  (George  Arthur).  English  tenor  vocalist  and  comp.,  B.  1812.  Sang 
in  opera  in  the  English  provinces  and  in  Scotland.  D.  Mar.  2,  1876.  Composed 
a  number  of  popular  songs,  Of  which  the  following  is  a  representative  list : — 
Blossoms  of  Spring  ;  Cease  your  funning ;  Do  not  leave  me ;  Dream  of  life ; 
Emigrant's  child  ;  Eva,  my  darling  ;  Excelsior  ;  Gallant  men  of  old  ;  I  cannot 
smile,  dear  mother ;  I  dream  of  thee ;  I  know  that  we  have  parted ;  Lesson  of 
the  Water  Mill ;  Mary  Blane  ;  My  skiff  is  on  the  shore  ;  O  how  much  more 
doth  beauty ;  Only  me  ;  On  to  conquest ;  Roses  of  Youth  ;  Sands  of  gold  ; 
Soldier's  farewell ;  Song  of  the  silent  land  ;  Take  back  the  ivy  leaf ;  White 
squall.     The  last  named  is  by  far  the  most  popular  of  this  composer's  songs. 

BABEEB  (Laura  Wilson).    See  Taylor  (Mrs.  Tom). 

BABMANN.  German  family  of  instrumentalists,  consisting  of  Heinrich  J. 
(Feb.,  1784-1847);    Karl  (1782-1842);  and  Karl,  son  of  Heinrich  (1820 —). 

bAR  — bAr  §i 

H,  J.  Barman  and  Karl,  his  ton,  were  reckoned  among  the  foremost  clarinet 
players  of  their  time.  Heinrich's  brother,  Karl,  was  a  bassoon  player  of  con- 
siderable ability. 

BARNARD  (Charles).  American  writer,  has  compiled  a  series  of  biographical 
hand-books  entitled  the  "  Tone  Masters."  The  volumes  published  are — "  Bach 
and  Beethoven,"  Boston,  1871  ;  "Handel  and  Haydn,"  do.  ;  and  "Mozart 
and  Mendelssohn,"  1870. 

BARNARD  (Mrs.  Charles)  "  Claribel."  English  song- writer,  B.  1834.  D. 
Dover,  Jan.  30,  1869. 

Works. — Songs:  All  along  the  valley;  Although  the  day;  Answer  to  the 
dream  ;  The  Bell's  whisper ;  Blind  Alice ;  Blue  Ribbon  ;  The  Broken  Sixpence  ; 
The  Brook ;  By  the  blue  Alsatian  mountains ;  Children's  voices ;  Come  back  to 
Erin  ;  Do  you  remember  ? ;  Dreamland ;  The  dressmaker's  thrush ;  Drifting  ;  Fare- 
well to  Erin  ;  Far  away  in  bonnie  Scotland ;  Five  o'clock  in  the  morning ;  Friends 
for  ever  ;  Friendship  and  love ;  Golden  days  ;  Half-mast  high  ;  Hidden  voices  ; 
Hope  ;  Hussar's  parting  ;  I  cannot  sing  the  old  songs ;  I  leaned  out  of  the  window  ; 
I  remember  it ;  Jamie  ;  Janet's  bridal ;  Janet's  choice ;  Kathleen's  answer  ;  The 
life-boat ;  Little  bird  on  the  green  tree ;  Lowland  Mary  ;  Maggie's  secret ;  Maggie's 
welcome  ;  Milly's  Faith  ;  My  brilliant  and  I ;  Norah's  treasure  ;  The  old  house  on 
the  hill ;  Only  a  year  ago  ;  Out  at  Sea  ;  Riding  thro'  the  Broom  ;  The  Sailor  Boy ; 
Silver  Chimes  ;  Spring-time  ;  Susan's  story  ;  Tell  it  not ;  Through  the  Jessamine  ; 
Walter's  wooing  ;  When  I  was  young  and  fair  ;  Won't  you  tell  me  why,  Bobin  ? 
Vocal  duets,  trios,  quartets.    Pianoforte  pieces,  etc. 

The  vride-spread  popularity  of  the  majority  of  the  songs  above  noted,  was  princi- 
pally due  to  the  homely  events  which  they  were  intended  to  illustrate,  and  the  pretty 
and  extremely  vocal  melodies  to  which  they  were  set.  It  is  a  mistake  to  suppose 
that  the  popularity  of  these  effusions  was  due  to  bad  taste  on  the  part  of  the  public, 
for  the  truth  of  the  matter  is  that  the  people  prefer  songs  which  contain  an  element 
of  humanity,  however  distorted,  and  of  necessity  must  accept  the  efforts  of  those 
who  will  deign  to  write  to  their  level.  Great  composers,  as  a  rule,  do  not  strive  to 
elevate  the  taste  of  the  people  by  first  writing  music  easy  of  comprehension  and 
afterwards  raising  the  tone  of  their  efforts,  but  uniformly  confine  themselves  to  the 
production  of  works  calculated  to  please  the  learned.  The  songs  of  Mrs.  Barnard 
lay  no  claim  to  be  considered  works  of  art,  but  they  are  certainly  healthy  and  fairly 

BARNARD  (Rev.  John).  English  divine,  published  a  "  Book  of  Psalms, 
together  with  Fifty  Tunes  to  sing  them,  neatly  engraven  on  copper-plates." 
1727.  Also  "A  New  Version  of  the  Psalms  of  David,  fitted  to  the  Tunes  used 
in  the  Churches."    Boston  (U.S.A.),  1752,  i2mo. 

BARNARD  (Rev.  John).  English  divine,  lived  during  the  i6th  and  17th  cen- 
turies. Minor-canon  of  St.  Paul's  Cath.,  temp.  Charles  I. 
Barnard  is  famed  as  having  been  the  first  to  issue  a  collection  of  cathedral  music. 
His  collection  of  "Cathedral  Music"  appeared  in  1641,  and  contains  services, 
anthems,  etc.,  by  Tallis,  Gibbons,  Mundy  (W.),  Parsons,  Bird,  Morley,  Tye,  Bull, 
etc.  The  only  perfect  copy  of  this  work  is  contained  m  the  library  of  Hereford 
Cathedral.  The  title  of  this  most  valuable  work  is,  "  The  First  Book  of  Selected 
Church  Music,  consisting  of  Services  and  Anthems,  such  as  are  now  used  in  the 
cathedral  and  collegiate  churches  of  this  kingdom ;  never  before  printed,  whereby 
such  Books  as  were  heretofore,  with  much  difficulty  and  charges,  transcribed  for 
the  use  of  the  Quire,  are  now,  to  the  saving  of  much  Labour  and  Expense,  published 
for  the  general  good  of  all  such  as  shall  desire  them  either  for  public  or  private 
exercise.     Collected  out  of  divers  approved  Authors,  1641." 

BARNBECE  (Friedrich).  German  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Westfalisch- 
Minden,  Nov.  17,  1807.     Writer  of  lieder,  violin  and  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BARNBY  (Joseph).  English  comp.,  org.,  and  cond.,  B.  York,  Aug  12,  1838. 
Chor.  in  York  Minster.  S.  at  R.A.M.,  London.  Org;,  of  S  Andrews  Ch., 
Wells  Street,  London,  1863-71.  Precentor  and  Choir-inaster,  S.  Annes, 
Soho,  1871  ;  Precentor  and  director  of  musical  instruction  of  Eton  Coll.,  I»7S, 

^i  BAR  —  BAli 

Cond.  of  Barnby's  Choir,  the  Oratorio  Concerts,  London  Musical  Soc,  and 
the  Royal  Albert  Hall  Choral  Soc. 
Works.— Rebekah,  a  Sacred  Idyll,  written  by  Arthur  Matthison;  The  Lord  is 
King,  for  soli,  chor.  and  orch.,  Leeds  Festival,  1883.  Service  in  E  ;  The  Offertory 
Sentences  ;  Canticles  in  Chant  form  ;  Te  Deum  in  B  flat  (unison)  ;  Te  Deum  in  D 
(unison)  ;  Benedictus  in  E  ;  Magnificat  and  Nunc  dimittis  in  D  ;  Service  (2nd) 
in  E  ;  Original  Tunes  to  Popular  Hymns,  for  use  in  Church  and  Home  (142  num- 
bers). Anthems:  As  wre  have  borne  the  image  of  the  earthy  ;  Behold,  I  bring  you 
good  tidings  ;  Come,  ye  blessed  ;  Drop  down,  ye  heavens  ;  Grant  to  us,  Lord,  we 
beseech  Thee  ;  Have  mercy  upon  me  ;  I  bow  my  knee  ;  I  will  give  thanks  unto 
Thee,  O  Lord  ;  I  will  lift  up  mine  eyes  ;  It  is  a  good  thing  to  give  thanks  ;  It  is 
high  time  to  awake  out  of  sleep  ;  Let  the  words  of  my  mouth  ;  Let  Thy  merciful 
kindness  ;  Let  your  light  so  shine  ;  Make  me  a  clean  heart,  0  God  ;  Not  unto  us, 
O  Lord  ;  O  Father  blest.  Thy  name  we  sing  ;  O  how  amiable  are  Thy  dwel- 
lings ;  O  Lord  God,  to  whom  vengeance  belongeth  ;  O  Lord,  how  manifold  ;  O 
praise  the  Lord  ;  O  risen  Lord  ;  Sing  and  Rejoice  ;  Sweet  is  Thy  mercy  ;  The 
Grace  of  God  that  bringeth  salvation ;  Thy  mercy,  O  Lord ;  King  All  Glorious, 
motet  for  Ascension  day,  for  chorus,  organ,  and  orch.  Part-songs :  Home  they 
brought  her  warrior  dead;  It  was  a  lover  (madrigal)  Norwich  Fest.,  1884;  Lullaby, 
a  Cradle  Song ;  Sleep,  the  bird  is  in  its  nest ;  Luna ;  Phoebus  ;  Carmen  Etonense  ; 
Annie  Lee  ;  A  wife's  song  ;  Starry  crowns  of  heaven  ;  The  Skylark  ;  The  wind  ; 
Sweet  and  low  ;  To  daffodils  ;  Welcome ;  Silent  night.  Songs :  Daybreak  ;  Forget 
me  not ;  How  fades  the  light ;  I  sit  alone  ;  In  spring-time  ;  Light ;  My  golden 
ship  ;  My  summer-time .  The  rainy  day  ;  The  rose  and  the  nightingale  ;  The 
wrecked  hope  ;  The  Bells  of  St.  Ethelred  ;  Thou  whom  my  heart  adoreth  ;  Vesper 
Music  ;  When  the  tide  comes  in  ;  Beggar  Maid  (in  Casins'  "Songs  from  the  pub- 
lished writings  of  Alfred  Tennyson  ").     Organ  Music.     Hymns,  etc. 

Mr.  Barnby  is  one  of  the  ablest  conductors  of  vocal  music  now  living.  •  With  Mr.  H. 
Leslie  he  shares  the  honour  of  being  the  most  successful  cultivator  of  choral  music  ; 
and  like  him,  his  choir  is  of  universal  renown.  He  was  the  first  to  introduce  the 
modern  orchestra  into  the  church,  by  conducting  Bach's  "  Matthew  "  Passion  music 
in  Westminster  Abbey.  To  him  also  belongs  the  merit  of  having  introduced  more 
new  and  great  works  to  the  English  public  than  any  other  musician.  Among  such  may 
be  named  Dvoraks  "Stabat  Mater,"  and  Wagner's  "Parsifal."  As  a  composer  of  con- 
certed vocal  music  Barnby  is  highly  esteemed,  his  lovely  part-song  "Sweet  and  Low  " 
being  a  favourite  throughout  Europe  and  America.  Of  his  larger  work,  "Rebekah," 
it  is  impossible  to  speak  in  terms  of  unqualified  praise  ;  for  despite  numerous  good 
points,  the  work  is  marred  by  a  laborious  manner.  Mr.  Barnby  is  connected  with 
the, publishing  house  of  Novello  &  Co.,  for  whom  he  has  edited  many  works.  He 
has  also  contributed  to  periodical  musical  literature.  Of  his  powers  as  an 
organist  it  is  unnecessary  to  speak,  his  capabilities  in  the  art  being  universally 
recognised.  His  church  music  is  well  represented  in  the  services  of  the  principal 
churches  and  cathedrals,  and  is  highly  deserving  of  the  notice  bestowed  on  it. 

BARNES  (Frederick  Edwin).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  London,  1858. 
S.  under  Helmore  in  Chap.  Roy.  S.  at  the  R.A.M.  from  1872.  Org.  of  All 
Saints'  Ch.,  Norfolk  Square,  London,  1872.  Org.  of  S.  Margaret's  Ch., 
Prince's  Squaire,  Liverpool,  1876.  Org.  of  the  Oath,  of  Montreal,  Canada, 
1878-9.  Assistant  org.  at  Trinity  Ch.,  New  York.  Cond.  of  Montreal  Phil- 
harmonic Soc.  Married  to  Miss  Leonora  Braham.  D.  Septi.  21,  1880. 
Works.— An  opera,  libretto  by  Mrs.  G.  L.  Craik  (MS.)  ;  An  Operetta  (German 

Reed) ;  The  23rd  Psalm  for  solo  voices,  chorus  and  orch. ;  Songs  ;  Organ  and  Pf. 

music,  etc. 

BARNES  (Robert).  English  violin-maker,  flourished  towards  the  end  of  the 
18th  century.  He  worked  with  Norris,  and  Thomas  Smith  in  London.  His 
violins  are  of  average  merit,  but  their  fame  is  very  obscure. 

BARNETT  (John).  English  comp.,  B.  Bedford,  July  15,  1802.  Articled  to  S.  J. 
Arnold,  proprietor  of  the  Lyceum  Theatre.  S.  under  C.  E.  Horn,  Price,  and 
Ries.  Married  Miss  Lindley,  daughter  of  the  violoncello  player,  1837.  S. 
Vogler's  system  of  harmony  at  Frankfort  under  Schnyder  von  Wartensee. 
R,eturned  to  London,  1838,     Opened  S.  James'  Theatre  for  English  opera, 

BAR  —  BAR  S3 

1839,  Retired  to  Cheltenham,  where  he  established  himself  as  a  vocal  teacher, 
1841.  _  Resided  in  Leipzig  and  in  Italy  for  a  short  time,  superintending  the 
education  of  his  ckildren.  Has  since  remained  at  Cheltenham. 
Works. — Operettas  and  Operas :  Before  Breakfast,  a  Musical  Farce,  written  by 
Richard  Peake,  Lyceum,  1828;  Music  in  Miss  Mitford's  "Rienzi,"  Drury  Lane, 
1828 ;  Monsieur  Mallet,  operetta,  written  by  Thomas  Moncrieff,  Adelphi  Theatre, 
1828 ;  The  Two  Seconds,  operetta,  written  by  R.  Peake,  Lyceum,  1829  ;  Carnival 
at  Naples,  opera,  Covent  Garden,  1830  ;  Robert  the  Devil,  musical  drama,  Covent 
Garden,  1830 ;  The  Picturesque,  operetta,  written  by  Thomas  Haynes  Bayley, 
Lyceum,  1830;  Baron  Trenck,  operetta,  written  by  T.  Morton,  sen.,  destroyed  in 
the  fire  at  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  1830;  Country  Quarters,  musical  farce,  Covent 
Garden,  1S31  ;  Court  of  Queen's  Bench,  operetta,  Olympic  Theatre  (Vestris),  1832 ; 
The  Paphian  Bower,  operetta,  written  by  Planche  and  C.  Dance,  Olympic  Theatre, 
Dec,  1832;  Harlequin  Pat,  operetta,  Covent  Garden,  1832;  Married  Lovers, 
musical  farce,  Lyceum,  1832;  Promotion,  musical  farce,  Lyceum,  1833;  Pet  of  the 
Petticoats,  operetta,  Sadler's  Well,  Aug.,  1832  ;  Win  Her  and  Wear  Her,  opera, 
Drury  Lane,  Dec,  1832  ;  The  Soldier's  Widow,  musical  drama,  written  by  E. 
Fitzball,  English  opera  company,  Adelphi,  1833  ;  Two  songs  and  a  march  in  "  Nell 
Gwynne,"  Covent  Garden,  1833;  Song  in  Planche's  "Charles  the  Twelfth," 
Drury  Lane,  1833  ;  The  Deuce  is  in  her,  operetta,  1833;  Olympic  Revels,  1833; 
Blanche  of  Jersey,  1834;  The  Mountain  Sylph,  opera,  written  by  Thackwray, 
Lyceum,  Aug.  25,  1834 ;  Fair  Rosamond,  opera,  written  by  C.  Z.  Barnett,  Drury 
Lane,  March  30,  1837  ;  Farinelli,  opera,  written  by  C.  Z.  Barnett,  Drury  Lane, 
Feb.  8,  1837  ;  Kathleen,  opera  (never  produced),  composed  in  1840;  Marie,  opera, 
composed  in  1845  (unfinished).  Oratorios:  The  Omnipresence  of  the  Deity,  pub- 
lished in  1829  (never  performed)  ;  Daniel,  unfinished,  composed  in  1841.  A  Sym- 
phony, unfinished,  composed  in  1840;  Two  string  quartets,  MS.,  composed  in 
1840.  Twelve  Russian  Melodies,  with  words  by  Harry  Stoe  van  Dyk,  Goulding 
[1822];  Six  Bohemian  Melodies,  with  words  by  Sir  (then  Mr.)  John  Bowring, 
London,  1824 ;  Twenty-four  songs  in  imitation  of  the  music  of  various  nations, 
with  words  by  Van  Dyk,  Leon  Lee,  and  Mayhew,  1824;  Twelve  Songs  from  Fairy 
Land,  written  by  Thomas  Haynes  Bayley,  Cramer  &  Co.,  1827  ;  Lyric  Illustrations 
nf  the  Modern  Poets,  1834,  Reprinted  in  1877.  School  for  the  Voice,  a  Theoretical 
and  Practical  Treatise  on  Singing.  Lond.,  fo.  [i860],  since  reprinted  several  times. 
Twelve  Part-songs,  mostly  published  in  1870;  Chamber  Madrigals,  London,  i86j. 
A  selection  from  Mr.  Bametfs  Concerted  vocal  pieces  and  Songs  which  have  been 
published,  the  total  number  of  such  works  being  about  2000,  issued  between  18  16  and 
1880— Part-songs:  It  is  summer,  it  is  summer;  Bend  down  from  thy  chariot; 
Haste  not ;  Farewell  to  the  Flowers  ;  Tic-tac  of  the  mill ;  Dear  peaceful  valley ; 
Evening  drum ;  Merrily,  merrily  sounds  the  horn ;  In  the  merry  greenwood ; 
Wrong  not,  sweet  mistress  (madrigal)  ;  Chamois  Hunter ;  O  Lord,  our  governor. 
Duets :  A  smile,  a  tear  ;  A  spring  song ;  Come  where  the  flowers  are  blooming  ; 
Dear  maid,  my  heart  is  thine ;  Down  in  the  dell ;  The  Gleaner's  Bell ;  Good 
night ;  The  Hungarian  to  his  bride  ;  I'll  follow  thee  ;  Moonlight,  music,  love,  and 
flowers  ;  My  gondola  glides  ;  No  more,  no  more  ;  Oh  !  give  to  me  ;  Oh !  'tis  sweet 
to  meet  again  ;  Spring  ;  The  twilight  hour ;  There's  not  a  breeze  ;  When  at  night; 
Where  are  the  mountains  ;  Wilt  thou  tempt  the  wave  ?  Songs :  Adieu  to  thee,  fair 
Rhine ;  Ask  me  no  more ;  A  day-dream  ;  Banks  of  Brooms-groVe ;  Break,  break, 
break  ;  Bride's  farewell ;  Chase  the  falling  tear ;  Clansman's  bride ;  Come  to  me, 
thou  gentle  child  ;  Dear  Napoli ;  Days  of  Chivalry ;  Days  that  ne'er  return  ; 
Flower  of  my  life  ;  Fill  up  the  wine-cup  ;  Flowers  of  summer  ;  Go,  thou  art  free ; 
Highlander's  bride  ;  Her  heart  is  mine  ;  Highland  soldier  ;  Highland  mmstrel 
boy ;  Hark,  the  fairy  bells ;  Hope  for  the  best  ;  Here's  a  health  to  merry  England; 
The  Holly  ;  Hark,  hark  to  the  sound ;  I  have  been  to  the  woods  ;  Is  the  reign  of 
fancy  over?;  Knight  of  the  golden  crest;  Light  Guitar;  Light  of  heart  am  I ; 
Lord,  I  believe ;  List  to  my  wild  guitar ;  My  home  beside  the  Quadalquiver ; 
Minstrel's  lament ;  Mermaid's  song ;  Maid  of  Athens  ;  My  native  land,  good 
night ;  Maiden  of  Sicily  ;  Now  the  lamp  of  day  has  fled  ;  Normandy  maid  ;  Rock 
me  to  sleep  ;  Rose  of  Lucerne,  1823  ;  Rise,  gentle  moon  ;  Swiss  shepherd  ;  Sing, 
nightingale,  sing  ;  Sailor  boy's  song ;  Spirit  of  love  ;  There  sits  a  lovely  maid  ; 
The  opal  ring;  The  ship  ;  Vesper  hour;  Up  to  the  Forest ;  Village  bells ;  Young 
moss  rose  ;  V'ear's  last  hours.     Systems  and  Singing  Masters,  a  Comment  upon  the 

$4  BAR  — BAR 

Wilhem  System  and  Remarks  upon  Mr.   J.  HuUah's  Manual.      Lond.,   1842, 
another  edition,  1877. 

Barnett,  like  Balfe,  made  one  great  effort  to  establish  English  opera  on  a  firm 
footing.  He  sought  to  make  it  independent  of  the  jealousies  of  artists,  and  the 
hostility  of  the  press  which  had  all  along  shown  little  favour  for  works  not 
of  foreign  origin ;  and,  but  for  one  unfortunate  circumstance,  would  have 
succeeded.  Here  follows  his  account  of  the  matter  : — "  In  1833  both  Drury  Lane 
and  Covent  Garden  Theatres  were  only  opened  for  the  performance  of  German  and 
Italian  operas  ;  at  the  other  theatres  comedies  and  farces  were  done ;  consequently 
there  was  at  that  period  no  field  for  English  composers.  I  published  a  letter  in 
The  Times  setting  forth  the  situation.  My  letter  was  approved  of,  and  read  in 
Green  Rooms  of  theatres,  and  amongst  musicians.  I  called  together  the  chief 
coinposers  of  the  day,  Sir  Henry  Bishop  (then  Mr.  Bishop),  Mr.  Rodwell,  and  others, 
to  consult  as  to  the  best  means  of  establishing  an  English  Opera  House  :  nothing, 
however,  waa  found  practicable.  I  was  on  intimate  terms  at  that  period  with  Capt. 
Arbuthnot — one  of  King  William  the  Fourth's  Geotlemen-in-waiting  :  he  had  the 
ear  of  the  King,  who  was  very  partial  to  him.  He  promised  to  present  a  memorial 
from  me  to  the  King,  asking  for  a  patent  for  English  Opera.  The  memorial  was 
presented,  and  the  King  promised  to  grant  me  the  patent,  when  shortly  after,  he 
died — and  there  was  an  end  of  my  hopes."  Had  Mr.  Barnett  effected  his  purpose, 
English  opera  would  no  doubt  have  been  enriched  by  many  contributions  from  his 
pen,  as  well  as  by  the  works  of  other  composers,  whom  he  would  have  been  enabled 
to  encourage  and  bring  before  the  public. 

Previous  to  the  production  of  the  "Mountain  Sylph  "  there  had  not  been  brought 
out  in  Britain  any  work  written  in  strict  opera  form.  The  so-called  operas  of 
Bishop,  Kelly,  Braham,  King,  Shield,  and  others,  were  nothing  more  or  less  than 
plays  interspersed  with  songs  and  concerted  pieces,  and  occasionally  garnished  with 
instrumental  pieces  in  the  form  of  overtures  and  pantomine  music.  Barnett  had 
long  considered  this  point,  and  in  1834  brought  out  the  first  English  opera  which 
was  modelled  on  the  accepted  operatic  form  current  among  great  continental  writers 
like  Weber,  and  which  was  accordingly  the  archetype  and  precursor  of  modern 
English  opera.  This  work  was  received  with  much  enthusiasm,  and  had  a  succes- 
sive run  of  upwards  of  one  hundred  nights  ;  and  on  it  are  modelled  the  more  recent 
works  of  Balfe,  Wallace,  and  their  followers.  This  work,  produced  at  a  period 
when  English  operatic  music  was  at  its  lowest  ebb,  is  an  honour  to  its  composer, 
and  remains  to  this  day  one  of  the  freshest  and  most  genuinely-inspired  English 
works  of  its  class. 

His  four  operas  are  among  those  which  will  doubtless  form  part  of  the 
repertory  of  future  English  opera  companies ;  granted  that  such  companies  are 
managed  with  a  regard  to  the  interests  of  native  composers.  "  The  Mountain 
Sylph,"  "FarineUi,"  and  "Fair  Rosamond,"  are  works  which  would  dis- 
credit no  composer  or  school ;  being,  as  they  are,  creations  of  great  beauty,  finish, 
and  dramatic  power;  abounding  in  melodies  of  exquisite  sweetness  and  lofty  fancy; 
rich  and  compact  harmonies  ;  and  instrumentation  of  a  skilful  and  appropriate  con- 
trivance. Many  of  his  songs  have  acquired  great  popularity  owing  to  their  pleasing 
and  fanciful  character.  His  "  Lyrical  Illustrations  of  the  Modern  Poets  "—origin- 
ally published  in  1834 — when  reprinted  in  1877,  received  such  commendations  from 
the  press  as  clearly  demonstrated  their  intrinsic  value  as  works  of  art ;  at  the  same 
time  showing  that  revivification  is  only  necessary  to  make  his  works  widely  appre- 
ciated. Mr.  Barnett's  retirement  from  active  life  was  due  to  the  disgust  he  con- 
ceived at  the  ' '  intrigues  of  all  connected  with  theatres, "  and  a  desire  for  relaxation 
from  I  he  fatiguing  excitements  attending  his  appearance  before  the  public.  He  was 
frequently  called  by  the  press  to  return,  but  his  beautiful  home  at  Lickhampton 
Hill  possessed  for  him  the  united  charms  of  rural  quietness  and  natural  beauties, 
which  were  sufficiently  binding  to  render  a  return  to  the  bustling  life  of  a  public 
composer  most  undesirable.  We  must,  however,  express  regret  that  Mr.  Barnett 
should  not  have  consented  to  the  production  of  his  MS.  opera,  "Kathleen,"  which, 
according  to  Mr.  C.  Salaman,  is  a  work  of  the  greatest  beauty.  The  members  of 
Mr.  Barnett's  family  are  all  musically  inclined,  his  eldest  son  being  chief  pianoforte- 
teacher  at  the  Lady's  College,  Cheltenham,  and  his  two  daughters  singers  of  much 
ability.  Miss  Clara  Barnett,  who  married  an  American  barrister  of  distinction,  a 
friend  of  the  poet  Longfellow,  was  a  meniber  of  the  "  Carl  Rosa  "  opera  company 

BAR  —  BAR  55 

during  its  visit  to  America.      His  eldest  daughter  is  married  to  Mr.  Robert 
Francillon  the  well-known  novelist. 

Barnett's  works  are  among  the  finest  examples  of  English  opera,  and  the  public 
only  require  to  be  made  cognizant  with  the  fact  to  fully  endorse  it.  The  Press  of 
late  years  have  manfully  asserted  the  right  of  Englishmen  to  obtain  a  hearing,  and 
we  trust  that  their  efforts  will  be  terminated  in  a  manner  as  speedily  to  bring  the 
best  English  works  to  the  front.  Charity  begins  at  home,  and  Englishmen  must  be 
illiberal,  narrow-minded,  and  insular  with  regard  to  everything  springing  from  an 
exotic  source,  till  her  own  musical  institutions  are  firmly  established. 

BARNETT  (Jollll  Francis).    Nephew  of  the  preceding,  English  comp.  and 
pianist,  B.  London,  Oct.  i6,  1837.     Commenced  study  of  the  pianoforte,  1843. 
S.  under  Dr.  Wylde,  1849.    Gained  Queen's  scholarship  at  the  R.A.M.,  1850. 
Gained  it  again,  1852.    First  appeared  as  pianist.  New  Philharmonic  Concerts, 
1851.      S.    at   Leipzig  under  Hauptmann,    Rietz,    Plaidy,   and  Moscheles, 
1856-1859.      Returned  to   London,   1859.      Appeared  at  the   Philharmonic 
Society's  Concerts,  i86i.     Cond.  the  performance  of  "The  Good  Shepherd," 
cantata,   at  Brighton  Musical  Festival,   1876.      Do.    "  The  Building  of  the 
Ship,"  cantata,  at  Leeds  Festival,  Oct.,   1880.     Prof,  at  Royal  College  of 
Music,  1883. 
Works. — The  Raising  of  Lazarus,  an  oratorio,  Hereford,  1876  ;   The  Ancient 
Mariner,  a  cantata,  Birmingham,  1867  ;  Paradise  and  the  Peri,  cantata,  Birming- 
ham, 1870 ;  The  Good  Shepherd,  a  sacred  cantata,  Brighton,  1876 ;  The  Building 
of  the  Ship  (Longfellow),  a  cantata,  Leeds,  Oct.,  1880.     The  Lay  of  the  Last 
Minstrel,  orchestral  work,  Liverpool  Festival,  1874 ;   Symphony  in  A  minor,  for 
orchestra,  Musical  Society,  1864;   Ouverture  Symphonique,  1868  (MS.),  Philhar- 
monic Soc.  ;   Overture  to  Shakespeare's   "Winter's  Tale,"  1873  (MS.),  British 
Orchestral  Soc.  ;  Concerto  in  D  minor,  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  1868  ;  String  Quartet 
in  D  minor ;  Trio  in  C  minor,  for  Pianoforte,  vn.,  and  'cello  (MS.) ;   Sonata  for 
Pf.  and  violin  in  E  minor  (MS. ) ;  Quintet  in  G  minor,  for  strings  (MS) ;  Sonata  in 
E  minor,  for  Pf.,  op.  45  ;  The  Harvest  Festival,  Symphonic  Poem,  for  orchestra, 
written  for  Norwich  Festival ;  Elfland,  pizzicato  for  orchestra  ;  Six  Studies  for  Pf. 
(MS.);  L'Esperance,  morceau  elegant,  for  Pf  ;  A  Pastoral  Scene  for  Pf. ;  Rosalind, 
romance,  for  Pf.  ;   The  Ebbing  Tide,  piece  for  orch. ,  transcribed  for  Pf .,  op.  36 ; 
Passepied,  No.  i  of  Ancient  Dances  for  Pf.  ;   The  Chapel  by  the  Sea,  descriptive 
piece  for  Pf.  ;  Six  Sketches,  for  Pf.,  dedicated  to  H.  F.  Broad  wood,  Esq.  ;  Gavotte, 
for  Pf.  ;  Valse  des  Saisons,  for  Pf.  ;  Mountain  Echoes,  for  Pf.  ;  Mount  S.  Bernard, 
for  Pf.  ;  Sunrise  and  Sunset,  two  pastorals  ;  Three  Impromptus,  for  Pf ,  dedicated 
to  Ferdinand  Hiller ;  Chanson  d'Amour,  for  Pf.  ;  Return  of  Spring,  for  Pf.,  dedi- 
cated to  Arabella  Goddard  ;   Caprice  Brilliant,  for  Pf.,  op.  i.     Nocturne  for  Pf. 
Vocal  Music,  Part-songs:  Come  thou  Holy  Spirit,  anthem  ;  It  is  not  always  May  ; 
'Midst  grove  and  dell;    If  I  had  but  two  little  wings,  madrigal.     Songs:  The 
minstrel ;   The  Indian  girl ;   He  is  all  to  me  ;  I  love,  I  love  thee  ;  The  Rock  of 
Ages  ;    The  golden  gate  ;    Star  of  the  morn ;   The  violet  girl's  song  ;    Into  the 
World  ;  Outside  ;  Star  of  Home  ;  The  sea  fairies,  duet ;  The  parting  hour,  duet. 

J.  F.  Barnett  is  one  of  the  leading  English  composers  of  the  present  time.  His 
works  are  bright,  tuneful,  and  skilfully  constructed,  while  their  popularity  is  such 
as  to  place  beyond  all  doubt  the  place  which  they  hold  in  the  estimatioii  of  the 
public.  His  minor  works,  songs,  and  pianoforte  music,  possess  less  merit  in  an 
artistic  sense  than  his  cantatas,  but  are  not  less  popular.  Of  his  cantatas  "The 
Ancient  Mariner  "  is  probably  the  most  popular,  though  all  of  them  are  frequently 
performed  by  different  societies  throughout  the  country.  The  orchestral  works 
possess  much  merit,  and  have  been  warmly  commended  by  various  writers. 

BARNETT  (Robert).  English  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Macclesfield,  1818.  D. 
Slough,  near  Windsor,  Nov.,  1875. 

BARNHILL  (James,  M.A.)  English  writer,  author  of  "  The  Statics  of  Har- 
mony, with  an  Appendix  on  Anticipations,  Suspensions,  and  Transitions, 
illustrated  by  Examples  from  the  Great  Masters."  London,  i2mo,  1865.  A 
reprint  from  the  Choir. 

BARNI  (Camille).  Italian  cnmp.  and  violoncellist,  B.  Como,  Jan.  18,  1762, 
Writer  of  operas,  songs,  chamber  music,  etc.     D.  [?] 


BAR  —  BAR 

BARON  (Ernst  T.)  German  lute-player  and  comp.,  B.  Breslau,  Feb.  27 
1696.  D.  Berlin,  April  12,  1760.  Sonatas  and  other  pieces  for  the  lute  are 
the  principal  works  of  this  once-celebrated  performer.  Author  of  a  work  on 
the  Lute,  1727. 

BABONI-CAVALCABO  (Julie).  Italian  pianist  and  comp.  B.  Vienna,  1805. 
Writer  of  Pf.  music. 

BABB  (James).  Scottish  minor  musician,  B.  Tarbolton,  Ayr,  1781.  Employed 
by  J.  Stephen,  music-publisher,  Wilson  Street,  Glasgow,  1812.  Music  teacher 
in  Glasgow.  Resided  in  Canada  as  farmer,  1832- 1855.  The  "blithe  Jamie 
Barr,  frae  St.  Barchan's  toun,  who  when  wit  gets  a  kingdom,  he's  sure  o'  the 
crown,"  of  Tannahill.  Composer  of  a  few  melodies.  D.  Kilbarchan,  Feb. 
24,  i860. 

BABB  (Samuel).  Scottish  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Glasgow,  1807.  Self-taught. 
Teacher  in  Glasgow,  and  Precentor  in  Dr.  Wardlaw's  (Independent)  Church. 
Prof,  of  Music  in  the  Mechanic's  Institute,  Glasgow.  D.  Glasgow,  May  16, 

Works. — The  Theory  and  Practice  of  Harmony  and  Composition,  Lond.,  i86i  ; 
Singing  at  Sight  Simplified,  Glasgow,  1859.  Anthems  ;  Psalms.  Hurrah  !  for  the 
Highlands,  song  ;  The  warning,  song ;  The  land  for  me,  song  ;  The  bridal  gem, 
song;  Naebody  kens  ye,  song.   Part-songs;  Miscellaneous  writings . 

Barr  was  well  known  in  Glasgow  and  the  West  of  Scotland  as  a  teacher  of  great 
merit,  and  is  generally  supposed  to  have  introduced  class  music  teaching  into  the 
West  of  Scotland.  His  work  on  Harmony,  so  far  as  it  goe?,  is  a  good,  plain  expo- 
sition of  the  elementary  rules,  carefully  and  clearly  written.  Both  of  his  theoretical 
works  were  popular.  His  compositions  are  not  distinguished  hy  any  remarkable 
flow  of  melody,  and,  except  "Naebody  kens  ye,"  are  plainly  and  unassumingly 

BABBET  (ApoUon  Marie  Bose).  French  oboe-player,  B.  1804.  D.  Paris, 
March  8.  1879.  Author  of  the  best  "  Method  for  the  Oboe  "  extant.  S.  under 
Gustav  Vogt. 

BABBETT  (John).  English  violin-maker,  flourished  about  beginning  of  i8th 
century.  His  workshop  was  the  "  Harp  and  Crown"  in  Piccadily,  London. 
His  violins,  which  are  very  rare,  are  modelled  on  those  of  Jacob  Stainer,  but 
are  only  of  average  merit.  Barrett  may_be  regarded  as  a  second-rate  maker  of 
the  so-called  "  London  school." 

BABBETT  (John).      English  org.  and'comp.,  B.  1674.      Pupil  of  Dr.  Blow. 

Music  teacher  at  Christ's  Hospital  [1710].     Org.  at  Ch.  of  S.  Mary  at  Hill, 

1710.     D.  London,  1735. 
Works.— Music  for  "Love's   Last   Shift,"   1696;    Tunbridge  Walks,    1703; 
Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  1703.    Songs,  etc. 

BABBETT  (William  Alexander).      English  writer  and  org.,  B.  Hackney, 
Middlesex,  Oct.,  15,  1836.     Chorister  in  St.  Paul's  Cath.,  1846-49.     Pupil  of 
W.   Bayley  and  George  Cooper,   and   Sir  John  Goss  for  comp.     Org.  at 
St.  Andrew's,  Wales  Street,  London,  1858-1861.      Clerk  of  Magdalen  Coll., 
Pentonville,   1855.       Principal  alto,   Oxford,    1861-67.      Matriculated   at  St. 
Mary's  Hall,  Oxford,  1866.     Mus.  Bac.Oxon.,  1870.      Assistant  Vicar-choral, 
S.     Paul's    Cath.,     1867-1876.      Vicar-choral,    do.,     1876.       Assistant    Ex- 
aminer in  Music  under  Dr.  John    HuUah,    1873.       Fellow  of  the   Coll.   of 
Org.,    1871.      Mem.    of  the   Council,    do.,    1871.       Fellow   of   the  Royal 
Soc.  of  Literature,    1876.      Mem.  of  the  Council,  do.  1879.     Musical  Editor 
of  the  Morning  Post,    1869.        Do.    of  the    Globe,    1874-5.      Editor   of  the 
Mo7ithly  Musical  Record,  1877  and  1885.      Editor  of  the  Orchestra  and  the' 
Choir,  1881 ;  Musical  Examiner  to  the  Council  of  Military  Education,  1883. 
Works. — Dictionary  of  Musical  Terms  (with  Dr.  Stainer),  London,  large  8vo, 
1875  ;  Etymons  of  Musical  Terms,  do.,  London,  1876  ;  English  Glee  and  Madrigal 
Writers,   Lond.,  8vo,  1877;  Introduction  to  form  and  Instrumentation  for  Begin- 
ners in  Composition,  1879;  The  Chorister's  Guide,   1874;  Flowers  and  Festivals, 

BAR  —  BAR  S7 

or  Directions  for  the  Floral  Decoration  of  Churches,  1868  ;  Christ  before  Pilate, 
oratorio  ;  Anthems ;  Songs  ;  Papers  in  Musical  Journals ;  English  Church  Com- 
posers, 1882  ;  Balfe — his  Life  and  Work.     Lond,,  8vo,  1882. 

Mr.  Barrett  has  translated  the  librettos  of  several  operas,  and  is  otherwise  well 
known  as  a  lecturer  and  writer  on  musical  subjects.  His  works  on  the  "  English 
Glee  and  Madrigal  writers,"  and  "Balfe,"  are  most  interesting,  and  contain  just 
estimates  of  the  composers  noticed.  The  monument  to  Balfe  in  Westminster  Abbey 
was  erected  through  his  exertions.  His  contributions  to  periodical  literature  are 
numerous,  and  consist  of  leading  articles,  criticisms,  and  notes  on  events  of  current 
interest.  He  has  lectured  on  English  Organ  Music,  English  Anthems,  Madrigals 
and  Glees,  History  of  the  Sonata,  Bishop,  Mozart,  Balfe,  English  Folk  Songs, 
Negro  Hymnology,  Irish  Folk  Songs,  etc. 

BARRINQTON  (Hon.  Daines).     English  writer  on  Law,  Music,  and  Natural 

History,  B.  London,  1727.   Judge  on  Welsh  Circuit,  1757.     Second  Justice  at 

Chester.     Retired  from  the  Law  and  resided  in  the  Temple.     D.  1800. 

Barrington  wrote  a  standard  work  on  the  Statutes,  a  work  on  the  possibility  of 

reaching  the  North  Pole,  and  several  papers  dealing  with  Crotch,  the  Wesleys, 

Mornington,  and  Mozart.      See  his  "  Miscellanies,"  1781,  and  the  Philosophical 

Transactions,    1780.      Also  author  of  "Experiments  and   Observations  on  the 

Singing  of  Birds,"  Lond.,  4to,  1773. 

BABROILHET  (Paul).  French  barytone  operatic  vocalist,  B.  Bayonne,  Sept. 
22,  1810.  D.  Paris,  April,  1871.  Appeared  in  operas  of  Rossini,  HaWvy, 
Adam,  Donizetti,  Mercadante,  etc. 

BABRT  (Charles  Ainslie).     English  comp.,  org.,  and  writer,  B.  Lond.,  June 
10,  1830.     Educated  at  Rugby  and  Trinity  Coll.,  Cambridge.      Instructed  in 
music  by  T.  A.  Walmisley  at  Cambridge.     Graduated  at  Cambridge.     S.  for 
the  ministry,   by  his  father's  wish,  and  passed  the  voluntary  Theological 
Examination    at    Cambridge.      Resolved   to   study    music   in   preference    to 
theology.      S.  at  Cologne  Cons,  under  F.  Weber  (organ),  E.  Frank  (piano- 
forte), and  F.  Hiller  (composition).      S.  at  Leipzig  under  Moscheles,  Plaidy, 
and  Richter,  1856-7,     Married,  Sept.,  1857.     Resided  for  a  time  at  Dresden, 
where  he  received  valuable  hints  from  Reissjger.     Returned  to  London,  1858. 
Org.  and  Choir-master  at  the  Forest  School,  Leytonstone,   1858-1860.      De- 
voted himself  to  musical  and  literary  composition  from  1859.      Contributed 
under  the  initials  "  C.  A.  B."  to  the  Guardian,  The  Monthly  Musical  Record, 
The  Athemeum,  the  Musical  World,  and  to  the  Analytical  programme-books 
of  the  Crystal  Palace,  Philharmonic,  Richter,  and  Bache  Concerts,  etc.,  during 
Works. — Echoes  from  the  Old  Church  Aisle,  andante  Religiose,  for  the  Pf. 
(Novello) ;   Mazurka,   Vivien,  for  Pf.  (Novello);   Tarantella,  for  Pf  ;  Menuetto 
grazioso,  e  Barcarolle,  for  Pf.  ;  Birthday  March,  for  Pf  ;   Theme,  with  variations, 
Pf.  duet ;  Andante  from  Tschaikowsky's  Quartet  in  D,  transcribed  for  Pf  (Lucas 
&  Co)  ;    Overture,  Beatrice  and  Benedict,   Berlioz,   transcribed  for  Pf.  duet ;  Te 
Deum   (Berlioz)   arranged  for  voices  and   Pf.       Vocal  Music :    Six    songs   with 
English  and  German  words  ;    Come  to   me  in  my  dreams,    canzonet ;   Sleep, 
little    birdie,    baby    song    (Tennyson)  ;     Flow,    softly    flow  (Tennyson),     song ; 
Elizabeth's   Songs  from    "The    Saint's   Tragedy"   (Kingsley)  ;    Four   songs   by 
Charles  Kingsley ;    Sweet  and  low ;    Good   night  and  good  morning ;    Father's 
Lullaby ;   To  England,  song  ;    Beware,  song  j   O  holy  night,  five-part  song.     The 
Child's  Book  of  Praise  (Novello)  ;  Choral  Hymns  for  Four  Voices  ;   The  Story  of 
the  Resurrection,  a  cycle  of  hymns ;  The  Christmas  Story,  do.  ;  Two  Hymns — 
Macedon,  and  Annunciation,  in  "Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern;"  Three  Hymns, 
No.   132,   Capstone, — No.  169,  Adoration, — and  No.    195,    Chesterfield,   in   the 
"New  Mitre  Hymnal."      Works  in  MS.:  A  Symphony  for  full  orchestra;  Two 
overtures  for  orchestra  ;  Marches  for  orchestra ;   A  quartet  for  stringed  instruments. 
An  operetta.     Several  Cantatas,  sacred  and  secular,  etc. 

A  residence,  combined  with  a  musical  education,  in  Germany,  has  infused  the 
compositions  of  Mr.  Barry  with  what  is  commonly  known  as  the  advanced  or 
Wagnerian  character  ;  and  his  writings  are  distinguished  by  their  keen  advrocacy  of 
the  "Music  of  the  Future."     He  wrote  prefaces  to  the  authorised  English  versions 

S8  BAR  — BAR 

of  the  librettos  of  Wagner's  "Meister-singer,"  and  "Tristan  und  Isolde." 
His  music  is  scholarly  and  well  constructed,  and  possesses  not  a  few  original 
features.  Mr.  Barry  is  a  highly  esteemed  professor  of  music,  and  his  vocal 
music  has  qualities  which  should  recommend  it  to  the  public. 

BABRY  (William  Vipond).  Irish  pianist,  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Bandon, 
March,  1827.  Appeared  in  Belfast  as  pianist,  1846.  Founded  the  Belfast 
Classical  Harmonist  Soc.  Resided  for  a  time  in  the  "  Potteries,"  England. 
He  S.  under  Liszt,  and  was  M.A.  and  Ph.D.  of  Gottingen  University  honoris 
causi.  Org.  of  theCath.,  Port  of  Spain,  Trinidad.  D.  there,  March  13,  1872. 
He  comp.  music  for  the  Pf. ,  and  wrote  a  work  entitled  ' '  Dissertation  upon  the 
Emotional  Nature  of  Musical  Art,"  dedicated  to  the  late  king  of  Hanover.  His 
son,  William  H.  Barry,  B.  Belfast,  April,  1858,  is  a  comp.  and  concert-giver 
in  Dublin. 

BABSANTI  (Francesco).  Italian  musician,  B.  Lucca,  1690.  Lived  for  a 
time  in  Scotland,  where  he  published  "A  Collection  of  Old  Scots  Tunes,  with 
the  Bass  for  Violoncello  or  Harpsichord."  Edin.,  1742.  He  composed  also 
concertos  for  violin,  etc.     D.  [?] 

BARSOTTI  (Tommaso  G.  F.)  Italian  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Florence,  Sept. 
4,  1786.     D.  Marseilles,  April,  1868.     Composer  of  light  Pf.  music. 

BARTA  (Josef).  Bohemian  comp,,  B.  1744.  D.  after  1803.  Writer  of 
operettas,  instrumental  music,  lieder,  etc. 

BARTHE  .(Grat  Norbert).  French  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Bayonne,  June  7, 
1828.    "Writer  of  operas  and  Pf  music. 

BARTHEL  (Johann  Christian).  German  comp.,  B.  Plauen,  April  19, 
1776.  D.  Altenburg,  June  10,  1 83 1.  Org.  and  comp.  of  organ,  pianoforte, 
and  vocal  music. 

BARTHELEMON  (Francois  Hippolite).  French  comp.,  B.  Bordeaux, 
July  27,  1741.  Was  an  of&cer  in  the  Irish  brigade.  S.  music  at  the  request 
of  the  Earl  of  Kellie.  Appeared  in  England  in  1765.  Leader  of  band  of 
Italian  opera,  London.  Married  to  Miss  Mary  Young.  Leader  at  Vauxhall 
Gardens,  1770.  Visited  Dublin  in  178^.  D.  London,  July  23,  1808. 
Works. — ^Jefte  in  Masfa,  oratorio,  Florence,  1776.    Music  for  The  Enchanted 

Girdle ;  The  Judgment  of  Paris,  1768 ;  The  Election,  1774 ;  The  Maid  of  the  Oaks, 

1774;  Belphegor,  1778;  Orpheus,  1768;  Pelopida,  opera,  London,  1766.    String 

quartets  ;  Concertos  ;  Songs,  etc. 

BARTHOLDY.     See  Mendelssohn-Bartholdy,  Felix. 
BARTHOLOMEW  (Ann  Sheppard  Mounsey,  nee  Mounsey).    English 

comp.  org.,  and  pianist,  B.  London,  April  17,  1811.   Pupil  of  Logier,  irom  1817. 

Noticed  by  Spohr  (in  his  diary)  as  evincing  remarkable  precocity,  1820.    Org. 

at  Clapton,  1828.     Org.  at  S.   Michael's,  Wood  Street,   1829.      Org.  at  S. 

Vedast's,  Foster  Lane,  from  1837.      Associate  of  the  Philharmonic  Society, 

1834.     Mem.  of  the  Royal  Soc,   of  Musicians,   1839.      Married  to  Mr.  W. 

Bartholomew,  Af(ril  28,  1855.     Gave  series  of  Classical  Sacred  Concerts,  for 

one   of  which   Mendelssohn   comp.    "Hear   my   Prayer,"  1843       Presently 

engaged  in  teaching  the  organ,  piano,  and  harmony. 
Works. — The  Nativity,  an  Oratorio,  produced  by  HuUah  at  S.  Martin's 
Hall,  Lond.,  1855  ;  Sacred  Harmony,  hymns,  etc.,  edited  by  Ann  and  Eliza- 
beth Mounsey,  1839  ;  The  Christian  Month^30  original  hymns  and  anthems,  1842 ; 
Original  Sanctuses,  Kyries,  and  Chants,  1853  ;  Sacred  cantata.  Supplication  and 
Thanksgiving,  dedicated  to  H.R.H.  The  Princess  of  Wales,  1864;  The  Young 
Vocalist,  arranged  from  classical  authors,  1867;  Hymns  of  Prayer  and  Praise, 
edited  and  partly  composed  by  Mrs.  Mounsey  Bartholomew  and  Miss  Mounsey ; 
Holy.  Thoughts,  arranged  as  juvenile  sacred  songs,  1875  >  Thirty-four  Original 
Tunes  (hymns),  London,  1883.  Part-Songs :  Six  four-part  songs,  op.  37 ; 
Shun* delays;  Take  care;  Tell  me,  where  is  Fancy  bred;  Before  thine  eyelids 
close  ;  Three  4-part  songs,  in  Tonic  Sol-fa  notation,  1870  ;  A  wreath  for  Christ- 
mas.     Songs:   A  Farewell;   Mary,  meet   me   there;    When  day  has  fled;   Th? 

BAR  — BAR  55 

bridesmaid ;  The  warrior's  love ;  When  should  lovers  breathe  their  vows  ? ;  The 
northern  star;  Gently  will  I  glide  ;  The  wedding  day;  The  maid  who  vowed  to 
love  me ;  Enchanting  maid ;  Lady  mine ;  Six  Songs  of  Remembrance. 
Six  vocal  duets  in  canon,  1836 ;  The  Erl  King ;  Fair  Daffodils ;  The 
D^uerrotype ;  The  Nautilus  cradle  ;  Lyrics  for  Youth— six  songs  ;  Six  Songs, 
composed  for  the  Royal  Society  of  Female  Musicians ;  Life  is  full  of  perils ; 
The  winds  are  sleeping ;  The  Castanet's  gay  sound  ;  Now  I  am  thine ;  Moonlight ; 
Lily  of  the  vale  ;  The  soul's  release ;  The  uncertainty  of  life  ;  The  Rose  ;  Stars  of 
the  summer  night ;  Charming  maiden  ;  Constancy ;  I  hear  his  horn  ;  Speak  gently ; 
The  praise  of  a  country  life  ;  If  all  the  world ;  One  by  one  ;  Days  gone  by ;  The 
Cherry  Earrings ;  Nearer  my  God  to  Thee ;  Flow,  murmuring  stream ;  The 
fountain  ;  Angry  words  ;  Questions  ;  Yesterday  and  to-morrow  ;  Ten  years  ago. ; 
The  Merry  Beggars  ;  The  water  rushing ;  The  fortune-teller ;  If  I  could  only 
say  ;  Dreaming  and  waking ;  Only  a  day ;  Song  of  a  sprite ;  Together  ;  The 
tambourine  player ;  O  say,  fond  heart ;  Six  Songs  [from  Shakespeare,  Mackay, 
Heber,  Poe,  Hood,  etc.],  London,  1S82.    Org.  and  Pf.  works. 

It  is  somewhat  remarkable  that  music,  as  a  means  of  emotional  expression, 
should  have  found  so  few  exponents  among  women.  That  an  art  so  graceful  in 
itself  and  so  eminently  suited  to  the  refined  capabilities  of  women  should  find  less 
favour  with  them  than  the  sister  art  of  poetry  seems  phenomenal,  and  indicative  to 
a  considerable  extent  of  the  disadvantages  presented  by  the  technical  requirements 
of  musical  composition.  Poetry  has  been  graced  by  many  female  writers  of  rare 
merit,  and  can  boast  of  numerous  lights  who  take  foremost  places  in  the  second 
rank  of  poesy.  From  Sappho  to  Mrs.  Browning  there  have  flourished  many  female 
writers  who  have  sweetened  the  art  with  their  productions,  and  earned  the  applause 
of  posterity.  In  music,  we  can  only  record  the  names  of  a  very  few  females  who 
take  high  rank  as  composers  ;  and  of  these  Mrs.  Bartholomew  may  be  placed  with 
the  most  eminent.  Mrs.  Bartholomew  is  a  fairly  good  example  of  the  first-rate 
class  of  female  talent  in  musical  composition,  and  she  exhibits  in  her  works  all  the 
beauties  and  defects  incident  to  such  class.  Her  part-songs  are  well-written  pieces,  ■ 
and  many  of  her  ballads  are  conceived  in  that  trivial-pretty  fashion  so  common  in 
the  works  of  female  writers.  We  are  inclined,  on  the  whole,  to  base  her  claim  to 
recognition  on  her  many  really  meritorious  concerted  vocal  pieces.  These  are 
written  in  a  graceful,  but  withal  able  manner,  and  are  effective  without  requiring  a 
great  degree  of  skilful  interpretation.  '• 

BARTHOLOMEW  (William).      English  chemist,   writer,    and  viohnist,    B. 

London,  1793.      Married  to  Miss  Ann  S.  Mounsey,  April  28,  1853.      Chiefly 

known  as  the  adapter  of  the  librettos  of  Mendelssohn's  works.      D.  London, 

Aug.  18,  1867. 

Works. — English  version  of  the  words  of  Mendelssohn's  Antigone,  Athalie, 

jEdipus,  Lauda  Sion,  Walpurgisnacht,  Loreley,  Elijah,   Christus  ;   Spohr's   Jes- 

sonda;  Costa's  Eli  and  Naaraan  ;  Bartholomew's  The  Nativity,  etc.,  etc. 

Mr.  Bartholomew  is  better  known  for  his  connection  with  Mendelssohn  than  for 
any  eminence  gained  by  works  of  his  own  production.  His  intercourse  with 
Mendelssohn  was  friendly  and  intimate,  and  he  was  mentioned  by  him  in  terms  of 
respect.  His  careful  selection  of  scripture  passages  for  ' '  Elijah  "  is  highly  creditable 
to  his  good  taste.  Mr.  Bartholomew  has  written,  in  addition  to  the  works  above 
mentioned,  many  hymns  of  considerable  merit.  ' .  ' 

BARTLEMAN  (James).  English  bass  vocalist,  B.  Westminster,  Sept^  19, 
1769.  S.  under  Dr.  B.  Cooke.  Bass  chorister  at  the  Ancient  Music  Concerts, 
1788-91.  Principal  bass  at  the  Vocal  Concerts,  1791.  Do.  at  the  Concert  of 
Ancient  Music,  1795.     D.  London,  April  15,  1821.  , 

This  vocalist  should  have  his  name  enshrined  among  the  benefactors  of  Music. 
He  revived,  and  by  his  magnificent  performance,  created  an  interest  in  the  music  of 
Henry  Purcell  which  lived  for  many  years.  Bartleman  was  possessed  of  a  magjnilii 
cent  bass  voice,  and  rendered  Purcell's  music  in  a  style  then  considered  unsur- 

BARTLETT  (John).  English  comp.,  B.  in  latter  half  of  i6th  century.  Wrote 
a  "Book  of  Ayres,  with  a  Triplicitie  of  Musicke,  whereof  the  First  Part  is  for 
the  Lute  or  Orpharion,  and  the  Viole  de  Gamba,  and  4  Parts  to  Sing  :   the 

6o  BAR  —  BAS 

Second  Part  is  for  2  Trebles  to  sing  to  the  Lute  and  Viole  :  ^the  Third  Part  is 
for  the  Lute  and  one  Voice,  and  the  Viole  de  Gamba,"  London,  1606. 
Bartlett  was  a  Bachelor  of  Music,  Oxford,  in  1610,  but  his  biography  is 

BABTOLI  (Padre,  Erasmo).  Italian  comp.,  B.  near  Naples,  1606.  D. 
Naples,  July  14,  1656.  Writer  of  oratorios,  cantatas,  masses,  motets,  psalms, 

BASEVI  (Abramo).  Italian  theoretical  and  historical  writer,  B.  Livorno,  Dec, 
1818.     Has  comp.  operas,  and  owns  Boccherini,  an  Italian  musical  journal. 

BASILI  (Francesco),  or  Easily.     Italian  comp.,  B.  Loretto,  Ancona,  Feb., 

1766.      S.  under  Jannaconi.      Chap. -master  at  Foligno.      Chap.-master  at 

Macerata.     Do.  at  S.  Peter's,  Rome,  1837.     Director  of  Milan  Cons.,  1827. 

Was  for  a  short  time  an  opera  vocsSSst;  debut,  Milan,  1787.    D.  Mar.  25,  1850. 

Works. — La  Sansone,  oratorio,  1824.    Operas  ;  La  Locandiera  ;  D'Achille  nell' 

assedio  di  Troja,  1798  ;    II  Ritorno  d'Ulysse,  1799  ;    Lo  Stravagante  e  il  Dissipa- 

tori,  1802;    L'Ira  d'Achille,  1817;    L'Orfana  egiziaria,  1817  ;  Gl' lUenesi,  1818; 

II  Califlfo  e  la  Schiava.    Requiem  fot  Jannaconi,  1816.    Psalms  ;  Miserere  ;  Motets. 

Organ  Music  ;  Quartets  for  stringed  instruments  ;  Miscellaneous  Church  Music. 

BASSANI  (Giovanni  Battista).  Italian  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Padua,  1657. 
Chap.-master  at  Bologna  Cath.  Chap.-master  at  Ferrara.  Mem.  of  the 
"  Accademia  delle  Morte,"  Ferrara.  Director  of  Accademia  dei  Filarmonici, 
Bologna,  1682.  D.  Ferrara,  1716. 
Works. — Op.  I.  Sonata  da  Camera,  for  stringed  insts.,  1693;  op.  2.  L'Armonia 
delle  Sirene,  cantata  amorose  musical!  a  voce  solo,  1692  ;  op.  3.  Cantata  for  solo 
voice,  169S  ;  ojd.  4.  La  Moralita  Armonica,  cantata  for  2  and  3  voices,  1700 ;  op.  5. 
Sonata  for  2  violins  and  bass  ;  op.  6.  Affetti  canori,  cantate  ed  ariette,  1697  ;  op.  7. 
Eco  armonica  delle  muse,  cantata  for  solo  voice,  1694  ;  op.  8.  Resi  Armonici  in 
Motteti  a  voci  sola  con  violini,  1691  ;  op.  9.  Armonici  Entusiasmi  di  Da  vide,  1695- 
1698;  op.  10.  Salmi  di  Compieta.  a  tre  e  quattro  voci,  1691  ;  op.  11.  Concerti 
Sacri  (Motets),  1697  ;  op.  12.  Motets  for  solo  voices,  1700  ;  op.  13.  Armonie  Fes- 
tive, 1696  (English  edition,  Harmonia  Festiva,  etc.,  Lond.,  fo.  n.  d.);  op.  14. 
Amorosi  sentimenti  di  cantate  a  voce  solo,  1696;  op.  15.  Armoniche  Fantasie  di 
cantate  amorose  a  voce  sola  ;  op.  16.  La  Musa  Armonica,  cantata  for  solo  voice, 
1695 ;  op.  17.  La  Sirena  Amorosa,  cantata  for  voice  and  violin,  1699 ;  op.  18. 
Three  masses  for  4  and  5  voices,  1698  ;  op.  19.  Languidezza  Amorosa,  cantata  for 
solo  voice,  1698  ;  op.  20.  Mass  for  4  voices,  1698  ;  op.  21.  Psalms  for  2,  3,  4,  and  5 
voices,  1699  ;  op.  22.  Lagrime  armoniche,  ossia  il  Vespero  de  defunti,  for  4  voices, 
1699 ;  op.  23.  Le  Notti  lugubri  concertate  ne'  responsori  dell'  uffezio  de'  morti, 
1700  ;  24.  Da  vide  Armonico  espresso  ne'  salmi  di  mezzo,  for  2  and  3  voices,  1700 ; 
op.  25.  Compietori  correnti  a  quattro  voci  concertate,  1 701  ;  op.  26.  Antifone 
Sacre,  for  solo  voice,  1701  ;  op.  27.  Motetti  sacre  a  voce  solo  con  violini,  1701 ; 
op.  28.  Cantata  Amorose  a  voce  solo,  1701  ;  op.  29.  Corona  di  fiori  musicali  .  .  . 
1702 ;  op.  30.  (?) ;  op.  31.  Cantata  Amorose  a  voce  sola  con  violini,  1705  ;  op.  32. 
Mass  for  4  voices,  17 10,  Falaride,  opera,  1684;  Amorosa  preda  di  Paride,  opera, 
1684 ;  Alarico,  opera,  1685  ;  Ginevra,  1690  ;  II  Conte  di  Bacheville,  1696.  Church 
music  in  MS.,  etc. 

The  general  characteristics  of  Bassani's  music — or  rather  the  small  portion  known 
— are  extreme  delicacy  in  the  management  of  pathetic  effects,  careful  construction, 
and  uniform  religious  feeling.  We  are  unable  correctly  to  state  the  degree  to 
which  his  music  is  now  cultivated  in  Italy  or  anywhere. 

BASSANTIN  (James).  Scottish  astronomer  of  the  16th  century,  D.  1568. 
Author  of  "  Musica  Secundum  Platonem,"  in  his  collected  writings. 

BASSI  (Luigi).  Italian  barytone  vocalist,  B.  Pesaro,  1766  ;  S.  under  Morandi. 
Debut  as  sopranist,  1779.  Debut  at  Prague  in  Paisiello's  "  Re  Teodoro,"  1784, 
Resided  at  Vienna,  1806-14.  Returned  to  Prague,  1814.  Manager  of  the  oper^ 
at  Dresden,  1815.     D.  Dresden,  Sept.  13,  1S25. 

SAS  —  BAT  6l 

Bassi  was  one  of  the  finest  singers  of  his  time,  and  was  selected  by  Mozart  as  a 
suitable  vocalist  for  the  part  of  Don  Giovanni,  if,  indeed,  the  part  was  not  written  to 
suit  his  voice. 

BASSINI  (Carlo).     Italian  teacher  and  violinist,  B.  Piedmont,  i8i2.    Appeared 
in  South  America  as  violinist  with  an  opera  company.      Settled  in  New  York 
as  a  teacher.     D.  at  Irvington,  New  Jersey,  Nov.  26,  1870. 
Works.— The  Art  of  Singing,  1857  ;  Method  for  the  Barytone,   1868  f  Method 

for  the  Tenor,  1866 ;  Melodic  Exercises,  1865.    Songs. 

BASTIAANS  (J.  G-.)    Dutch  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Wilp,i8i2.    D.  1874.    Writer 
of  organ  music,  chorales,  motets,  etc. 

BASTON  (Josquin).     Flemish  comp.  of  i6th  century,  comp.  chansons,  motets, 
and  other  vocal  music. 

BATCHELDER  (John  C.)      American  org.  and  pianist,  B.  in  Topsham  Vt., 

1852.      S.  at  Berlin  under  Haupt,   Ehrlich,  and  Loeschhorn  for  four  years. 

Teacher  of  organ  and  piano  in  the  Detroit  Cons,  of  Music,  and  Org.  of  S. 

Paul's  Episcopal  Ch. 

He  has  given  between  thirty  and  forty  organ  recitals  in  Detroit,  and  played  also 

publicly  in  many  large  cities,  Philadelphia,  Pittsburg,  Toledo,  and  at  other  points. 

BATES  ( Joah).     English  musician,  and  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Handel  Com- 
memoration,  B.   Halifax,   1740.       Instructed  in  music  by   Hartley,    org.    at 
Rochdale  ;    and  R.  Wain  Wright,   org.,   Manchester.      Resided  for  a  time  at 
Eton  and  Cambridge.    Private  Secretary  to  the  Earl  of  Sandwich.    Established 
the    Concert  of  Ancient   Music,    1776.      Cond.   of  the  Ancient   Concerts. 
Founded   Handel    Commemoration    (with   Sir  W.    W.    Wynn    and  Viscount 
Fitzwilliam),  1783.     D.  London,  June  8,  1799. 
The  "Handel  Commemoration"  with -Bhich  Bates  is  chiefly  identified  was,  in 
its  time,  a  much  talked  of  enterprize.      No  such  gathering  of  a  large  body  of  musi- 
cians had  ever  before  taken  place,  and  the  extensive  arrangements  undertaken  in 
connection  with  it  caused  sufficient  stir  to  assure  its  success.      The  vocalists  who 
held  the  principal  parts  on  the  occasion  of  the  first  public  performance  were — Miss 
Cantelo,  Miss  Abrams,  Mdlle.  Mara,  Miss  Harwood,   Sig.   Bartolini  and  Tasca  ; 
and  Messrs.  Harrison,  Dyne,  Champness,  Bellemy,  Corfe,  Norris,  Knyvett,  Clerk, 
Reinhold,  and  Matthieson.    Bates  conducted,  and  the  affair  took  enormously.     The 
first  performance  was  in  Westminster  Abbey,  on  May  26,  1784.     Second  and  third 
performances  were  given  on  May  27  and  29.     The  programme  included  "The 
Messiah,"  The  Dettingen   Te  Deum,   a   Coronation  Anthem,   and  miscellaneous 
selections  from  Handel's  works. 

As  regards  Bates  it  can  be  said  that  he  was  a  famous  conductor,  and  in  every 
respect  a  musician  of  great  knowledge  and  administrative  ability.  He  did  not  com- 
pose anything  so  far  as  we  can  learn,  but  appears  to  have  been  widely  known 
among  musicians  of  every  grade  during  his  lifetime.  He  is  somewhat  roughly 
handled  by  the  Scotch  poet,  A.  Macdonald,  in  "Monitory  Madrigals  to  Musical 
Amateurs,"  Nos.  3  and  4,  contained  in  his  Miscellaneous  Works,  1791. 

BATES  (Sarah).     See  Harrop  (Sarah). 

BATES  (William).  English  comp.,  B.  about  the  beginning  of  the  i8th  century. 
Connected  during  his  life  with  Marylebone  Gardens.  Instructed  Ann  Cately 
in  music  and  singing,  1760.  Fined  and  accused,  together  with  a  Sir  Francis 
Blake  Delaval,  of  using  illegal  means  of  disposing  or  selling  the  person  of  Ann 
Cately,  1763.  (See  Cately.)  Date  of  death  unknown. 
Works. — Glees ;   Songs  sung  at  Marybone  Gardens,   1768 ;  Music  for  several 

farces  as  the  "  Theatrical  Candidates  ;"  Catches  and  Canons,  etc. 

BATESON  (Thomas).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  [?]     Org.  of  Chester  Cath., 

1599.     Resided  in  Ireland  for  many  years,  from   1608  (?).     Org.  of  Christ 

Ch.  Cath.,  Dublin,  1608  (?).     Mus.  Bac,  Dublin.     (The  first  on  whom  the 

degree  was  conferred  by  the  University).     D.  [unknown.] 

Works.— First  Set  of  Madrigals,  1604 ;    Second  Set  of  Madrigals,  1618  ;   Twq 

Madrigals  in  the  "Triumphs  of  Otiana." 

hi  Mai!  —  BAI^ 

This  composer,  who  was  a  madrigal  writer  of  great  power,  is  unfortu- 
nately shrouded  in  much  gloom  where  kis  life  is  concerned.  His  two  books  of 
madrigals  are  the  chief  memorials  we  possess  of  a  writer  who  can  be  classed  with 
such  men  as  Wilbye  and  Weelkes  without  detracting  greatly  from  their  honour  by 
such  association.  His  madrigals  are  not  many,  but  they  are  beautifully  worked 
out  pieces ;  being  no  less  well  constructed  than  very  melodious.  His  first  book 
of  madrigals  was  reprinted  by  the  Musical  Antiquarian  Society  in  1846. 

BATHE  (WiUiam).  Irish  Jesuit  and  writer,  B.  Dublin,  1564.  Professor  of 
Languages  at  the  University  of  Salamanca.  D.  Madrid,  June  17,  1614. 
Wrote  "A  Brief  Introduction  to  the  true  Arte  of  Musicke,"  Lond.,  4to,  1584. 
Another  edition  was  issued  with  title  of  "  A  Briefe  Introduction  to  the  Skill  of 
Song,  etc."     Lond.,  n.  d. 

BATISTE  (Antoine  Edouard).  French  org..  Prof.,  and  comp.,  B.  Paris, 
March  z8,  1820.  S.  at  Paris  Cons,  under  Leborne,  Bienaime,  Le  Couppey, 
Halevy,  and  Benoist.  Gained  second  prize  for  solfeggi,  1832.  Gained  first 
do.,  1833.  Gained  second  prize  for  harmony  and  accomp. ,  1836.  First  prize 
do,  1837.  Second  prize  for  counterpoint  and  fugue,  and  second  prize  for  the 
organ,  1838.  First  prizes  for  both,  1839.  Gained  Second  Grand  Prix  de 
Rome,  1840.  Prof,  of  singing  at  the  Cons,  from  1836.  Org.  of  the  Ch.  of 
St.  Nicholas  des  Champs,  1842.  Org.  of  St.  Eustache,  Paris,  1855.  D.  Paris, 
Nov.  9,  1876. 

Works. — Instruction  Books  for  Singing.  Pf.  music.  Organ  music,  consisting  of 
Offertoires,  Sonatas,  Fugues,  Fantasias,  Voluntaries,  etc.  Songs.  Church 
music,  etc. 

This  organist  was  accounted  among  the  best  of  modern  performers  in  the  brilliant 
style.  His  compositions  are,  on  the  whole,  good  and  serviceable  if  somewhat 
showy  pieces  for  the  organ.  His  andante  movements  are  no  doubt  the  most 
adapted  for  church  use,  and  they  are  not  only  very  melodious  but  also  very  skilfully 
constructed.  Batiste  endeavoured  to  procure  from  his  instrument  effects  which  can 
only  be  said  to  belong  legitimately  to  the  orchestra.  The  success  with  which 
orchestral  effects  are  imitated  on  the  organ  is  marvellous.  Skilful  organists  seem 
to  produce  the  more  broad  orchestral  colourings  with  the  greatest  ease.  Overtures 
are  transcribed  and  rendered  in-  a  style  combining  neatness  with  fulness,  but  the 
delicate  gradations  of  light  and  shade  are  not  with  the  present  mechanism  perfectly 
attainable.  Batiste's  organ  music  is  noisy,  brilliant,  and  not  so  sacred  and  dignified 
as  church  music  is  expected  to  be. 

BATISTIN  (Johanu  B.)  or  Struck.  German  comp.,  B.  Florence  [?].  D. 
Paris,  Dec.  9,  1755.     Writer  of  operas,  etc. 

BATTAILLE  (Charles  Amable).  French  bass  vocalist,  B.  Nantes,  Sept.  20, 
1822.     D.  Paris,  May  2,  1872. 

BATTANCHON  (Felix).  French  comp.  and  violoncellist,  B.  Paris,  April  9, 
1814.  Writer  of  Studies,  duets,  rondos,  and  other  pieces  for  'cello,  with 

BATTEN  (Adrian).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  in  latter  portion  of  i6th  cen- 
tury (1585-90).     S.  under  Holmes  of  Winchester  Cath.   Vicar-choral  of  West: 
minster  Abbey,  1614.     Vicar-choral  of  S.  Paul's  Cath.,  1624.    Org.  do.,  1624. 
D.  middle  of  the  17th  century  (1640?). 
Works. — Anthems:     Hear  my  Prayer;   0  Praise  the  Lord;   Deliver  us,  0 

Lord  (in  Boyce's  Cathedral  Music) ;  Te  Deum,  Benedictus,  jubilate,  Kyrie,  etc.,  in 

D  (Novello)  ;  Thirty-four  Anthems  (words  only — ClilTord) ;  Twenty-four  Anthems 

in  Barnard's  Cathedral  Music. 
Batten  was  an  inferior  composer,  and  can  by  no  means  be  classed  with  such  men 

as  Lawes,  Hilton,  Gibbons,  or  others  who  were  his  contemporaries.     The  anthems 

published   in    "Boyce"    (and   by  Messrs.    Novello)   are   favourable  examples  of 

his  style. 

BATTISHILL  (Jonathan).  English  comp.,  B.  London,  May,  1738.  Chor. 
in  S.  Paul's  Cath.,  1747.  Articled  to  W.  Savage,  by  whom,  he  was  ill  treated. 
Wrote  for  Sadler's  Wells  Theatre.      Deputy  org.,  under  Boyce,  at  the  Chap.- 

feAT  —  feAt;  ^j 

Royal.     Cond.  and  accompanist  at  Covent  Garden  Theatre.     Married  to  Miss 

Davies  (the  original  "  Madge"  in  "  Love  in  a  Village"),  1763.    Org.  of  United 

parishes  of  S.  Clement,  Eastcheap,   and  S.  Martin   Orgar,    1764.      Org.  of 

Christ  Church,  Newgate  Street,   1764.     Resigned  cond.  of  Covent  Garden. 

Devoted  himself  to  teaching  and  composition.     Presented  with  gold  medal  by 

the  Nobleman's  Catch-club,  1 77 1 .     Lost  taste  for  music  and  became  addicted 

to  drink,  on  the  death  of  his  wife,  1777.     D.  Islington,  Dec.  10,  1801. 

Works. — Almena,  an  opera  (with  M.  Arne),  Drury  Lane,  1764;    The  Rites  of 

Hecate,  a  musical  entertainment,   1764.     Collection  of  Twelve  Songs.     Set  of 

Sonatas  for  the  Harpsichord.     2  Collections  of  Glees,  1776.      Anthems:  Behold, 

how  good  and  joyful ;   Call  to  remembrance  ;  I  will  magnify  Thee,  O  God ;    O 

Lord,  look  down  from  heaven;  Six  Anthems  and  ten  Chants,  ed.  by  Page,  1804. 

Glees :   Amidst  the  myrtles  ;    Come,  bind   my  hair ;    Again  my  mournful  sighs. 

Music  for  Charles  Wesley's  Hymns.    Chants.    Collection  of  Catches.    Music  (with 

Baildon)  for  Lee's  Dramatic  Entertainments,  1777.     Songs  for  3  and  4  voices, 

Lond.,  1783  ;  Miscellaneous  songs,  anthems,  glees,  etc. 

The  foregoing  list  of  works  does  not  represent  one-third  of  Battishill's  composi- 
tions. His  anthems  are  now  only  occasionally  sung,  and  then  only  in  provincial 
churches.  The  simple  grace  of  this  composer  has  long  since  given  way  to  the  more 
laboured  works  of  modern  times. 

Battishill  was  an  organist  of  most  sterling  qualities,  and  was  specially  good  at 
extemporaneous  playing.  Handel's  music  also  drew  out  his  powers  to  their  fullest 
extent,  and  Dr.  Busby  speaks  of  him  as  equalling  Handel  himself  in  his  exquisite 
rendering  of  the  organ  concertos,  etc.  The  following  estimate  of  his  powers  is 
taken  from  Dr.  Busby's  "History  of  Music,"  vol.  ii.  Speaking  of  "The  Rites  of 
Hecate  "  : — "In  the  airs  of  this  piece  he  demonstrated  a  strength  and  originality  of 
imagination,  and,  in  the  adjustment  of  his  score,  an  elegance  and  mastery  that 
delighted  the  general  ear,  and  excited  the  admiration  of  every  musical  critic.  .  . 
In  the  composition  of  catches  and  glees,  this  master  exhibited  great  resources  of 
imagination,  and  an  abundant  store  of  science  and  ingenuity.  .  .  The  produc- 
tions of  this  ornament  of  his  day  are  marked  by  a  peculiar  strength  of  conceptioii, 
considerable  originality  and  sweetness,  and  fine  harmonical  adjustment.  His 
anthems  are  characterized  by  the  learning  and  sober  majesty  of  Boyce's  best 
cathedral  compositions  ;  and  his  choruses  in  Almena  may  be  compared  with  those 
in  the  celebrated  serenata  of  his  early  friend  and  favourite  master." 

BATTISTA  (Vincenzo).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  Oct.  5,  1823.  D,  Naples, 
Nov.  14,  1873.     Operatic  writer. 

BATTMAN  (Jacques  Louis).  French  org.,  pianist,  and  comp.,  B.  Masse- 
vaux,  Aug.  25,  181S.  Composer  of  over  200  works  of  medium  quality  for 
organ,  piano,  etc. 

BATTON  (Desire  Alexandre).     French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  Jan.  2,  1797.     S. 
under  Cherubini  at  the   Cons.,  1806-17.      Travelled  in  Germany  and  Italy, 
1818-23.     D.  Paris,  Oct.  16,  1855. 
Works. — Operas,  Cantatas,  etc.,  now  for  the  most  part  unknown  or  forgotten. 

BATTU  (Pantaleon).  French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Paris,  1799.  D.  Paris, 
Jan.  17,  1870. 

BAUDIOT  (Charles  Nicolas).      French  violoncellist  and  comp.,  B.  Nancy, 
March  29,  1773.      Performer  in  the  King's  Chapel,  l8l5.     Prof,  of 'cello  at 
the  Cons.,  1822.     D.  Sept.  26,  1849. 
Works.— Two  Concertos  for  'cello,  and  orch.,  opp.   19,  20;  Trio  for  strings, 

op.  3  ;   Duets  for  2  'cellos,  op.  5  and  7  ;    Fantasias,  Pot-pourri,  etc.,  for  'cello  ; 

Sonatas  for  'cello ;   Trios  for  Pf.,  'cello,  and  horn  ;  Methode  de  Violoncello  pour 

I'usage  du  Conservatoire,  etc. 

BAUDRON  (Antoine  Laurent.)      French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Amiens, 

May  16,  1743.     D,  1834. 
BAUBRSACHS    (Carl    Friedrich).      German   violoncellist   and   basset-horn 

player,  B.  at  Pegnitz,  June  4,  1770.     D.  Dec.  14,  1845. 

64  BAU  —  SAY 

BAULDUIN  (Noel)  Balauin.  Belgian  comp.,  B.  towards  latter  part  of  15th 
century.    D.  1529.     Writer  of  church  music. 

BATJMANN  (Emanuel).  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  1825.  Writer  of  Pf. 
music,  operettas,  songs,  etc. 

BAUMBACH  (Friedrich  August).  German  comp.  and  writer,  B.  1753.  D. 
Leipzig,  Nov.  30,  1813.     Composer  of  Pf.  music,  collector  of  songs,  etc. 

BAUMFELDER  (Friedricll  A.  W.)  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Dresden, 
May  28,  1836.     Writer  of  overtures,  concertos,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BAUMGARTEN  (Carl  Friedricll).     German  org.  and   comp.,  B.   1754. 

Appeared  in  London  about  the  end  of  the  1 8th   century.      Org.  in  Lutheran 
Chap,  in  the  Savoy,  London.     Leader  at  the  opera,  Covent  Garden  Theatre. 
Leader  of  Duke  of  Cumberland's  private  band.     D.  London,  1824. 
Baumgarten  wrote  music  for  several  pantomimes,  etc.,  as  also  a  work  on  musical 

BAYLET  (William),  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  [1810]  Vicar  choral,  S. 
Paul's.  Org.  of  S.  John's,  Southwark.  D.  London,  1858.  Comp.  a  number 
of  songs,  cavatinas,  and  other  vocal  music,  and  was  an  organist  of  some 

BAYLY  (Rev.  Anslem).)     English  writer  and  divine,  B.  1719.     Matriculated 
at  Exeter  Coll.,  Oxford,  1740.     Lay  vicar  at  Westminster  Abbey,  1 741.    Gent. 
Chap.  Roy.,  1741.      Priest,  do.,  1744.      B.  C.  L.,  1749.      D.  C.  L.,  Oxford, 
1764.     Sub-dean  of  Chap.  Roy.,  1764.     D.  1792. 
Works. — Practical  Treatise  on  Singing  and  Playing  with  just  expression  and  real 
elegance,  London,  1771  ;  The  Alliance  of  Musick,  Poetry,  and  Oratory,  1789;  The 
Sacred  .Singer,  containing  an  Essay  on  Grammar,  the  requisites  of  singing  cathedral- 
compositions,  etc.,  Lond.,  8vo,  1771.    Collection  of  Anthems  used  in  His  Majesty's 
Chapel     .     .     .     8vo,  1769.     Sermons,  etc. 

BAYLY  (Thomas  Haynes).  English  lyrical  poet,  B.  London,  1798.  D. 
April  22,  1829. 
The  life  of  this  latterly  unfortunate  poet  seems  to  have  been  of  a  nature 
sufi&ciently  varied  to  furnish  him  with  the  various  themes,  melancholy  and  cheerful, 
on  which  he  expended  so  much  careful  finish.  As  he  is  the  founder  of  a  style  or 
departure  in  English  ballad  writing,  it  will  be  necessary  to  notice  him  at  more 
length  than,  as  an  ordinary  poet,  he  would  have  been  entitled  to.  The  departure 
in  ballad  writing  spoken  of  is  that  in  which  the  poet  deals  closely  with  events  in 
every-day  life  which  are  personal  in  character.  The  domestic  side  of  man  is  taken 
up,  his  social  and  homely  feelings  are  appealed  to  in  what  are  known  as  vers 
de  sociitL  Though  Bayly  has  had  numerous  imitators,  we  think  that  on  the 
whole  he  has  been  more  successful  than  any  of  his  followers  in  his  treatment 
of  such  subjects.  This  school  of  poetry,  which  was  born,  but  has  not  died, 
with  the  Annuals,  has  been  greatly  instrumental  in  lowering  the  artistic  tone 
of  our  national  songs.  The  style  of  the  poetry,  originally  healthy  enough, 
has  gradually  been  degenerating  into  an  empty,  glittering  sentimentality. 
Bayly's  songs  were  originally  set  by  himself,  Bishop,  J.  P.  Knight,  A.  Lee, 
Loder,  and  others  of  sound  attainments.  The  poetry  was  good,  and  the  music 
often  so.  Such  collections  as — "  Songs  of  the  Old  Chateau,"  "Songs  for  Winter 
Nights,"  "  Songs  of  the  Grave  and  Gay,"  were  really  good.  In  our  day  this  has 
been  reversed  ;  the  poetry  is  sickly  and  the  music  dolorous.  The  melancholy  side 
of  Bayly,  as  displayed  in  "  Long,  long  ago,"  "  She  wore  a  wreath  of  roses,"  etc., 
has  in  present  times  been  carried  to  excess,  and  the  market  is  deluged  with  pro- 
ductions of  the  most  effete  nature,  having  for  subject  matter  such  stories  as  the 
ascent  to  heaven  of  departed  souls,  via  a  sunbeam,  or  the  death-scenes  of  pauper 
children,  either  in  cathedrals  or  on  the  gutter.  Bayly  also  wrote  plays  and  some 
novels,  all  long  since  forgotten. 

BAYR  (Georg).  Bohemian  flute-player  and  comp,,  B.  1773.  D.  Vienna,  1833. 
Wrote  concertos,  etc.  for  his  instrument. 

feAZ  —  BEA  65 

BAZILLE  (August  Ernest).  French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  May  27,  1828.  Writer 
of  operettas,  songs,  etc. 

BAZIN  (Francois  Emanuel  Joseph).  French  operatic  comp.,  B.  Marseilles, 
Sept.  4,  1816.     D.  Paris,  July  2,  1878. 

BAZZINI  (Antonio).     Italian  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Brescia,  Nov.  24,  1818. 
Played  throughout  Italy,  France,  Germany,  and  Belgium.     Prof,  of  Comp.  at 
Milan  Cons.,  1876. 
Works. — Concertos,  Variations,  and  Transcriptions  for  the  Violin,  etc. 
Bazzini  was  long  a  favourite  with  the  more  vulgar  portion  of  the  musical  public  on 
the  Continent,  and  succeeded  in  persuading  them,  as  he  had  persuaded  himself, 
that  he  was  a  fiddle-god.     Like  Paganini  and  others  of  that  school,  he  contrived  to 
delight  his  audiences  more  by  mechanical  means  than  by  those  usually  regarded  as 
highly  academic. 

BEALE  (John).  English  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  London,  [1676  ?  ]Pupil  of  J.  B. 
Cramer.  Mem.  of  Phil.  Soc,  1720.  Prof,  of  Pf  at  R.  A.  M.  Teacher  in 
London,  and  Director  of  Music  at  Argyle  Rooms.     D.  [?] 

Beale  was  a  most  respectable  professor,  and  wrote  a  large  quantity  of  indifferent 
songs  and  Pianoforte  music,  none  of  which  is  now  in  existence.  '  He  wrote  "  Com- 
plete Guide  to  the  Art  of  Playing  the  German  Flute, "  n.  d. 

BEALE  (Thomas  Willert)    Walter  Maynard.     English  comp.  and  writer,  B. 
London,  1S31.      Called  to  the  bar  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  1863.      Mem.  of  firm  of 
Cramer  &  Co. 
Works. — The  Enterprising  Impresario,  London,  1867 ;  Articles  in  CmtlemarCs 
Magazine,  Once  a  Week,  etc.      Songs :  Ah  !  would  that  I  could  weep  ;  I  think  of 
thee  still ;    In  the  silence  of  the  night ;    'Tis  home  where'er  thou  art  ;   The  Cara- 
bineers ;   Let  me  stay  ;   Lover's  vows  ;   Macbeth,  dramatic  scena  ;    O,  say  once 
more,  I  love  thee ;    Regret  ;   Thy  voice  in  tender  accents  ;    'Twas  hut  a  word  ; 
When  those  bright  hours  ;   Why  did  we  meet,  etc.,  etc.  ;   Concerted  vocal  music  ; 
Pf.  music,  etc. 

BEALE  (Thurley).      English  bass  vocalist,   B.   Royston,  Hertfordshire,  April 

23,  1849.      Joined  J.  HuUah's  Choral  Soc.  in  London,   1864.      Chor.  in  S. 

Andrew's,  Wells  Street,  London.      S.  under  Joseph  Barnby.      Chor.  at  S. 

Paul's  Cath. 

Beale  has  sung  at  nearly  every  town  of  importance  in  England  and  Scotland,  and 

is  justly  regarded  as  one  of  the  leading  English  basses. 

BEALE  (William).      English  comp.,  B.  Landrake,  Cornwall,  Jan.    i,    1784. 
S.  under  Dr.  Arnold  and  R.  Cooke.      Gained  prize  cup  from  Madrigal  Soc, 
1813.     Engaged  in  London  as  teacher  of  music,  1813-54.      D.  London,  May 
3.  1854- 
Works. — Madrigals,  etc.,  for  3,  4,  and  5  voices,  Lond.,  1815;    Collection  of 
Glees  and  Madrigals,  1820.     Madrigals:  Awake,  sweet  muse  (prize),  1813;  What 
ho  !  what  ho  !  1816  ;  Come  let  us  join  the  roundelay  ;  This  pleasant  month  of  May. 
Glees  (edited  by  E.  Plater,  S.  Lucas  &  Co.)  :    I'll  enjoy  the  present  time;    How 
soft  the  music  ;  By  the  side  of  a  grove  ;  Scenes  of  woe  ;  Lo  !  the  Pride  of  the  Vil- 
lage is  dead ;  How  often  from  the  sleep  ;  Oh  !  by  yonder  mossy  seat ;  The  humble 
tenant ;  Ode  to  the  memory  of  Samuel  Webbe  ;  Thou  herald  of  the  blushing  morn  ; 
When  Fanny,  "blooming  fair ;   Again  the  balmy  zephyr  (round) ;   Sing  unto  the 
Lord  (canon),  etc.  [1879].     Songs,  etc. 

Beale  was  one  of  the  last  of  the  long  roll  of  eminent  English  glee  composers. 
The  glee,  as  a  thoroughly  English  species  of  composition,  is  daily  receiving  less 
attention,  and  it  is  very  probable  that  Beale  and  Bishop  will  never  be  succeeded. 
The  glees  of  Beale  are  fresh  and  agreeable  compositions,  graced  with  all  the  refinei 

66  Bea  —  beC 

ment  and  artistic  skill  usually  found  in  such  works,  and  they  are  in  many  respects 
worthy  to  be  named  with  the  best  creations  of  the  older  writers. 

BEARD  (John).  English  tenor  vocalist,  B.  1716.  Chor.  in  Chap.  Roy.  under 
B.  Gates.  Dibut  at  Covent  Garden  in  1736.  Sang  at  Drury  Lane,  1737. 
Married  to  Lady  Henrietta  Herbert,  widow  of  Lord  Edward  Herbert,  1739. 
Afterwards  married  to  Miss  Rich  (daughter  of  Rich  of  Covent  Garden  Theatre), 
1759.  One  of  the  proprietors  of  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  1761.  Retired  from 
public  life,  1768.  D.  Hampton,  London,  February  4,  1791. 
Beard  was  for  long  the  leading  English  tenor  vocalist,  and  was,  together  with 

Harrison,  one  of  the  leadmg  exponents  of  Handel's  music.      He  was  also  famous 

as  a  ballad  vocalist. 

BBARDMORE  (Mrs.)    See  Parke  (Maria  H). 

BEATTIE  (James,  LL.D.)    Scottish  poet  and  writer,  B.  Laurencekirk,  Oct.  25, 

1735'      S.  at  Aberdeen  University.      Schoolmaster  in  Kincardine,  I7S3-S8. 

Prof,  of  Moral  Philosophy,  Marischal  Coll.,  Aberdeen,  1760.     Married  to  Miss 

Mary  Dun,  1767.     D.  Aberdeen,  Aug.  18,  1803. 

Works. — Essays  on  Poetry  and  Music  as  they  affect  the  Mind,  etc.,  London,  1776 ; 

second  edit.,  1779.   Letter  to  the  Rev.  Hugh  Blair,  D.D.,  on  the  Improvement  of 

Psalmody  in  Scotland,  8vo,   1778 ;    another  edit.,  Edin.,  i2mo,  1829 ;   Poems, 

Ethical  works,  etc. 

The  essay  on  "  Poetry  and  Music  "  was  translated  into  French.     His  eldest  son, 

James  Hay  Beattie  (B.  Aberdeen,  1768 — D.  1790)  was  a  violinist,  and  amateur 

musician  of  great  promise. 

BEAULIEU  (Marie  Desire),  or  Martin.     French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Paris, 

April  II,  1791.     Received  first  instructions  in  music  when  7  years  old.     S.  at 

the  Cons,  under  R.  Kreutzer  and  M^hul.      Gained  second  prize  for  comp.  at 

Cons.     D.  Paris,  Dec,  1863. 

Works. — Operas:    Anacreon;    Psyche  et  I'Amour,   1833;  Philadelphie,   1855. 

Cantatas,  oratorios,  etc. :  Sapho,  1813 ;  Jeanne  d' Arc,  1817;   L'  Hymne  du  Matin, 

oratorio,   1843;    L'Immortalite  de  I'ame,   1851;     Church  music — Miserere,   1812; 

Laudate  Dominum,  for  2  choirs,  1813 ;  Domine  Salvum,  for  5  voices,  1814 ;  Requiem 

Mass,  solo,  chorus  and  orch.,  1819;  Masses,  etc.      Pf.  music,  consisting  of  rondos, 

fantasias,   sonatas,  etc.       Memoire  sur  ce  qui  reste  de  la  Musique  de  I'ancienne 

Grice  dans  les  premiers  chants  de  I'Eglise.     8vo,  1856.      Memoire  sur  le  caractere 

que  doitavoir  la  musique  d'Eglise...8vo,  1858.   Memoire  sur  I'origine  de  la  Musique. 

Niort,  8vo,  1859. 

BEAUHARNAIS  (Hortense  Eugenie).    See  Hortense. 

BEAUMARCHAIS  (Pierre  Augustin  Caron  de).     French  dramatist,  B. 

Paris,  Jan.  24,  1732.     D.  Paris,  May  17,  1799. 
Beaumarchais  is  noticed  here  as  having  written  the  comedies  of  "  The  Barber  of 
Seville"  and  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro,"  from  which  were  drawn  the  librettos  of 
two  most  successful  operas,    written  respectively  by  Rossini  and  Mozart.      Was 
music-master  to  the  daughters  of  Louis  XV. 

BEAUMONT  (Jolin).      English   musician,   published    "The   New   Harmonic 
Magazine,    or  Compendious   Repository  of    Sacred   Music,   in  full  Score. 
Lond.,  fo.  1801. 

BECHER  (Alfred  Julius).     German  comp.,  B.  Manchester,   1803.     Educated 

at  Universities  of  Heidelberg,  Berlin,  etc.     Resided  at  Vienna  as  Editor  of  the 

"Radikale,"  a  democratic  sheet,  which  was  filled  with  seditious  articles  by 

Becher.     Shot  at  Vienna  for  sedition,  Nov.  23,  1848. 

Works. — Op.  i.  Songs  for  solo  voice  and  Piano ;  op.  2.  Lyrical  pieces  for  the 

Pf.  ;    op.  3.  Six  poems  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;    op.  5.  Rondo  for  the  Pf.  ;    op.  6.  Six 

songs  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  7.  Three  sonatas  for  Pf.  solo  ;  op.  8.  Original  theme 

for  Pf.  ;    op.  9.  Monologue  for  Pf.  ;   op.  10.  Six  Songs  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;   op.  11. 

feEC  —  BEd  67 

Sonata  (or  Pf.  ;   op.  18.  Nine  pieces  for  the  Pf.      A  Symphony  ;    String  Quartets  ; 
Writings  on  various  musical  subjects,  etc. 

BECHSTEIN  (Friedrich  Wilhelm  Carl).  German  piano-maker,  B.  Gotha, 
June,  1826.  One  of  the  most  extensive  Pf.  manufacturers  on  the  Continent. 
The  instruments  of  this  firm  have  long  taken  a  leading  place  among  those  of 
recent  makers,  and  have  been  awarded  not  a  few  prizes  at  various  exhibitions. 

BECK  (Franz).     German  comp.,  B.  Mannheim,  1731.     Resided  chiefly  in  Paris 
and  Bordeaux,  where  he  was  a  teacher  of  some  note.     D.  Bordeaux,  1809. 
Works. — Symphonies;   Pandore,  a.  melodrama,    1786;    Quartets  for  strings; 
Church  music. 

BECKEL  (J.  C.)  American  pianist  and  writer,  has  published  the  following 
works : — Amateur's  School  for  the  Piano  (Ditson,  Boston,  n.d.) ;  New  and 
Improved  Operatic  Instruction-Book  for  the  Pianoforte  (Do.)  ;  Amateur's 
Organ  School  (Do.);  Amateur  Melodeon  or  Reed  Organ  School  (Do.); 
Church  Manual,  a  Collection  of  Psalms,  etc.  (Do.) ;  The  Psalter,  a  Collection 
of  Sacred  Music  (Do.) ;  Philadelphia  Anthem  Book  (Do.),  etc. 

BECEEB  (Carl  Ferdinand).      German  writer  and  teacher,  B.  Leipzig,  1804. 

S.  under  Schneider  and  Schicht.     Org.  of  the  Nicolai-Kirche,  Leipzig.     Prof. 

at  Leipzig  Cons.  D.  Leipzig,  October  26,  1877. 
Works. — Systematisch-chronologishe  Darstellung  der  musikalischen  Literatur 
von  der  fruhesten  bis  auf  die  neueste  zeit,  Leipzig,  1836;  Die  Hausmusik  in 
Deutschland  in  dem  i6-ten,  17-ten,  and  i8-ten  Jahrhunderte,  Materialien  zu  einer 
Geschichte  desselbenes,  etc.,  1840  (Materials  for  a  history  of  chamber  music  in 
Germany  in  the  i6th,  17th,  and  i8th  centuries) ;  Die  Tonwerke  des  XVI.  und 
XVII.  jahrhunderts,  oder  Systematisch-chronologische  zusammenstellung  der  in 
diesen  zwei  Jahrhunderten  gedruckten  Musikalien,  Leipzig,  410,  1847  (Catalogue  of 
music  printed  during  the  l6th  and  I7lh  centuries)  ;  Alphabetisch  und  chronologisch 
geordnetes  Verzeichniss  einer  sammlung  von  musikalischen  Schriften  ein  Beitrag 
zur  Literatur- Geschichte  der  Musik,  1847  (Catalogue  of  the  works  contained  in  his 
own  collection) ;  Die  Tonkunstler  des  neunzehnten  Jahrhunderts,  ein  Kalendarisches 
Handbuch  zu  Kunzt-geschichte,  1849,  etc. 

The  foregoing  works  are  valuable  contributions  to  musical  literature,  and  are 
marked  by  much  painstaking  industry  and  veracity.  Becker  was  notable  as  being 
a  skilled  bibliographer,  and  his  collection  of  music  was  extensive,  and  contained 
many  rarities. 

BECEEB  (Constantin  Julius).      German  comp,,  B.  Freiberg,  Feb.  3,  181 1. 
S.  under  Anacker.     Resided  at  Leipzig  as  assistant  editor  (with  Schumann)  of 
the  "  Neue  Zeitschrift  fur  Musik,"  1835.     Teacher  of  singing  at  Dresden,  1843. 
D.  Oberlbssnitz,  Feb.  26,  1859. 
Works.— The  Siege  of  Belgrade,  opera,  Leipzig,  1848  ;   Collections  of  Lieder, 
opp.  2,  5,  6,  8,  14,  17  ;    Symphony,  1843  ;  Serenade  for  violin  and  'cello,  op.  34; 
A  vocal  school  for  men,  and  Duets  for  female  voices ;  Music  for  Pf.,  etc.  ;  A  work 
on  Harmony,  trans,  into  English  as  "  A  Concise  Treatise  on  Harmony,  Accompani- 
ment, and  Composition. "    Lond.,  1845. 

BECEEB   (Johann).      German    violinist,    B.    Mannheim,    1836.       S.   under 
Kettenus  and  Alard.     Debut  as  violinist  in  1847.     Leader  of  Mannheim  orch. 
Appeared  at  Paris  with  some  success,  1859.     Played  at  Monday  Popular  Con- 
certs, London.     Cond.  the  Philharmonic  Concerts.    Settled  at  Florence,  1866. 
Since  about  1866  Becker  has  been  a  member  of  the  celebrated  string  quartet 
party,  located  at  Florence,  and  named  the  "Florentiner  Quartet,"  whose  playmg 
of  music  for  stringed  instruments  is  announced  as  superb.      The  other  members  of 
the  party  are  Masi,  Chiostri,  and  Hilpert.     Becker  has  comp.  music  for  the  viohn. 

BECEEB  (Paul).  German  pianist  and  comp.,  presently  residing  in  Chicago, 
where  he  settled  about  1858.  His  works  consist  principally  of  arrangements 
and  transcriptions.     He  is  best  known  in  America  as  a  pianist  of  much  ability. 

BECKET  (Thomas  a').  American  org.  and  teacher,  B.  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
1843.    Teacher  in  Girard  Coll,,  Philadelphia.    Charter  Member  of  the  Amen- 

68  BEC  —  BEfi 

can  Coll.  of  Musicians.  Best  known  as  an  accompanist,  in  which  capacity  he 
has  travelled  with  some  of  the  leading  artists  in  America.  Comp.  music  for 
Pf.  and  org.,  and  songs. 

BECKWITH  (John  Christmas).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Norwich,  Dec. 

25.  1759-      S.  under  Philip  Hayes.      Org.  of  Norwich  Cath.,  1780.      Org.  of 

S.   Peter's  Mancroft,  Norwich,  1780.      Mus.  Bac,  Oxon.,  1803.       Instructed 

Thomas  Vaughan,  the  vocalist,  in  singing.      D.  Norwich,  June  3,  1809. 

Works. — The  First  Verse  of  every  Psalm  of  David,  with  an  ancient  or  modern 

chant  in  score,  adapted  as  much  as  possible  to  the  sentiment  of  each  Psalm.  Lond., 

1808.     Anthems :  The  Lord  is  very  great ;  My  soul  is  weary  of  life  ;  Six  Anthems 

in  Score,  for  I,  2,  3,  4,  and  5  voices  (Clementi).      Glees:  Hark,  o'er  the  waves; 

The  Chimney  Sweepers.    Pianoforte  Music  and  Songs  ;  Concertos  and  other  pieces 

for  the  organ. 

Beckwith  was  one  of  the  best  organists  of  his  time,  and  a  highly  esteemed  vocal 
instructor.  Some  of  his  secular  vocal  music  is  melodious  in  character,  but  other- 
wise his  music  is  dull.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  John  Charles  Beckwith 
[1788-1819]  at  Norwich  Cathedral.  The  book  of  chants  contains  an  introductory 
article  on  chanting. 

BECWARZOUSKY  (Anton  Franz).      Bohemian  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1750. 
D.  Berlin,  May  17,  1823. 

BEDFORD  (Arthur).  English  divine  and  writer,  B.  Tiddenham,  Gloucester, 
September,  1668.  S.  at  Oxiord.  D.  London,  1745. 
Works. — The  Temple  of  Musick,  or  an  Essay  concerning  the  Method  of  Singing 
the  Psalms  of  David  in  the  Temple  before  the  Babylonish  Captivity,  wherein  the 
Musick  of  our  Cathedrals  is  vindicated... Bristol,  8vo,  1706  ;  The  Great  Abuse  of 
Musick,  containing  an  account  of  the  use  and  design  of  Musick  among  the  Antient 
Jews,  Greeks,  Romans,  etc.,  Lond.,  Svo,  1711  ;  The  Excellency  of  Divine  Musick, 
Lond.,  1733;  Scripture  Chronology  demonstrated  by  Astronomical  Calculations, 
Lond.,  1730;  The  Present  State  of  the  Republick  of  Letters,  Lond. ,  1730;  Serious 
Reflections  on  the  Scandalous  Abuse  and  Effects  of  the  Stage,  Bristol,  1705  ;  The 
Evil  and  Danger  of  Stage  Plays,  etc. 

BEER  (Jacob).     See  Meyerbeer  (Jacob). 

BEER  (Johann).     German^comp.  and  writer,  B.  1652.     D.  1700. 

BEER  (Joseph).      German  clarinet-player,   B.  Grunwald,    1744.      D.  Potsdam, 

BEERALTHER  (Aloys).      German   darinet-player,   B.   1800.      D.   Stuttgart, 
Mar.  21,  1850. 

BEETHOVEN  (Ludwig  van).  German  comp.,  B.  Bonn,  Dec.  17,  1770. 
Commenced  study  of  music  under  his  father,  1775.  Instructed  further  by 
Pfeiffer,  a  vocalist,  1779'  Learned  organ-playing  from  Van  den  Eeden,  org. 
of  the  Court-Chap.,  Bonn.  S.  under  Neefe,  successor  to  Van  den  Eeden  as 
court  organist,  178 1.  Deputy-org.  in  Court-chap.,  1782.  Cond.  of  theatre 
orchestra  at  Bonn,  1783.  Visited  Vienna  for  first  time,  1787.  Sent  by  the 
Elector  to  Vienna,  where  he  S.  under  Haydn  and  Salieri,  1792.  His  father 
died,  1792.  Took  lessons  from  Albrechtsberger,  1794.  Visited  successively 
Prague,  Nuremberg,  and  Berlin,  1796.  First  troubled  with  deafness,  1806. 
Hopelessly  attacked  with  deafness,  1810.  Made  acquaintance  of  Goethe  at 
Toplitz,  1812.  Undertook  charge  of  Carl,  his  brother  Caspar-Carl's  son,  1815. 
Latter  years  of  his  life  passed  in  great  seclusion.  D.  Vienna,  March  26,  1827. 
Works.*— Op.   i.   Three  Trios  for  Pf.,  vn.,   and  'cello,  in  E  flat,  G,  and  C 

minor,  1795  ;    op.  2.  Three  Sonatas  for  Pf.,  in  F  minor,  A,  and  C,  1796  ;    op.  3. 

*  The  dates  given  are  those  of  composition  or  publication. 

BEE — BEE  69 

Jfrio  in  E  flat  for  vn.,  tenor,  and  'cello,  1787  ;  op.  4.  Quintet  in  E  flat  for  2  violins, 
2  tenors,  and  'cello,  1796 ;  op.  5.  Two  Sonatas  for  Pf.  and  'cello,  in  F  and  Gmin., 

1796  ;  op.  6.  Sonata  for  Pf.  duet,  in  D  minor,  1796  ;  op.  7.  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  E  flat, 

1797  ;  op.  8.  Serenade  for  vn.,  tenor,  and  'cello,  in  D,  1786  (?) ;  op.  9.  Three  trios 
for  vn.,  tenor,  and  'cello,  in  G,  D,  and  C  min.,  1797-8;  op.  10.  Three  sonatas  for 
Pf.  in  C  min.,  F,  and  D,  1797-8  ;  op.  II.  Grand  trio  for  Pf.,  clarionet,  and  'cello, 

1798  ;  op.  12.  Three  Sonatas  for  Pf.,  in  D,  A,  and  E  flat,  1799 ;  op.  13.  Sonata 
(pathetic)  for  Pf.,  in  C  min.,  1799  ;  op.  14.  Two  Sonatas  for  Pf.,  in  E  and  G, 
1799 ;  op.  15.  First  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  C,  1795  ;  op.  16.  Grand  Quintet 
for  Pf.,  oboe,  clarinet,  horn,  and  bassoon,  in  E  flat,  1797;  op.  17.  Sonata  for  Pf. 
and  horn,  in  F,  1798  ;  op.  18.  Six  Quartets  for  2  vns.,  tenor,  and  'cello,  in  F,  G, 
D,  C  min.,  A,  and  B  flat,  l8oo  ;  op.  19.  Second  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  B 
fiat,  1795  ;  op.  20.  Septet  for  vn.,  tenor,  horn,  clarinet,  bassoon,  'cello,  and  bass,  in 
E  flat,  i8oo-2;  op.  21.  First  grand  symphony  for  orchestra,  in  C,  iSoo  ;  op.  22. 
Grand  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  B  flat,  1802  ;  op.  23.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  vn.,  in  A  min., 
iSoi  ;  op.  24.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  vn.,  in  F  ;  op.  25.  Serenade  for  Flute,  vn.,  and 
tenor,  in  D,  1802;  op.  26.  Grand  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  A  flat,  1802;  op.  27.  Two 
Sonatas  for  Pf.,  in  E  flat,  and  C  sharp  min.  (popularly  known  as  the  "Moonlight 
Sonata"),  1802;  op.  28.  Grand  Sonata  (Pastorale)  for  Pf.,  in  D,  1802;  op.  29. 
Quintet  for  2  vns.,  2  tenors,  and  'cello,  in  C,  1802  ;  op.  30.  Three  Sonatas  for  Pf. 
and  vn.  A,  C  min.,  and  G,  1802 ;  op.  31.  Three  Sonatas  for  Pf.  in  G,  D  min.,  and 
E  flat,  1803;  op.  32.  Six  Songs  (cantiques)  of  Gellert  for  voice  and  Pf.,  1803; 
op.  33.  Bagatelles  for  Pf.,  1792;  op.  34.  Six  variations  on  an  original  theme,  for 
Pf.,  1803  ;  op.  35.  Fifteen  variations  with  one  Fugue,  for  Pf.,  in  E  flat,  1803; 
op.  36.  Second  Symphony  for  orch.,  in  D,  1804 ;  op.  37.  Third  concerto,  for  Pf. 
and  orch.,  in  C  min.,  1805;  op.  38.  Grand  Trio,  for  Pf,  clarinet,  and  'cello,  in 
E  flat  (arranged  from  op.  20),  1803  ;  op.  39.  Two  Preludes  on  the  major  and  minor 
scales  for  Pf.  or  organ,  1803  ;  op.  40.  Romance  for  vn.  and  orch,  in  G,  1803  ;  op. 
41.  .Serenade  for  Pf.  and  flute,  in  D  (arranged  from  op.  25),  1804  ;  op.  42.  Nocturne 
for  Pf.  and  tenor,  in  D  (arranged  from  op.  8),  1804;  op.  43.  Die  Geschbpfe  des 
Prometheus,  Ballet,  1801 ;  op.  44.  Fourteen  variations  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello,  in 
E  flat,  1804 ;  op.  45.  Three  Grand  Marches  for  Pf.  duet,  in  C,  E  flat,  and  D,  1804; 
op.  46.  "Adelaide,"  cantata  for  tenor  solo  and  Pf.  (Poem  by  Matthison),  in  F 
1797  ;  op.  47.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  vn.,  in  A  (Kreutzer),  1803  ;  op.  48.  Scene  and 
Air — "Ah!  Perfido,"  for  soprano  voice  and  orch.,  1803;  op.  49.  Two  Sonatas 
(easy)  for  Pf,  in  G  min.,  and  D,  1796;  op.  50.  Romance  for  vn.  and  orch.,  in  F, 
1804 ;  op.  51.  Two  Rondos  for  Pf.,  in  C  and  G  ;  op.  52.  Eight  Songs  (or  Liederj 
for  solo  voice  and  Pf.,  1791  ;  op.  53.  Grand  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  C,  1803  ;  op.  54. 
Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  F,  1805-6;  op.  55.  Third  Symphony  for  orchestra  ("Eroica  "), 
in  E  flat,  1802-4;  op-  S^-  Concerto  for  Pf ,  vn.,  and  'cello,  with  orch.,  in  C,  1807  ; 
op.  57.  Grand  Sonata  (Appassionata)  for  Pf.,  in  F  min.,  1803-7  ;  op.  58.  Fourth 
concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  G,  i8o6  ;  op.  59.  Three  Grand  Quartets  for  strings, 
in  F,  E  min.,  and  C,  1806 ;  op.  60.  Fourth  Symphony  for  orch.,  in  B  flat, 
1809;  op.  61.  Concerto  for  vn.  and  orch.,  in  D,  1806;  op.  62.  Overture  ("Cario- 
lan")  for  orch.,  in  C  minor,  1808;  op.  63.  Sonata  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello,  in  E 
flat  (arranged  from  op.  4) ;  op.  64.  Grand  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  'cello,  in  E  flat 
(arranged  from  op.  3)  ;  op.  65.  Scene  and  Air  (Ah !  Perfido,  op.  48),  arranged  for 
Pf.  ;  op.  66.  Twelve  variations  in  F,  for  Pf  and  'cello  ;  op.  67.  Fifth  Symphony 
for  orch.,  in  C  minor,  1809  ;  op.  68.  Sixth  Symphony  for  orch.  ("The  Pastoral") 
in  F,  1S08;  op.  69.  Grand  Sonata  for  Pf  and  'cello,  in  A,  1809;  op.  70.  Two 
Trios  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello,  in  D  and  E  flat,  1809  ;  op.  71.  Sextet  for  2  clarinets, 
2  horns,  and  2  bassoons,  in  E  flat,  1810 ;  op.  72.  Leonore  ("  Fidelio  "),  opera  in  2 
acts,  produced  Vieniia,  Nov.,  1805 ;  London.  1832 ;  in  English,  1835  ;  op. 
73.  Fifth  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  vn.,  in  E  flat,  1811  ;  op.  74.  Quartet 
for  strings,  in  E  flat,  1810 ;  op.  75.  Six  Songs  by  Goethe,  for  solo  voice 
and  Pf.  ;  op.  76.  Variations  for  Pf,  in  D,  1810;  op.  77.  Fantasia 
for  Pf.,  in  G  minor  ;  op.  78.  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  F  sharp,  1810 ;  op.  79.  Sonata  for 
Pf,  in  G,  1810;  op.  80.  Fantasia  for  P,  chorus,  and  orch.,  in  C  minor  (Choral 
Fantasia),  1811  ;  op.  81.  Sonata  (Les  Adieux)  for  Pf,  in  E  flat,  1811  ;  op.  8ia. 
Sextet  for  2  vns.,  tenor,  'cello,  and  2  horns,  oblig.,  in  E  flat,  181 1;  op.  82. 
Four  Ariettas,  and  one  duet,  for  voice  and  Pf. ;  op.  83.  Three  Songs  by  Goethe,  for 
voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  84.  Overture  and  Entr'actes  to  "Egmont"  (Goethe),  1810; 
op.   85.  The  Mount  of  Olives,  oratorio  for  solo  voices,    chorus,   and   orchestra, 

70  BEE  —  BEE 

1800 ;  op.  86.  Mass,  in  C,  for  4  voices  and  orch.,  1810 ;  op.  87.  Trio  for  2  oboes 
and  cor  anglais,  in  C  (arranged  from  op.  53),  1806;  op.  88.  "Das  Gluck  der 
Freundschaft,"  song;  op.  89.  Polonaise  for  Pf,  in  C,  1815;  op.  90.  Sonata  for 
Pf.,  in  E  flat,  1815;  op.  91.  The  Victory  of  Wellington,  or  the  Battle  of  Vittoria, 
for  orchestra,  1816 ;  op.  92.  Seventh  Symphony  for  orch.,  in  A,  1812-16 ;  op.  93. 
Eighth  Symphony  for  orch.,  in  F,  1812-16;  op.  94.  An  die  Hoffnung,  song  for 
solo  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  95.  Quartet  for  2  vns.,  tenor,  and  'cello,  in  F  minor, 
1816  ;  op.  96.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  vn.,  in  G,  1816  ;  op.  97.  Grand  Trio  for  Pf.,  vn., 
and  'cello,  in  B  flat,  1816  ;  op.  98.  An  die  feme  Geliebte,  song  for  voice  and  Pf., 
1816 ;-  op.  99.  Der  Mann  vorn  Wort,  for  solo  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  100.  Merken- 
stein,  ballad  for  solo  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  loi.  Sonata  for  Pf.  in  A  ;  op.  102.  Two 
Sonatas  for  Pf.  and  'cello,  in  C  and  D ;  op.  103.  Grand  Octet  for  2  clarinets,  2 
oboes,  2  horns,  and  2  bassoons,  in  E  flat ;  op.  104.  Quintet  for  2  vns,  2  tenors,  and 
'cello  (arranged  from  op.  i) ;  op.  105.  Six  themes  with  variations  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and 
flute;  op.  106.  Sonata  for  Pf,  in  B  flat  (Hammer-Clavier),  1819 ;  op.  107.  Ten 
themes  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  flute ;  op.  108.  Twenty-five  Scottish  Songs,  arranged  for 
voice,  with  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello  accompt.,  1815;  op.  109.  Sonata  for  Pf,  in  E, 
1822;  op.  no.  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  A  flat,  1823;  op.  in.  Sonata  for  Pf,  in  C, 
1823;  op.  112.  Meerestille  und  Gliickliche— Fahrt  (Goethe),  "Calm  sea  and  a 
prosperous  voyage,"  for  4  voices  and  orch.,  1823;  opp.  113,  114.  The  Ruins  of 
Athens  (cantata  or  secular  oratorio),  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orch.,  1812 ;  op. 
115.  Grand  Overture  for  orch.,  in  C  ;  op.  116.  Trio  for  Soprano,  Tenor,  and  Bass, 
with  orch.  accomp.  ;  op.  117.  Overture,  King  Stephen,  in  E  flat,  i8i2 ;  op.  118. 
Chant  Elegiaque  for  4  voices,  with  accomp.  for  2  vns.,  tenor,  'cello,  and  Pf.  ;  op. 
119.  Twelve  Bagatelles  for  Pf,  1822;  op.  120.  Thirty-three  variations  on  a  valse 
by  Diabelli,  in  C  ;  op.  121.  Adagio,  variations,  and  rondo,  for  Pf.  in  G ;  op.  121a. 
Opferlied,  by  Matthison,  for  solo  voice,  chorus,  and  orch.  ;  op.  122.  Bunderslied 
(Song  of  Federation),  by  Goethe,  for  solo  voices,  and  small  chorus  and  orch.  ;  op. 
123.  Second  Mass  for  4  voices  and  orch.,  in  D,  1822-24  >  °P-  124.  Overture  for 
orch.,  in  C,  1822;  op.  125.  Ninth  Symphony  (Choral  Symphony)  on  Schiller's 
"  Ode  an  die  Freude  "  for  chorus  and  orchestra,  in  D  minor,  1822-23;  op.  126. 
Six  Bagatelles  for  Pf,  1822;  op.  127.  Quartet  for  strings,  in  Eflat;  op.  128.  Der 
Kus,  arietta  for  solo  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  129.  Rondo  a  Capriccio  for  Pf ,  in  G 
(posthumous) ;  op.  130.  Quartet  for  strings  in  B  flat ;  op.  131.  Quartet,  in  C  sharp 
minor,  for  strings,  1825 ;  op.  132.  Quartet  for  strings,  in  A  minor,  1825  ;  op.  133. 
Grand  Fugue  in  B  flat,  for  string  quartet,  1825  ;  op.  134.  Do.,  arranged  for  Pf. 
duet,  1825  ;  op.  135.  Quartet  for  strings,  in  F,  1825  ;  op.  136.  Der  Glorreiche 
Augenblick,  cantata  on  poem  of  Weissenbach's,  for  4  voices  and  oich.,  1814;  op, 
•37-  Fugue  for  2  vns.,  2  tenors,  and  'cello,  Nov.,  1817 ;  op.  138.  Second  Overture 
to  "Leonore,"  for  orch.,  in  C,  1807.  Principal  Unnumbered  Works:  139.  Three 
Quartets  for.Pf.  and  stringed  instruments,  in  E  flat,  D,  and  C  ;  140.  Third  Overture 
to  "Leonore,"  in  C,  for  orch.,  1806;  141.  Rondino  for  2  clarinets,  2  oboes,  2 
bassoons,  and  2  horns,  in  E  flat;  142.  Three  Sonatas  for  Pf.,  in  E  flat,  F  minor, 
and  D,  1780 ;  143.  Variations  (various)  for  Pf.  ;  144.  Numerous  Dances  and 
Marches;  145.  Songs  (various).  Summary — vocal  and  instrumental :  I  Oratorio, 
I  opera,  2  Masses,  2  Cantatas,  I  Ballet.  Instrumental:  9  Symphonies ;  8  Over- 
tures, I  vn.  Concerto,  5  Pf.  Concertos,  i  Octet,  i  Septet,  i  Sextet,  4  Quintets,  17 
Quartets,  18  Trios  (various),  38  Pf.  sonatas.  Songs  (many  single),  etc. 

In  reviewing  Beethoven's  array  of  magnificent  works,  the  handy  classification  of 
the  three  styles  will  be  discarded  for  the  more  convenient  one  of  groups ;  these  will 
consist  of: — 

1.  Orchestral  and  Symphonic  Works. 

2.  Chamber  Music. 

3.  Vocal  Music  ;  and 

4.  Pianoforte  Music. 

The  examination  will  be  confined  to  the  body  of  music  in  each  group,  not  to  each 
single  work  in  detail. 

The  vast  difference  in  regard  to  emotional  colouring  apparent  between  the  works 
of  Haydn  and  Beethoven  is  indicative  to  some  extent  of  the  great  change  which,  at 
the  end  of  last  century,  passed  over  every  art.  In  literature  we  find  the  formal 
scholasticism  of  Gray  and  his  school  giving  place  to  the  tpore  natural  and  genial 
school  of  which  Scott  and  Byron  are  representative,    The  strict  diption  of  the  school 

BEE  —  BEE 


of  Dryden  and  Pope,  as  in  music  that  of  Bach  and  the  classical  writers,  had  been 
succeeded  by  one  of  a  more  human  and  passionate  order.  In  painting,  the  rigidity 
of  West,  Opie,  Fuseli,  and  Barry  had  been  supplanted  by  the  naturalness  of  W ilkie 
and  Landseer.  So  in  music  do  we  now  find,  in  composers  from  Beethoven  till  now, 
a  greater  degree  of  warmth  in  the  treatment  of  poetical  subjects  ;  a  more  manifest 
effort  to  sympathetically  illustrate  the  general  tendency  of  a  chosen  subject. 

Beethoven  is  probably  the  first  composer  who  attempted  to  express  in  instru- 
mental music  the  feelings  which  perhaps  a  poem  would  be  expected  to  engender. 
He  was  the  first  to  give  his  symphonic  writings  the  character  and  consistency  of 
epic  poems.  In  them,  apart  from  the  mechanical  manipulation  of  sweet  sounds,  is 
to  be  found  the  various  degrees  of  light  and  shade  corresponding  to  the  fluctuating, 
events  in  an  epic.  There  is  fire,  energy,  dignity,  depth,  and  many  other  varying 
forms  of  expression  to  be  found  in  the  writings  of  both  Haydn  and  Mozart,  but 
that  consistency  of  purpose  which  enabled  Beethoven  in  the  course  of  a  symphony 
to  impart  a  definite  idea  of  unity  in  his  treatment  of  emotional  elements  is  wanting 
in  both.  A  strict  adherence  to  form,  corresponding  to  the  literature  of  their 
period,  robs  the  music  of  Haydn  and  Mozart  of  much  of  that  passionate  natural , 
character  which  is  so  noticeable  a  characteristic  in  Beethoven.  On  the  one  hand, 
we  have  correct,  melodious,  and  genial  writing ;  on  the  other,  strength  of  concep- 
tion and  beauty  of  execution  in  those  subjects  which  express,  so  far  as  music  can, 
the  varying  feelings  of  man.  The  expressional  powers  of  Beethoven's  symphonies 
are  greatly  superior  to  anything  which  has  ever  been  produced  in  the  form  of  instru- 
mental music.  The  whole  of  the  symphonies  from  No.  3  to  9  are  more  powerfully 
conceived  than  any  others.  Their  character  is  more  elevated  and  noble  than  the 
most  ambitious  efforts  of  his  followers.  Beethoven  regarded  the  orchestra  as  a 
ineans  of  conveying  a  certain  amount  of  his  own  feelings  and  aspirations  to  others. 
That  he  looked  upon  it  as  a  medium  whereby  pictorial  representations  of  certain 
subjects  could  be  produced,  is  not  entertained.  The  orchestra  is  not  of  itself 
capable  of  stimulating  the  imagination  to  the  realization  of  events  of  any  nature. 
Beethoven  wrote  for  the  orchestra  having  in  his  mind  a  subject  or  programme,  which 
he  tried  to  colour  and  illustrate.  He  did  not  pretend,  as  composers  now  do,  to 
create  pictorial  representations  of  events,  or  the  substantial  idea  of  them  by  means 
of  absolute  music  and  a  programme. 

Beethoven  having  left  no  definite  clue  to  the  event  or  passion  which  he  endea- 
voured to  illustrate  in  his  symphonic  works,  it  is  useless  at  this  distant  period  trying 
to  compound  a  programme  to  fit  the  general  tone  of  any  one  of  them,  excepting,  of 
course,  the  "Pastoral."  To  this  he  himself  indicated  in  a  slight  way  the  general 
impression  which  the  music  was  to  illustrate ;  but  beyond  a  few  bird  calls,  his 
account  does  not  extend  to  details  connected  with  the  aspects  of  nature,  strips  of 
blue  sky,  or  so  forth.  It  has  been  said  that  too  romantic  a  standpoint  cannot  be 
taken  when  considering  Beethoven's  works.  To  this  be  added  the  reservation  that 
the  romantic  vapourings  descend  not  to  the  depths  of  the  nonsensical.  The  follow- 
ing criticism  from  the  pen  of  G.  F.  Graham,  and  appearing  in  the  8th  edition  of  the 
Encyclopoedia  Briiannica,  may  be  taken  as  the  general  opinion  on  Beethoven  which 
was  current  forty  or  fifty  years  ago  : — 

"  As  a  composer  Beethoven  stands  in  the  foremost  rank.  He  possessed  a  power- 
ful, inventive,  and  original  mind.  In  respect  of  regularity  of  design,  purity  of 
harmonic  combination,  and  skilful  management  of  all  his  materials,  he  is,  generally 
speaking,  inferior  to  Haydn  and  Mozart.  But  still,  all  his  best  compositions  are 
pervaded  by  an  enthusiastic  spirit  of  inspiration,  a  wild  and  masculine  energy, 
relieved  by  frequent  touches  of  tender  beauty  and  melancholy,  which  stamp  the 
superior  genius  of  the  man,  and  may,  perhaps,  be  said  to  render  his  music  analo- 
gous in  character  to  the  poetry  of  Dante.  His  earlier  works  and  those  of  the 
second  period  of  his  artistic  development  are  his  best.  His  deafness  may  in  a  great 
measure  account  for  the  dry,  crude,  and  unmelodious  style  of  many  of  his  later 
works.  In  vocal  composition  he  was  not  in  general  greatly  successful."  This 
decision  has  been  almost  reversed  at  the  present  period.  His  third  period,  usually 
counted  from  op.  81,  being  now  regarded  as  that  in  which  his  originality  and  powers 
of  poetic  treatment  were  most  manifested. 

Beethoven's  chamber  music,  like  his  other  instrumental  works,  is  highly  original, 
and  an  advance  on  anything  achieved  by  his  predecessors.  This  is  said,  not  with 
regard  to  proportion  or  form,  but  with  regard  to  a  consistent  and  impassioned 
treatment  of  poetic  themes.      Haydn  is  the  more  pleasing  and  genial  quartet  writer 

72  BEE  —  BEE 

of  the  two,  but  he  did  not  carry  the  expressive  capabilities  of  the  quartet  to  the 
height  achieved  by  Beethoven.  Schubert  and  Mendelssohn  equal  Beethoven  in  this 
respect  more  than  Haydn  ;  but  none  of  their  writings  will  ever  be  so  popular  with 
the  masses  as  those  of  Haydn.  The  genial  warmth,  almost  personal  tunefulness  of 
Haydn  hjs  never  been  equalled  by  any  writer  up  to  the  present  time.  Beethoven, 
in  trying  to  make  the  quartet  a  means  of  giving  orchestral  expression  to  his  themes, 
laid  the  foundation  of  the  present  school  of  music  for  stringed  instruments.  The 
endeavour  of  composers  since  Beethoven's  time  has  been  to  expand  the  sphere  of 
the  string  quartet ;  to  place  it  on  a  level  with  the  symphony  as  an  artistic  musical 
form  ;  and  to  give  it  a  somewhat  more  compact  form  than  was  the  practice  with 
the  older  writers. 

Of  his  vocal  music  it  will  be  unnecessary  to  speak  at  length.  His  masses  are  for 
the  concert-room  rather  than  for  the  cathedral ;  because  he  has  expressed  in  them 
his  artistic  ideas  of  musical  combinations  for  effect,  rather  than  assisted  the  devout 
song-offerings  of  Christian  worshippers.  By  straining  after  dramatic  effect  he  has 
utterly  destroyed  the  sacred  character  of  his  music,  and  rendered  it  unfit  for  the 
church  service.  They  are  stupendous  experiments  in  musical  colouring,  suited  only 
to  the  perceptions  of  trained  musicians.  His  opera  is  wedded  to  a  libretto  almost 
"  Bunnish  "  in  absurdity.  The  instrumental  portions  are  beautiful,  as  likewise  are 
many  of  the  vocal  numbers,  but  it  is  dull  so  far  as  purely  dramatic  interest  is  con- 
cerned. He  has  failed  to  seize  the  extremely  few  opportunities  given  him  of  inten- 
sifying the  emotional  situations.  A  musician  can  enjoy  the  ideal  beauty  of  the 
music  abstractly ;  but  as  a  drama  it  fails  to  interest.  It  is,  more  than  any  other 
opera  of  pretension,  a  collection  of  variously  wrought-out  forms  of  music  strung 
together  without  the  least  appearance  of  dramatic  continuity  or  organic  un  i/brmity. 
"  The  Mount  of  Olives  "  is  semi-sacred  throughout,  and  does  not  compare  favour- 
ably with  Mendelssohn's  "Elijah,"  or  Handel's  "JVIessiah;"  nevertheless,  it  is  a 
musical  work  of  the  greatest  beauty,  containing  passages  of  striking  grand  eur,  and 
showing  here  and  there  its  writer's  vast  individuality.  "The  Ruins  of  Athens" 
and  the  incidental  music  to  Goethe's  "  Egmont "  display  in  a  much  great. er  measure 
the  peculiar  character  of  his  style.  But  it  is  chiefly  in  the  orchestral  a'ds  that  the 
full  grandeur  of  his  genius  is  manifested.  The  general  character  of  his  vocal  music 
is  unspontaneous,  and  he  fails  to  obtain  the  same  effects  from  it  that  other  com- 
posers, inferior  to  him  in  many  respects,  gain  with  seeming  ease.  Intricacy  and 
straining  in  vocal  music  is  invariably  destructive  to  its  character,  and  this  is  often 
made  painfully  manliest  in  most  of  Beethoven's  larger  works. 

His  pianoforte  sonatas  stand  among  the  greatest  and  most  original  monuments 
to  the  capabilities  of  that  instrument.  Since  their  production  the  art  of  playing 
the  pianoforte  has  advanced  in  immense  strides.  The  compositions  of  Schumann, 
Mendelssohn,  Brahms,  and  Liszt  have  given  an  entirely  fresh  turn  to  its  powers ; 
and  their  proper  performance  entails  a  degree  of  perfect  techn.que  which  was  for- 
merly only  possessed  by  a  few.  That  the  great  modern  schoo'l  of  Pianoforte  play- 
ing was  founded  by  the  requirements  of  Beethoven's  sonatas  is  indisputable.  The 
works  of  Haydn,  Mozart,  Clementi,  Cramer,  and  Czerny  do  not  present  great  diffi- 
culty to  the  pianist  of  moderate  culture,  while  those  dating  after  Beethoven  and 
Schumann  require  skilful  interpretation  to  produce  the  intended  effect.  Beethoven's 
reputation  as  a  composer  for  this  instrument  will  always  rest  on  his  sonatas  and 
concertos.  While  the  latter  have  been  equalled  by  composers  of  a  more  recent 
date,  it  is  certain  that  the  sonatas  have  not  yet  been  touched  in  their  poetical  and 
lovely  natures,  though  they  have  been  surpassed  where  mere  construction  is  con- 
cerned. His  sonatas  have  been  so  often  analysed,  and  efforts  so  often  made  to 
prove  that  each  was  invested  with  some  underl)  ing  principle  closely  bearing  on  their 
author's  life,  tliat  it  is  unnecessary  to  dilate  on  the  subject. 

There  is  but  a  short  space  left  for  a  brief  summary  of  the  great  revolution  which 
Beethoven  effected  in  instrumental  music.  It  is  well  known  that  previous  to 
Beethoven's  advent  the  endeavour  of  composers  was  to  carefully  develop  and 
embellish  certain  themes  within  the  academic  rules  of  strict  form.  We  do  not  find 
in  the  works  of  either  Haydn  and  Mozart  any  great  degree  of  those  emotional 
characteristics  which  form  so  distinguishing  a  line  of  demarcation  between  them 
and  Beethoven .  They  followed  closely  the  form  of  the  symphony  as  had  been 
accepted  by  others,  though  Haydn  made  the  most  important  additions  to  the  instru- 
mental resources  and  methods  of  treatment,  and  sought  only  to  develop  in  a  pleasing 
^nd   beautifi^l   manner   lovely  melodic  phrases.       Beethoven,   on  the  contrary, 



developed,  so  to  say,  a  thought  of  more  or  less  power  throughout  his  whole  work. 
He  attached  important  significance  to  phrases  which  his  predecessors  only  regarded 
as  essential  but  not  inseparable  portions  of  the  entire  structure.  Each  movement 
of  the  work. was  with  them  a  distinct  piece,  never  altogether  in  accordance  with 
the  sentiment  of  the  others  ;  while  in  Beethoven's  works  each  movement  must  be 
taken  with  the  others  as  necessary  adjuncts  of  an  organic  structure.  Beethoven 
carried  the  expressive  capabilities  of  the  orchestra  far  beyond  anything  ever 
achieved.  Schubert,  Schumann,  Mendelssohn,  and  Brahms,  though  each  marked 
by  a  distinct  individuality,  are  nevertheless  followers  in  the  lines  which  Beethoven 
so  powerfully  laid  down. 

The  following  list  of  works  may  be  profitably  consulted  by  persons  desirous  of 
obtaining  a  full  knowledge  of  Beethoven's  life  and  works  : — Biographische  Notizen 
liber  L.  van  Beethoven.  Wegeler  und  Ries,  1838  ;  French  edit,  by  Legentil,  Paris, 
1862 — Biographie  von  L.  van  Beethoven.  A.  Schindler,  Miinster,  1840;  English 
ed.  by  Moscheles,  Lond.,  2  vols.,  1841 — Beethoven  et  ses  trois  styles.  Lenz.  2 
vols,  1855 — Beethoven  eine  Kunst-studie.  Lenz.  Cassel.  5  vols.,  1855-60 — 
Beethoven  ;  ses  critiques  et  ses  glossateurs.  Oulibicheflf.  Paris,  1857 — L.  van 
Beethoven  Leben  und  Schaffen.  Marx.  2  vols.,  1863 — Chronologisches  Ver- 
zeichniss  der  Werke  L.  van  Beethoven's.  Thayer,  1865 — L.  van  Beethoven's 
Leben.  Thayer,  1866-79.  3  vols. — Beethoven's  Leben.  L.  Nohl.  2  vols.,  1867; 
English  ed.  by  J.  Lalor,  1883 — Letters  from  Collections  of  Nohl  and  Kochel,  trans. 
by  Lady  Wallace.  2  vols,  1 865 — Beethoven,  sa  Vie  et  ses  CEuvres.  Barbedette, 
1870 — Beethoven,  a  Memoir  by  E.  Graeme,  1870 — Beethoven  nach  den  Schilder- 
ungen  seiner  Zeitgenossen,  1S77  ;  English  Trans,  by  E.  Hill,  1880 — Beethoven  by 
Wagner,  trans,  by  Dannreuther,  1880 — Ein  Skizzenbuch  von  Beethoven  aus  dem 
Jahre,  1803.  Nottebohm,  Berlin,  1880 — Beethoven's  Symphonies  Critically  and 
Sympathetically  Discussed,  by  A.  T.  Teetgen.  Lond.,  1879 — Beethoven's  Clavier 
Sonaten  fiir  freunde  der  Tonkunst.  E.  von  Elterlein.  Leipzig,  1856  ;  trans,  by 
E.  Hill.  Lond.,  8vo,  1879. — Also  articles  in  F^tis'  Dictionnaire,  Mendel's  Lexikori, 
Grove's  Dictionary  of  Music,  and  the  following  Periodicals  : — Westminster 
Review,  1839  (vol.  32) ;  Colburn's  New  Monthly  Magazine  (by  Geo.  Hogarth), 
1840  (vol.  62) ;  Boston  Quarterly  Review,  1840  ;  Tail's  Edinburgh  Magazine,  1841 
and  1858  ;  North  American  Review,  1841  (vol.  53)  ;  Bentley's  Miscellany,  1847  ; 
Atlantic  Monthly,  1858;  Journal  of  Speculative  Philosophy,  1868;  Contemporary 
Review,  1866;  Appleton's  Journal,  1870;  Argosy,  1870;  British  Quarterly  Review, 
1871;  Fortnightly  Review,  1872;  Edinburgh  Review,  1873  (vol.  138);  Macmillan's 
Magazine,  1876  (vol.   34) ;  and  Musical  Journals  generally. 

BEGG  (Rev.  James,  D.D.)  Scottish  divine,  B.  1809.  D.  Edinburgh,  1883. 
Author  of  "The  Use  of  Organs  and  other  Instruments  of  Music  in  Christian 
Worship  Indispensible."  Glasgow,  lamo,  1866.  Instrumental  Music  unwar- 
rented  in  the  Worship  of  God."  Edin.,  8vo,  n.  d.  His  father,  the  Rev. 
James  Begg,  D.D.,  minister  of  New  Monkland,  Lanarkshire,  wrote  a  tract 
entitled  "  Treatise  on  the  Use  of  Organs  and  other  Instruments  of  Music  in  the 
Worship  of  God."     Glasgow,  8vo,  1808. 

BEGNIS  (Guiseppe  de).  Italian  barytone  vocalist,  B.  Lugo,  1793.  Sopranist 
at  Lugo  till  1808.  Dibut  at  Modena  in  1813.  Dibut  at  Paris  in  1819. 
Appeared  with  his  wife  in  London,  1822.  Undertook  the  direction  of  opera 
at  Bath  from  1823.     D.  Aug.,  1849. 

BEGNIS  (Claudin  Ronzi  de).  Wife  of  above,  B.  Paris,  Jan.  11,  1800.  Dibut 
at  Paris,  1819.  Appeared  with  her  husband  in  London,  1822.  D.  July  3, 

BEGBEZ  (Pierre  Ignace  M.)  French  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Namur,  Dec,  1787, 
D.  Dec.  1863.     Sang  at  King's  Theatre,  London,  1822. 

BEHNKE  (Emil).  German  writer  and  teacher,  B.  Stettin,  1836.  Teacher  of 
Voice  Production  to  singers,  speakers,  and  speech-sufferers.  Lecturer  on 
Vocal  Physiology.  Author  of  "  The  Mechanism  of  the  Human  Voice."  Lond. , 
1880.  Co-Author  with  Mr.  Lennox  Browne,  F.  R.C.S.,  of  "Voice,  Song,  and 
Speech,  London  (1883);  and  Co-author  with  Mr.  Charles  W.  Pearce,  Mus.  Doc. , 
of ' '  Voice  Training  Exercises, "  Lond  „  r  884 .  '  'The  Child's  Voice, "  Lond. ,  1885 . 

74  BEH  —  BEL 

Mr.  Behnke  has,  for  many  years,  made  the  physiological  laws  of  voice-produc- 
tion his  special  study,  and  he  has  been  so  successtul  in  the  application  of  scientific 
principles  to  the  practical  work  of  teaching,  and  more  particularly  to  the  restoration 
of  voices  impaired  by  false  training,  as  to  have  established  an  entirely  new  profes- 
sion. He  lectures  at  the  foremost  musical  and  scientific  institutions  of  the  country, 
and  is  universally  accepted  as  a  leading  authority  on  all  matters  relating  to  the  voice. 

BEHRENS  (Christoph  Heinrich  Theodor).  German  comp.,  B.  Erckerode, 
Brunswick,  Mar.  27,  1808.     Writer  of  lieder,  etc. 

BEKKEB  (Johann  Heinrich).  Dutch  violinist  and  org.,  B.  Windschoken, 
Groningen,  Jan.  5,  1826.      Writer  of  org.  music,  sacred  music,  songs. 

BELCHER  (J.)  English  writer,  author  of  "Lectures  on  the  History  of  Ecclesi- 
astical Music,"  8vo,  1872. 

BELCHER  (William  Thomas).      English  comp.   and  org.,  B.  Birmingham, 
Mar.  8,  1827.     Org.  of  Great  Barr  Ch.,  Staffordshire,  1856.     Org.  and  Choir- 
master of  St.   Silas'  Lozells,  Birmingham,  1861.      Org.  and  Choir-master  of 
S.  George's  Parish  Ch.,  Birmingham,   1864-78.      Org.  and  Choir-mas^r  of 
Handsworth  Parish  Ch.,  1878-81.     F.C.O.,  1867.      Mus.  Bac,  Oxon.,  1867. 
Mus.  Doc,  do.,  1872.     Org.  and  Choir-master,  Holy  Trinity  Ch.,  Bordesley, 
Works.— Oratorio,  The  Sea  of  Gallilee  (MS.),  Oxford,   1872;   opera,  Estelle 
(MS.)  ;  cantata,  The  Fates  (performed  at  the  Music  School,  Oxford,  July,  1867), 
1868  ;  cantatina.  Excelsior.     Pour-part  Songs:  The  Holly  Tree  and  the  Misletoe; 
Sweet  spring  is  coming  ;    Crowned  with  blushing  roses  ;    The  ripe  fruits  mellow  in 
the  sun;  Give  me  the  lusty  winter  time  ;  I  wish  you  a  merry  Christmas.     Church 
Music :  Sabbath  Harmonies  ;  Four  Hymns ;   Six  Hymns  ;  Full  Anthem  for  Double 
Choir,    from   Psalm  122  ;   Service  in  C  ;  Anthems  from  Psalms  13,   27  ;  Chants, 
etc.       Glees:  Wake,  wake,  each  instrument  of  sound ;   The  Shipwreck ;  Happy 
hearts  in   gladness   met;    Hark!    the   syren  strikes    the    lyre;   Arise    and   go 
forth ;    Merry    Harvest.      The  Clarion,    6   org.    pieces.      Songs :   Songs  of  the 
Convent;    The  Bridegroom's  Serenade  ;  The  Death  of  Wellington  ;  My  home  is  on 
the  mountain  steep  ;  The  brave  and  the  bereaved  ;  'Tis  lovely  May  ;   Come,  then, 
join  our  soldier  band  ;  Our  village  Bells  ;  Ever  mine  !  ever  thine  ;  'Tis  not  when 
smiles  are  brightest ;  Polkas  and  Quadrilles  for  Pf. 

BELCKE  (Friedricll  August).  German  trombone  player  and  comp.,  B.  Lucka, 
Saxony,  May  27,  1795.  Mem.  of  Gewandhaus  orch.,  Leipzig.  Principal 
Trombone  player  in  Royal  Band,  Berlin.     D.  Berlin,  Dec.  10,  1874. 

Works. — His  composition,  over  100  in  number,  consist  of  music  for  the  trom- 
bone, concerted  vocal  music  for  male  voices.  Pianoforte  music,  and  a  few  orches- 
tral pieces.     The  trombone  music  is  among  the  best  of  its  class. 

BELLAMY  (Thomas  Ludford).  English  bass  vocalist,  B.  Westminster,  1770. 
S.  as  Chor.  in  Westminster  Abbey  under  Cooke.  S.  under  Tasca.  Concert 
vocalist  in  London  till  1794.  Stage  manager  of  theatre  in  Dublin,  1794-97- 
Part-proprietor  of  Chester,  Lichfield,  Manchester,  and  Shrewsbury  theatres, 
1800.  Proprietor  of  Belfast,  Londonderry,  and  Newry  theatres,  1803.  Sang 
in  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  1807-12.  Do.  in  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  1812-17. 
Choir-master  at  Chap,  of  Spanish  Embassy,  London,  1819.  Bass  at  Concert 
of  Ancient  Music.  D.  London,  Jan  3,  1843. 
Works. — Songs  and  Part-songs.     Lyric  Poetry  of  Glees,  Madrigals,  Catches, 

Rounds,  Canons,  and  Duets.     Lond.,  8vo,  1840. 
Bellamy  was  for  long  one  of  the  best  English  bass  singers,  and  kept  before  the 

public  for  a  period  of  nearly  half  a  century.      His  voice  was  powerful  in  tone  and 

of  a  round,  full  quality. 

BELLAMY  (Richard).  English  comp.  and  org.,  father  of  preceding,  B.  about 
middle  of  l8th  century.  He  was  a  Bachelor  of  Music,  and  composed  a  "To 
Deum,  for  a  full  orchestra;  also  a  set  of  anthems,"  1788.  His  other  works 
were  anthems,  songs,  and  "Six  Glees  for  3  and  4  voices, "  1 789.  D.  Londen, 
Sept.,  1813. 



BELLASIS  (Edward).  English  writer,  B.  Jan.  28,  1852.  Lancaster  Herald, 
1882.  Author  of  "  Cherubini :  Memorials  Illustrative  of  his  Life."  Lend., 
8vo,  1874.  "The  Law  of  Arms,"  etc.  Com^.  Songs :  Alone  I  wander'd  ; 
Ministering  Spirits ;  The  Haven  ;  Consolation  ;  Waiting  for  the  Morning  ; 
The  Two  Worlds  ;  Tyre  ;  Marionette  Pantomime,  etc. 

BELLETTI  (Giovanni).  Italian  barytone  vocalist,  B.  Lunigiana,  1813.  Dibut 
in  Rossini's  "  II  Barbiere,"  at  Stockholm,  1837.  Appeared  in  London,  1848. 
Sang  with  Jenny  Lind,  under  Sir  Julius  Benedict,  in  the  United  States.  Sang 
in  London  up  till  1863.     Appeared  afterwards  in  several  parts  of  Italy. 

BELL'HAVER  (VincenZO).  Italian  comp.  of  madrigals,  etc.,  B.  Venice,  1530. 
D.  [1589.] 

BELLI  (Giulio).  Italian  comp.,  flourished  in  i6th  and  17th  centuries,  and  wrote 
Masses,  Psalms,  and  other  church  music,  and  two  books  of  madrigals,  1589-92, 

BELLINI  (VincenZO).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Catania,  Sicily,  Nov.  3,  1802.  S. 
under  his  father,  an  organist.  S.  under  Zingarelli  at  Naples  Cons.  Went  to 
Paris,  1834.  Mem.  of  the  Legion  of  Honour.  S.  in  Paris.  D.  Puteaux,  near 
Paris,  Sept.  23,  1835. 

Works. — Operas:  Adelson  e  Salvino,  1825;  Bianca  e  Fernando,  Naples,  1826; 
II  Pirata,  Milan,  1827,  London,  1830;  La  Straniera,  Milan,  1828,  Lond.,  1832; 
Zaira,  Parma,  1829;  II  Capuletti  ed  i  Montecchi,  Venice,  1830,  Lond.,  1833;  La 
Sonnarabula,  Milan,  1831,  Lond.,  1831,  English  version,  1833  ;  Norma,  Milan, 
1832,  Lond.,  1833,  English  version,  1837;  Beatrice  di  Tenda,  Venice,  1833,  Lond., 
1836 ;  I  Puritani,  Paris,  1834,  Lond.,  1835. 

That  school  of  opera  which  depended  for  effect  on  melody  has  now  almost 
entirely  disappeared,  leaving  in  its  place  one  which  pretends  to  more  powerful 
dramatic  character.  The  pure  Italian  school  of  opera  once  so  influential  has  now- 
almost  departed  from  the  stage,  leaving  for  its  representatives  Rossini,  Verdi, 
Donizetti,  and  occasionally  Bellini.  This  applies,  of  course,  only  to  the  British 
stage.  We  find  that  Bellini  and  Donizetti  are  fast  dying  out  of  the  current  musical 
programmes,  and  that  they  who  were  reigning  favourites  twenty  or  thirty  years  ago 
are  now  comparatively  neglected.  This  would  seem  to  denote  that  culture  in  music 
is  quickly  obliterating  the  taste  for  simple  melodies.  Musicians  who  are  not  alto- 
gether one-sided  in  their  leanings  appear  to  delight  in  music  that  exercises  the 
reflective  faculties  rather  than  that  which  passes  time  off  in  an  agreeable  fashion. 

The  numberless  lovely  melodies  of  which  Bellini  was  author,  are  not  in  the  least 
hampered  by  the  text  of  the  opera.  They  are  spontaneous  creations  which  can  be 
sung  with  an  entire  disregard  to  the  poetry  from  which  it  is  supposed  they  spring  ; 
so  meagre  is  the  element  of  dramatic  continuity  possessed  by  them.  They  are, 
moreover,  only  thoroughly  relished  by  denizens  of  the  sunny  south,  to  whom  mere 
outward  beauties  are  most  grateful.  It  is  possible  that,  had  Bellini  lived  long 
enough,  he  would  have  proved  an  ornament  to  modern  Italian  music,  but  rather  in 
the  school  of  Verdi  than  of  Cherubini.  As  it  is,  he  has  proved  himself  a  more 
graceful  melodist  than  the  former,  though  in  every  respect  he  is  much  less  robust  in 
his  manner  of  colouring  emotional  passages.  His  theoretical  knowledge  was  also 
limited,  as  may  readily  be  perceived  from  the  numerous  guitar  passages  with  which 
his  works  abound. 

See  also  articles  in  the  Westminster  Review,  1838  (vol.  31) ;  the  Art  Journal, 
1858;  and  in  the  Musical  Times,  Musical  World,  etc.  A.  Pougin  has  issued  a 
biography  entitled  "Bellini,  sa  vie,  ses  Euvres."     Paris,  1868. 

BELLMAN  (Carl  Gottfried).  German  basoon-player  and  manufacturer,  B. 
Schellenberg,  Saxony,  Aug.  11,  1760.     D.  Dresden,  1816. 

BELOCCA  (Anna  de).  Italian  (?)  mezzo-soprano  vocalist,  B.  St.  Petersburg, 
Jan.,  1854.  Has  appeared  in  London  and  the  English  provinces,  and  been 
everywhere  received  with  favour. 

BEMETZRIEDEB  (?)  French  writer,  B.  Alsace,  1743.  Lived  in  London, 
1781-1810.  Wrote  instruction  books  for  singers  and  instrumentalists.  "  Lejons 
de  Clavecin  et  Principes  d'  Harmonic,"  Paris,  4to,  1771  ;  "New  Guide  to 
Singing,"  London,  etc.  ;   "  New  Less-^ns  for  the  Harpsichord,  containing  the 

7*5  BEN  —  BEN 

Principles  of  Melody  and  of  Harmony,"  etc.,  Lond.,  1783  ;  Music  made  easy 
to  every  capacity,  in  a  series  of  Dialogues. ..Trans,  by  Giffard  Bernard,  M.A., 
London,  1778. 

BENDA  (Franz).      German  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Nov.  25,  1709.      S.  under 
Graun  and  others.     Concert-director  to  Frederick  the  Great,  1771.     D.  Pots- 
dam, Mar.  7,  1786. 
Works.  — Solos,  Exercises,  and  Studies  for  the  Violin. 

Benda  was  one  of  the  founders  of  classical  violin-playing,  and  was  himself 
esteemed  a  great  exponent.  His  son  Friedrich  (1745-1814)  was  also  a  violinist  and 

BENDA  (Friedrich  Ludwig).  German  comp.,  B.  Gotha,  1746.  D.  Kbnigs- 
berg,  Mar.  27,  1792.  Writer  of  operas,  violin-music,  etc.  Son  of  Georg 
Benda,  and  at  one  time  music-director  at  Hamburg. 

BENDA  (Georg).      German  comp.  and  oboe-player,  B.  1721.      Music-director 
to  Duke  of  Gotha.     D.  Thuringia,  1795. 
Works. — Operas:  Ariadne  auf  Naxos,    1774;   Medea;    La  Foire  de  Village, 
1776  ;  Walder,  1777  ;  Le  Bucheron,  1778  ;  Pygmalion,  1780.   Sonatas  for  Harpsi- 
chord ;  Concertos  for  Clavecin  ;  Cantatas,  etc. 

BEND  ALL  (WUfred  Ellington).     English  comp.,  B.  London,  April  22,  1850. 

S.  harmony  and  comp.  under  Charles  Lucas  and  E,  Silas.     S.  also  at  Leipzig 

Cons.,  1872-74. 

Works. — Operettas:  Lovers'  Knots,  St.  George's  Hall,  1880;  Opera  Comique, 

1881.     Quid  pro  Quo,  1880.      Cantatas:  Parizadeh,  produced  at  St.  James' Hall, 

by  Willing's  Choir,  April,  1884 ;   The  Lady  of  Shalott,  for  female  voices ;   The 

Rosiire,  for  female  voices.     Part-songs  and  trios;    Numtrous  songs  and  duets; 

Pianoforte  pieces,  various. 

BENDEL  (Carl).  Bohemian  comp.,  B.  Prague,  April  16,  1838.  Writer  o 
masses,  an  opera,  songs,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BENDEL  (Franz).      Bohemian  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Bohemia,  Mar.  3,  1833. 
A  popular  pianist  and  composer.     D.  Berlin,  1874. 
Works. — A  large  quantity  of  miscellaneous  Pianoforte  music  principally  of  the 
drawing-room  kind.     These  are  characterized  by  great  brilliancy,  and  many  of  them 
are  spirited  and  taking  in  so  far  as  rhythm  and  melody  are  concerned, 

BENDER  (Jacob).  German  comp.,  B.  Worms,  1798.  D.  Antwerp,  August  9, 
1844.     Writer  of  instrumental  music. 

BENDER  (Valentin).  Brother  of  the  above,  B.  Bechtheim,  Worms,  1800. 
Wiiter  of  military  music,  etc. 

BENDIX  (Carl).     Swedish  operatic  comp.,  B.  Stockholm,  1818. 

BENDIX  (Otto).  Danish  pianist  and  teacher,  B.  Copenhagen,  1850.  Son  of 
Emanuel  Bendix,  merchant  and  amateur  musician.  S.  in  Copenhagen  under 
A.  R^e  and  N.  W.  Gade.  S.  in  Berlin  under  Kullak  ;  in  Weimar  under  Liszt. 
Teacher  of  Pf.  in  Copenhagen  Cons.,  and  oboe  player  in  the  Royal  Theatre 
orch.  Settled  in  Boston,  18S0.  Teacher  of  Pf.  in  the  New  England  Cons,  of 
Music.  Has  comp.  a  few  pieces  for  Pf.  and  other  instruments.  "With... 
brilliancy  of  execution  and  a  clearness  of  interpretation,  he  combines  what  not 
all  artists  do — rare  fitness  as  a  teacher."  Has  played  in  Europe  and  America 
with  great  success.     [Musical Herald,  Boston.] 

BENEDICT  (Sir  Julius).  German  comp.  B.  Stuttgart,  Nov.  27,  1804.  S. 
under  Hummel  and  Weber.  First  works  published,  1821.  Musical-Director 
of  Kiirntner  Thor  Theatre,  Vienna,  1824.     Cond.  at  Naples.     Went  to  Paris, 

1835.  Settled  in  London,  1835.      Musical-Director  of  the  Lyceum  Theatre, 

1836.  Travelled  in  America  with  Mdlle.  Jenny  Lind,  1850.  Cond.  at  H.M. 
Theatre.  Knighted  by  Queen  Victoria,  1871.  ICnight-Commander  of  the 
orders  of  Francis  and  Joseph  (Austria),  1871.  Do.  of  order  of  Frederic  (Wur- 
temberg),  1S71.      Cond.  Liverpool  Musical  Festival,  1874,      Has  been  twig? 

feEN  —  BEI4  77 

married.  President  of  the  Schubert  Soc.  Prof,  of  Pianoforte  at  Trinity  Coll., 
London.  Prof,  at  the  R.A.M.  Mem.  of  Royal  Soc.  of  Musicians  ;  the  Phil- 
harmonic Soc.  Presented  with  a  Testimonial,  1884. 
Works. — Operas:  Un  Anno  ed  un  Giorno,  1836;  The  Gipsey's  Warning,  1838; 
Giacinta  ed  Ernesto,  1827;  I  Portoghesi  in  Goa,  1830;  The  Brides  of  Venice, 
1846  ;  The  Crusaders,  1846  ;  The  Lily  of  Killarney,  by  Boucicault  and  Oxenford, 
London,  1862  ;  The  Bride  of  Song,  1864.  Oratorios:  The  Legend  of  St.  Cecilia, 
Norwich  Festival,  1866;  St.  Peter,  Birmingham,  1S70.  Cantatas:  Undine,  op. 
70,  Norwich  Festival,  i860 ;  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  Norwich  Festival,  1863  ; 
Graziella,  Birmingham  Festival,  1882;  Recitatives  for  Weber's  "Oberon,"  1S60. 
Symphony,  1873.  Pianoforte  Music:  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  op.  89  ;  Do.  in 
C  minor,  op.  45  ;  Nocturnes ;  Rondos  ;  Instructions  in  the  Art  of  Playing  the 
Pianoforte ;  Exercises,  Studies,  Scales,  Lessons,  etc.  ;  Idylles,  Reveries,  Im- 
promptus, Marches,  Souvenirs,  etc.,  for  Pf.  solo  and  duet,  published  between  1821 
and  1880  by  Ricordi,  Milan ;  Hofmeister,  Leipzig ;  Steiner,  Vienna ;  Schott, 
Peters,  and  London  publishing  firms.  Anthems:  Try  me,  O  God  ;  The  Lord  be  a 
lamp;  Praise  the  Lord;  etc.  Part-Songs:  Home;  Summer  is  nigh  ;  Old  May 
day;  A  night  song  ;  Sylvan  pleasures  ;  The  wreath;  The  hunting  song  ;  Sweet 
repose  is  reigning  now  ;  Homeward  bound  ;  May,  etc.  Songs :  Dreamy  Eyes  ; 
England  yet ;  Come  where  the  willows  ;  By  the  sad  sea  waves  ;  Sleep  on,  sad 
heart ;  The  gipsy  and  the  bird  ;  Alone  ;  Lost ;  The  bird  that  came  in  spring  ; 
While  the  wood  grows ;  As  weeping  on  my  heart  she  lay  ;  Medora's  song  ;  Morn- 
ing ;  Thoughts  at  eve  ;  Little  Willie  ;  A  spring  thought ;  Mine,  thou  art  mine  ; 
When  my  thirsty  soul  I  steep  ;  The  echo  song  ;  The  parting  ;  Love  at  sea  ;  Rock 
me  to  sleep  ;  Sighing  for  thee  ;  Angel  adored  ;  Come  to  our  fairy  bower  ;  O  do  not 
scorn  my  love  ;  Welcome  to  our  Prince  ;  Alma  adorata.  Lectures  on  various  sub- 
jects. "Weber"  (Great  Musicians),  Lond.,  8vo,  1881.  Contributions,  chiefly 
didactic,  to  musical  periodicals. 

"  The  Lily  of  Killarney,"  "  St.  Peter,"  and  "  St.  Cecilia  "  are  Benedict's  finest 
and  most  popular  works.  The  first  is  an  especial  favourite,  and  when  rendered, 
rarely  fails  in  securing  well-merited  success.  The  melodies  are  fine,  the  orchestra- 
tion is  scholarly,  and  the  general  construction  of  the  music  is  highly  dramatic  and 
well  adapted  to  the  nature  of  the  situations.  His  sacred  music  is  less  successful. 
This  is  depending  greatly  on  a  somewhat  secular  treatment  of  sacred  subjects.  The 
music  in  "  St.  Peter  "  is,  from  a  musician's  point  of  view,  beautiful  and  refined,  but 
it  is  lacking  in  tender  sacred  spirit. 

BENEDIT  (Pierre  Gustave).  French  writer  and  comp.,  B.  Marseilles,  April 
7,  1802.     D.  Dec.  8,  1870. 

BENELLI  (Antonio  Peregrine).  Italian  comp.,  B.  at  Forli,  Rome,  Sept.  s, 
1 77 1.  D.  Aug.  6,  1830.  Writer  of  Pf.  music,  church  music,  cantatas, 
songs,  etc. 

BENESCH  (Josef).  Austrian  comp.,  B.  Battelau,  Moravia,  1795.  D.  Feb. 
II,  1873.     Comp.  Pf.  music,  songs,  etc. 

BEITEVOLI    (Orazio).      Italian    comp.,   B.    Rome,    1602.      Chap. -master  of 
Vatican,  1646.     D.  Rome,  June,  1672. 
Works. — Masses  for  8  voices,  motets,  magnificats,  etc. 

BENINCORI  (Angelo  Maria).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Brescia,  1779.  S.  under 
Cimarosa.     D.  Paris,  Dec.  30,  1821.      Comp.  operas  and  instrumental  music. 

BENJAMIN  (J.)  American  musician,  of  Northampton,  Mass.,  issued  "  Har- 
monia  Coelestis,  1799.  A  collection  of  church  music  in  which,  for  the  first 
time  in  America,  use  is  made  of  accompaniments  for  harpsichord  or  organ. 

BENEERT  (George  F).  American  comp.,  B.  Germantown,  Penn.,  April  11, 
1831.  S.  under  ].  F.  Duggan  at  Philadelphia,  and  Lindpainter  in  Germany. 
Teacher  in  America.     Comp.  miscellaneous  vocal  and  instrumental  music. 

BENNET  (John).  English. comp.,  flt)urished  at  the  end  of  i6th  and  beginning 
of  17th  centuries  [1570-1615]. 

78  bEN  —  BEN 

Works. — Madrigals  to  four  voyces,  being  his  first  worlcs,  1599  ;  Madrigal,  "All 
creatures  now  are  merry  minded,"  in  the  "  Triumphs  of  Oriana,"  1601 ;  Songs  in 
a  collection  published  by  Ravenscroft ;  O  God  of  Gods,  verse  anthem,  Sacred 
Harmonic  Society's  Library ;  Anthems  and  Madrigals  in  MS. 

"  His  madrigals  are  finely  studied,  and  abound  with  all  the  graces  and  elegance 
of  vocal  harmony."  Bennet  was  one  of  the  ornaments  of  the  Madrigalean  period, 
and  will  doubtless  descend  to  posterity  bearing  a  name  for  fine,  melodious  writing. 
Nothing  as  to  his  biography  appears  to  have  been  chronicled.  His  book  of  madri- 
gals was  re-published  in  1845  by  the  Musical  Antiquarian  Society. 

BENNET  (Saunders).      English  org.,  pianist,  and  comp.,  B.  in  last  quarter  of 
1 8th  century.     Org.  of  Ch.  at  Woodstoclc.     D.  1809. 
Wrote  some  vocal  music  (glees  and  songs),  and  a  number  of  rondos,  sonatas, 
variations,  etc.,  for  the  organ  and  Pf. 

BENNETT  (Alfred).   Sonof  Thomas  Bennet,  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1805.   S.  under 

his  Father.     Org.  of  New  Coll.,  Oxford,  1825.     Mus.  Bac.  Oxon.    D.Oxford, 


Works, — Church  Services  and  Anthems  ;    Chants,  1829  ;   Songs;    Instructions 

for  the  Pianoforte,  with  popular  National  Airs  arranged  as  Lessons.     Lond.  [1825]. 

BENNETT  (James).  English  comp.  and  writer,  author  of  "  A  Practical  Intro- 
duction to  Part  and  Sight-singing,"  London,  1843;  "Elementary  Exercises 
for  the  Cultivation  of  the  Voice,"  London  fo.  n.d. 

BENNETT  (Thomas).     English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1779.     Chor.  in  Salisbury 
Cath.     S.  under  Joseph  Corfe.      Org.  of  St.  John's  Chap.,  Chichester.     Do. 
of  Chichester  Cath.,  1803.     D.  Chichester,  March  21,  1848. 
Works. — Introduction  to  the  Art  of  Singing,  London,  fo.  n.d. ;  Songs  and  organ 

pieces  ;  Sacred  Melodies — a  collection  of  Psalms  and  Hymns,  composed,  selected, 

and   adapted   for   Divine   Worship,    London,    8vo,    n.d.  ;    Cathedral    Selections, 

Anthems,  Chants,  etc.,  n.d. 

BENNETT  (Joseph).  English  writer  and  musician,  B.  Berkeley,  Gloucester- 
shire, Nov.,  1831.  Musical  critic  successively  in  connection  with  the  Sunday 
Times,  Musical  Standard,  Daily  Telegraph,  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  Graphic,  and 
Musical  Times,  To  the  Daily  Telegraph  and  the  Musical  Times  most  of  his 
important  writings  have  been  contributed.  Editor  of  Concordia,  1874,  and  of 
the  Lute,_  1884.  Author  of  "The  Musical  Year"  [1883],  London,  1884; 
Biographies  of  Musicians  (Berlioz,  Chopin),  1884,  reprinted  from  Musical 
Times,  and  numerous  analyses  for  festival  and  concert  use. 

BENNETT  (William).      English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  near  Teignmouth,  1767. 
S.  under  Jackson  of  Exeter,  and  J.  C.  Bach  and  Schroeter,  London.     Org.  of 
St.  Andrew's  Ch.,  Plymouth.     D.  [?] 
Works. — Six  Songs  and  a  Glee,  London  [1799]  ;  Anthems  and  organ  music,  etc. 

BENNETT  (William  Cox).  English  lyrical  author,  B.  Greenwich,  1820. 
Has  written  a  number  of  good  songs,  and  some  long  poems,  chiefly  on 
domestic  subjects,  of  much  merit.  He  wrote  "  Songs  for  Sailors,"  in  conjunc- 
tion with  J.  L.  Hatton,  and  numerous  lyrics  which  have  been  set  by  various 

BENNETT  (Sir  William  Stemdale).  English  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Sheffield, 
April  13,  1816.  S.  as  chor.  in  choir  of  King's  Coll.,  Cambridge,  under  his 
grandfather,  John  Bennett.  Received  subsequent  instruction  from  Charles 
Lucas,  Dr.  Crotch,  Cipriano  Potter,  and  W.  H.  Holmes.  S.  at  Leipzig  Cons., 
under  Moscheles,  at  expense  and  on  suggestion  of  Messrs.  Broadwood  & 
Sons,  Pianoforte  makers,  1836-40.  Appeared  in  England  as  concert-giver, 
1843-1856.  Unsuccessful  candidate  for  Music  Professorship  at  Edinburgh 
University,  1844.  Married  to  Miss  Mary  Ann  Wood,  1844.  Founded  (with 
others)  the  Bach  Society,  1849.  Cond.  the  Philharmonic  Soc.  Concerts,  1856- 
66.  Cond.  the  Leeds  Musical  Festival,  1858.  Prof,  of  Music  at  Cambridge, 
1856.  Mus.  Doc,  Cambridge,  1856.  M.A.,  Cambridge,  1857.  Principal  of 
the  R.A.M,,  1866.  D.C.L.,  Oxford,  1870.  Knighted,  1871.  Presented 
with  Testimonial,  1872.     D.  London,  Feb.  I,  1875. 

feEN  — feEM  7^ 

Works. — Op.  r.  First  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  D  minor,  1832;  op.  2- 
Capriccio  for  Pf,  in  D ;  op.  3.  Overture  for  full  orch.,  Parisina.  1834-35  >  "?■  4- 
Second  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  E  fiat;  op.  8.  Sestet  for  Pf.  and  strings, 
1844;  op.  9.  Third  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  C  minor,  1834;  op.  10.  Three 
Musical  Sketches  for  Pf.  ;  op.  11.  Six  Studies  for  the  Pf.  ;  op.  12.  Three 
Impromptus  for  Pf.  ;  op.  13.  Sonata  for  Pf.,  1842 ;  op.  14.  Three  Romances  for 
Pf.  ;  op.  15.  Overture  for  full  orch.,  The  Naiads,  1 836;  op.  16.  Fantasia  for  Pf., 
1842 ;  op.  17.  Three  Diversions  for  Pf.  duet ;  op.  18.  Allegro  Grazioso  for  Pf.  ; 
op.  19.  Fourth  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  F  minor,  1836-1849  ;  op.  20.  Over- 
ture for  full  orch.,  The  Wood  Nymph,  1840  ;  op.  22.  Caprice  in  E.  for  Pf.  and 
orch.,  1840 ;  op.  23.  Six  Songs  for  solo  voice  with  Pf.  accomp.  ;  op.  24.  Suite  de 
Pieces,  for  Pf..  1843  ;  op.  25.  Rondo  Piacevale  for  Pf.  ;  op.  26.  Trio  for  Pf.,  vn., 
and  'cello,  1844;  op-  27.  Scherzo  for  Pf. ;  op.  28.  Rondino  for  Pf.,  1853;  op. 
29.  Two  Studies  for  Pf.  ;  op.  30.  Four  Sacred  Duets  ;  op.  31.  Tema  e  Variazione 
for  Pf.  ;  op.  32.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  'cello,  1852  ;  op.  33.  Sixty  Preludes  and  Les- 
sons for  Pf.,  1853 ;  op.  34.  Rondo  for  Pf.  ;  op.  35.  .Six  Songs  (second  set)  {or 
voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  36.  Flowers  of  the  Month ;  op.  38.  Toccato  for  Pf. ;  op.  39. 
The  May  Queen,  a  Pastoral,  by  H.  F.  Chorley  (cantata)  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and 
orch.,  Leeds  Musical  Festival,  1858  ;  op.  40.  Ode,  written  for  the  opening  of  the 
International  Exhibition,  1862,  by  (Lord)  Alfred  Tennyson,  1862 ;  op.  41.  Cambridge 
Installation  Ode,  1862 ;  op.  42.  Fantasie-overture,  Paradise  and  the  the  Peri,  for 
full  orch.,  1862  ;  op.  43.  Symphony  for  full,orch.  in  G  minor  ;  op.  44.  The  Woman 
of  Samaria,  an  oratorio,  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orch.,  Birmingham  Festival, 
1867  ;  op.  45.  Music  to  Sophocles'  Ajax  ;  op.  46.  Pianoforte  Sonata,  The  Maid  of 

In  addition  to  the  above  he  wrote  overtures  (The  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,  etc. ), 
songs,  part-songs,  Pf.  music,  and  collections  of  chants,  etc.,  most  of  which  have 
been  published. 

Bennett  holds  a  unique  position  in  English  musical  history.  No  other  modern 
Englishman  has  attained  equal  prominence  as  a  composer  of  instrumental  music  ; 
nor  has  any  one  of  the  recent  composers  achieved  more  universal  fame.  His  works 
are  chiefly  remarkable  on  a  first  examination  for  their  exquisite  finish  and  air  of 
refinement — a  characteristic  peculiar  to  Bennett  above  all  Englishmen.  The  works 
best  known  to  the  general  public  are  his  overtures,  his  cantata,  and  oratorio.  The 
symphony  in  G  minor  and  the  Pianoforte  concertos  are  of  less  frequent  occurrence 
in  concert  programmes,  from  which  it  may  be  inferred  that  they  are  less  appreciated 
or  less  known.  The  overtures  are  among  the  finest  specimens  of  imaginative 
writing  ever  produced  in  Britain.  We  say  nothing  of  their  grandeur,  for  no  pre- 
tence is  made  in  that  direction,  but  as  purely  fanciful  pieces  of  writing  they  are 
among  the  foremost.  The  "Naiads  "  is  a  most  lovely  work,  graceful  and  melodious 
in  character,  and  entirely  free  from  constructional  defect.  "  The  Parisina  "  over- 
ture is  also  of  great  beauty  and,  considering  its  author's  experience  when  written. 
a  gem  among  concert  overtures,  and  is  thoroughly  deserving  of  its  popularity. 

The  G  minor  symphony  does  not  really  receive  the  amount  of  attention  which  its 
merits  claim.  T  hough  not  a  work  of  the  greatest  power,  nor  one  which  displays  the 
highest  degree  of  imagination,  it  is  still  a  superior  work,  and  one  which  excites 
considerable  interest  in  performance.  The  "May  Queen,"  cantata,  shares  with 
Macfarren's  "  May  Day  "  the  greatest  popularity  among  provincial  choral  societies. 
It  is  thoroughly  English  in  style,  and  is  full  of  pleasant  melody  and  charming 
harmony.  It  is  a  work  which  never  fails  in  pleasing,  and  conclusively  shows  that 
Bennett  had  the  art  of  writing  well,  even  to  a  popular  level.  It  is  frequently  given 
in  England,  and  is  well  deserving  of  the  attention  bestowed  on  it.  His  finest  choral 
work  is  least  often  given  of  all.  "  The  Woman  of  Samaria,"  though  crowded  from 
beginning  to  end  with  beauties  of  every  variety,  appears  to  receive  less  favour  from 
musical  societies  than  its  surpassing  merits  would  seem  to  warrant.  At  any  rate,  it 
appears  much  less  frequently  in  the  prospectuses  of  choral  societies  than  it  should. 
Its  difficulty  may  be  an  obstacle  ;  but  the  neglect  is  none  the  less  shameful. 

The  pianoforte  compositions  are  beautiful  and  valuable  contributions  to  this 
important  branch  of  musical  art,  and  his  concertos,  if  less  given  than  they  ought, 
■are  perhaps  amply  counterbalanced  for  their  neglect  by  the  popularity  of  the  minor 
pieces.  Many  of  them  have  vast  popularity  both  in  Britain  and  America,  and  fre- 
quently appear  in  the  programmes  of  the  best  performers  in  the  latter  country. 

Bennett  must  ever  be  known  as  one  ^f  Britain's  men  of  mark,  and  his  name  will 

8o  Sen  —  BEk 

always  be  mentioned  with  respect.  No  more  conscientious  artist  ever  lived  in 
England,  nor  one  who  has  done  more  to  raise  the  musical  taste  of  the  British 
people.  His  influence  over  that  important  institution,  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  was  felt  to  be  great,  and  it  is  owing  to  him  that  much  of  its  present  success 
is  due.  His  influence  in  developing  the  higher  forms  of  musical  art  in  England 
has  continued  with  strengthening  power  from  year  to  year,  and  though  it  is  not 
presently  very  widely  recognised,  it  must  still  stand  to  his  credit  that  to  his  impulse 
may  be  attributed  much  of  the  present  manifestations  of  popular  interest  in  music. 
His  works  are  among  the  most  beautiful  creations  in  the  whole  range  of  musical  art, 
and  what  they  lack  in  power  and  vigour  is  amply  made  up  in  polish  and  refinement. 
An  interesting  article  on  this  musician  will  be  found  in  Frasers  Magazine,  v.  91-92. 

BENOIST  (Francois).  French  comp.,  org.,  and  writer,  B.  Nantes,  Sept.  10. 
1794.  S.  at  Paris  Cons,  under  Catel  and  Adam.  Org.  of  Chap.  Roy.,  Paris, 
Prot.  of  Org.,  Paris  Cons  ,  1819.  Chevalier  of  Legion  of  Honour,  1851.  D. 
Paris,  May,  1878. 

Works. — Felix  et  Leonore,  opera,  1821 ;  Diable  Amoureux,  ballet,  1848;  Other 
ballets,  etc.  ;  Organ  music,  fugues,  etc. 

Benoist  is  chiefly  famous  as  a  teacher  and  organist.  Among  his  more  famous 
pupils  may  be  named  Lefebure-Wely,  Chauvet,  Batiste,  Vilbac,  Bazin,  Bizet, 
Duvernoy,  Salome,  Dubois,  and  Paladilhe. 

BENOIT  (Pierre  Leonard  Leopold).  Belgian  comp.,  B.  Harelbeker,  August 
17,  1834.  S.  under  Fetis  at  Brussels  from  1851.  Gained  prizes  for  harmony, 
etc.     Violinist  in  theatre  at  Brussels.     Director  of  Music  School  at  Antwerp. 

Works. — Operas:  De  Belgische  Natie,  1856;  Het  dorp  in't  gebergte,  1857; 
Isa,  1867.    Lucifer,  oratorio,  1866.     Instrumental  and  church  music. 

BENOin  (Griulio).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Vienna,  1835  (or  Strelohostic,  Bohemia, 
1833).     Writer  of  operas,  songs,  etc. 

BENTAYOUX  (Frederic).  French  comp.,  B.  Bordeaux,  June  14,  1840. 
Writer  of  operettas,  etc. 

BENTLEY  (John  Morgan).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Manchester,  Sept.  3, 

1837.      Org.  of  S.  Philip's,  Salford,   1855  ;    S.  Stephen's,  Manchester,  i860  ; 

S.  Saviour's,  Manchester,  1866;    Bowdon  Parish  Ch.,  1868;    Cheadle  Abbey 

Ch.,  1877.    Mus.  Bac.  Cantab.,  1877.    Mus.  Doc,  do.,  1879.    Local  Examiner 

for  R.A.M.,  1881.     Established  the  Academy  of  Music,  S.  Ann's,  Manchester, 

1870.     Cond.  successively  the  following  musical  societies  : — S.  Philip's  Choral, 

S.  Stephen's  do.  ;  S.  Saviour's  do. ;  Lea  Choral ;  Bowdon  Musical ;  S.  Cecilia, 

Winsford  ;  S.  Cecilia,  Blackburn  ;  Eccles  Choral ;  Cheadle  Choral.    Prov.  Gr. 

Organist  of  East  Lancashire,  1 881. 

Works. — Gethsemane,  dramatic  cantata,  1877  (Mus.  Bac.  Exercise) ;  What  is 

Life?   oratorio,   1879  (Mus.  Doc.  Exercise);    Yuletyde,  cantata  for  mixed  voices 

(Hutchings  &.Romer) ;  The  Golden  Butterfly,  cantata  for  female  voices  (Hutchings); 

Horse  .Sacrse,  a  series  of  sacred  pieces  for  Violin  and  Piano  ;  The  Two  Violinists,  a 

series  of  duets  for  Violins  with  Pf.  accompaniment ;  Vesper  Canticles  (Novello) ; 

Psalter  pointed  and  Psalter  chants  (Heywood,   Manchester)  ;  Symphony  for  full 

orchestra  (MS.),  and  other  orchestral  works  ;  numerous  songs  published  by  Metzler 

&  Co.,  Hutchings  &  Romer,  DufFft  Stewart,  Novello  &  Co.,  etc. 

BENVENUTI.     (Tommaso).     Italian  operatic  comp.,  B.  1834. 

BEBANGER  (Pierre  Jean  de).  French  lyrical  author,  B.  Paris,  Aug.  19,  1780. 
D.  Paris,  July  16,  1857.  His  songs  have  been  often  set  by  various  composers, 
and  are  well  adapted  for  musical  treatment.  A  collection  of  them  has  been 
published  with  the  music. 

BEBAT  (Eustache).  French  comp.,  B.  Rouen,  Dec.  4,  1791.  Writer  of  songs 
and  Pf.  music.     D.  Neuilly,  January,  1885. 

BEBBIG-UIEB  (Benoit  Tranquille).  French  comp.  and  flute-player,  B. 
Caderousse,  Vaucluse,  Dec.  21,  1782.    S.  at  Paris  Cons.    Served  in  the  Army, 

BER  —  BER  8l 

1813-19.      Teacher  and  concert-giver  from  1830.      D.  near  Blois,  January  29, 

Works.— Op.  i.  Three  solos  for  flute  ;  op.  2.  Three  duets  for  flutes  ;  op.  3. 
Duets  for  Flute  ;  op.  4.  Three  duets  for  flute  ;  opp.  5,  6,  7,  Duets  for  flute ;  opp. 
8,  9,  10,  II,  12,  13,  14,  15,  16,  17.  Solos,  trios,  etc.,  for  flute  and  other  instru- 
ments ;  op.  18.  Concerto  for  flute  and  orch.,  in  B  minor  ;  op.  2z.  Three  duets  for 
flute,  in  E  minor,  C  and  D  ;  op.  23.  Three  sonatas  for  flute  and  'cello  ;  opp.  26,  27. 
Concertos  for  flute  and  orch.,  in  E  min.  ;  opp.  29,  30.  Concertos  for  flute  and  orch., 
in  G  minor,  and  E  flat ;  op.  33.  Three  trios  for  flutes,  in  G,  E,  and  A ;  op.  37. 
Three  trios  for  flute,  violin,  and  alto,  in  E  flat,  E,  and  D ;  op.  44.  Concerto  for 
flute  and  orch.,  in  D  ;  op.  50.  Symphony  concertante  for  2  flutes  and  orch.,  in  A ; 
op.  54.  Concerto  for  flute  and  orch.,  in  D  ;  op.  74.  Concerto  for  flute  and  orch., 
inD;  op.  86.  Quartet  for  flute,  violin,  viola,  and  'cello.  Method  for  the  Flute. 
The  op.  numbers  omitted  in  the  foregoing  list  are  chiefly  solos,  duets,  fantasias, 
etc.,  for  the  flute  and  other  instruments. 

Berbiguier's  writings  for  the  flute  possess  much  that  is  eminently  suitable  to  its 
character  and  powers  of  expression,  and  they  are  in  constant  use  among  flute  players 
all  over  the  world. 

BERCHEM  (Jachet),  Flemish  comp.,  B.  Berchem,  near  Antwerp,  in  first 
quarter  of  i6th  century  [or  about  1500].  Musician  in  service  of  the  Duke  of 
Mantua.     Supposed  to  have  died  in  1 580. 

Works. — Libro  primus,  vocum  quinque,  Vigenti  Motetos,  1539;  II  primo  libro 
di  Motetti  di  Jachet,  a  cinque  voci,  1540  ;  II  primo  libro  di  Motetti  a  quattro  voci, 
1545  ;  II  primo  libro  de  madrigali  a  quattro  voci,  1556 ;  Capriccio  di  Jachetto 
Berchem  con  la  musica  da  lui  composta  sopra  le  stanze  del  Furioso,  a  quattro  voci, 
4to,  1561  (3  books) ;  Orationes  complures  ad  offic — Hebdom — Sanctse  pertinentes 
quatuor  et  quinque  vocum,  1567  ;  Messe  dei  Fiore  a  cinque  voci,  libro  primo,  1561 ; 
Messe  di  Jachetto  a  cinque  voci,  Libro  2,  1555. 

Berchem's  works  are  marked  by  a  simplicity  of  construction  rarely  found  in  works 
of  the  polyphonic  period  in  which  he  lived.  His  part-songs  from  Ariostn's  "  Orlando 
Furioso  "  are  ingenious  in  construction  and  clear  in  design.  He  is  regarded  as  one 
of  the  leading  Flemish  composers  of  the  i6th  century. 

BEBENS  (Hermann).  German  comp.,  B.  Hamburg,  1826.  Cond.  of  theatre 
in  Stockholm.     Teacher  and  cond.  there.    D.  May  9,  1880. 

Works. — Operas:  Song  of  a  Night;  LuUy  und  Quinault,  1859;  Riccardo,  1869. 
Org.  and  Pf.  music:  Fantasia  for  org.,  op.  25  ;  Mazurka  di  Bravura,  op.  35  ;  Two 
Studies,  op.  36 ;  Caprice  Humoristique,  op.  37 ;  Dorfgeschichten,  op.  40 ;  Noc- 
turne, op.  41 ;  Le  Zephyr,  op.  43  ;  Grand  Caprice,  op.  54 ;  Bolero,  op.  57 ;  Neue 
Dorlgeschichten,  op.  82  ;  Idylle,  op.  34  ;  Etudes  de  la  Velocite  (Pf.),  op.  61  ;  Six 
easy  Sonatas  (Pf.)  op.  81.  Quartets  and  Trios  for  stringed  instruments;  Overtures 
for  orch.     Songs  and  Part-songs,  etc. 

Berens  is  well  known  among  modern  composers  for  the  Pianoforte  by  many 
graceful  contributions  to  the  general  store. 

BERG  (Adam).    German  music  publisher  who  flourished  between  the  years  1540- 
1590.     He  is  supposed  to  have  died  early  in  the  17th  century. 
"Patrocinium  Musices,"  1573-1589  is  his  principal  publication,  and  is  a  collec- 
tion of  sacred  music  containing  pieces  by  Lassus,  Amon,  Sale,  etc. 

BEBG  (Conrad  M).      German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Colmar,  April  27,   1785. 

S.  at  Paris  Cons.,  1806-7.      Resided  at  Strasburg  from  1808.      Visited  Paris 

during  successive  years  1810,  1818,  1835,  1851.     D.  Strasburg,  Dec.  7,  1852. 

Works.— First  Concerto,   Pf.   and  orch.  ;    Second,   op.   21  ;    Third,  op.   32  ; 

Rondo,  Pf.  and  orch.,  op.  24  ;  Sonatas  for  violin  and  Pf.,  opp.  9,  23,  25  ;  Three  Trios 

for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello,  op.  11;   Two  do.,  op.   15;   Three  do.,  op.  20;   Three 

quartets  for  strings,  op.  26  ;  Quartet  for  Pf.,  vn.,  viola,  and  'cello,  op.  33  ;  Sonatas  for 

Pf.  solo,  opp.  5  and  30 ;  Exercises,  Fantasias,  Variations,  etc.,  for  Piano  ;  Method 

for  the  Piano.     Wrote  also  a  history  of  the  musical  doings  in  Strasburg  during  50 

years,  published  in  1840. 

82  BER  —  BER 

BEBiG  (Georg).  German  comp.  [B.  1730],  who  lived  in  England  during  last 
century.  S.  under  Dr.  Pepusch.  Gained  3  prizes  from  Catch  Club  for  Glees. 
Was  org.  and  teacher  in  London,  1771.  His  works  consist  of  glees,  songs,  12 
Sonatinas  or  Lessons  for  the  Harpsichord  (op.  3),  and  miscellaneous  instru- 
mental works. 

BEBGEB  (Emile).  French  pianist  and  arranger.  Resides  in  Glasgow  as  teacher 
of  music.  Arranger  of  numerous  pieces  for  the  Pianoforte,  which  exhibit  some 
degree  of  talent.     Berger  is  a  pianist  of  ability. 

BEBGEB  (Francesco).    German  comp.  and  pianist.   B.  London,  June  10,  1835. 
Educated  in  Germany,     S.  music  in  Italy  under  Luigi  Ricci,  and  Carl  Lickl. 
First  works  published  in  London,  1850.      S.  at  Leipzig  under  Hauptmann  and 
others.      Settled  in  London  as  teacher  and  comp.,   1855.      Married  to  Miss 
Lascelles,  the  English  contralto  vocalist,  1864.    Established  an  Amateur  Society 
for  the  practice  of  concerted  Pianoforte  music,  1869.     Has  conducted  several 
choral  societies.      Director  of  the  Philharmonic  Soc.  for  some  years,  and  now 
its  Hon.  Secy. 
Works. — An  opera  and  a  mass,  produced  in  Italy  ;  Music  for  the  private  theatri- 
cals organised  by  Charles  Dickens.     Drei  lieder,  op.  18;  Mondnacht,  op.  19  ;  Funf 
Lieder,  op.  20.     Part-Songs :  Hurrah  for  merry  England ;  Arise,   arise,  the  sun- 
beams hail  ;  Childhood's  melody  ;   Essay,  my  heart ;   Night,  lovely  night ;    Now  ; 
Song  to  Spring ;  Sunset ;  The  dawn  of  May ;   Echoes  ;  The  Tritons ;  Excelsior. 
Songs :  Amor  timido  ;  Fair,  but  fleeting  ;  Books ;  An  old  fashion  ;  Is  it  not  strange  ? 
Birds   of   the  flickering  wing  ;    Thou   still   art   left   to    me ;    At  last ;  The  blue 
heaven  ;   Faith  in  Spring  ;  I  weep  alone ;  The  song  of  evening  ;    There's  rest  for 
thee  in  heaven  ;  Sunshine  o'er  my  soul ;  The  friends  we  love  ;  Thy  will  be  done ; 
10  two-part  songs  to  Longfellow's  poems.     Numerous  Pianoforte  pieces,  etc. 

BEKGEE,  (Johann  Anton).  German  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1719.  D.  1777. 
Was  org.  at  Cath.  of  Grenoble. 

BEBGEBi  (Ludwig).     German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Berlin,  April  18,   1777- 

S.  under  Clementi.     Visited  London,  where  he  practised  as  teacher,  1812-15. 

Returned  to  Germany  and  resided  in  Berlin  as  teacher  and  concert-giver,  1815- 

1839.     D.  Berlin,  Feb.  16,  1839. 

Works. — Pianoforte :  Op.  i  ;  Sonata  pathdtique,  in  C  minor;  Sonatas,  opp.  7, 

9,  10,  18  ;  Sonata,  Pf  Duet,  op.  15  ;   Preludes  and  Fugues,  op.  5  ;  Preludes  ^  la 

turque,  op.  8  ;    Twelve  studies,  op.  II;  Rondo  Pastoral ;  Three  Marches,  op.  16. 

Several  collections  of  songs  for  voice,  with  Pf  accomp.    Cantatas.    "  Oreste,"  opera 

(MS.),  never  produced. 

Berger  was  one  of  the  connecting  links  binding  the  stately  legato  style  of  Cle- 
menti with  the  more  modern  development  of  Hummel,  Moscheles,  and  Chopin. 
He  was  acknowledged  by  his  contemporaries  to  be  in  the  foremost  rank  as  a  pianist 
and  teacher,  while  his  works  were  popular.  Among  his  works  op.  1 1  will  doubt- 
less be  the  most  durable.  He  was  teacher  of  a  number  of  musicians  who  have  at- 
tained eminence  ;  among  others  may  be  mentioned  Mendelssohn,  Taubert,  and 

BEBGEBBE  (Alexandre  Basile).  French  comp.,  violinist,  and  writer,  B. 
Sep.  26,  1803.  Author  of  "Nouvelle  Classification  des  demi-tons,"  Paris,  8vo, 
1833.    "Methode  de  Violon, ,..1837,"  etc. 

BEBGGBEEN  (Andreas  Peter).  Danish  comp.,  B.  Copenhagen,  Mar.  2,  1801. 
D.  1880.  Writer  of  cantatas,  songs,  prose  works  ;  a  Psalmebog,  1853  ;  and  a 
standard  collection  of  Danish  national  melodies,  entitled  "P'olkesange  og 
Melodier,  faedrelandske  og  fremmede,  Samlede  og  udsatte,"  for  Pf,  1869. 
He  was  an  organist,  and  one  of  the  teachers  of  Niels  W.  Gade. 

BEEGMANN  (Josef).  Bohemian  comp.,  B.  July  26,  1822.  Writer  of  Pf. 
music,  songs,  etc. 

BEBGMANN  (Karl).  German  cond.  and  violoncello  playel',  B.  Eisenach, 
Saxony,  1821.  Settled  in  America,  1850.  Resided  in  New  York  as  teacher 
and  cond.,  1857-1877.     D.  New  York,  Aug.  lO,  1876. 

BER  —  BER  83 

BEBiGONZI  (Carlo)-  Italian  violin-maker,  flourished  between  the  years  1716- 
1755.  Learned  under  Antonio  Stradivarius.  His  violins  are  beautifully 
modelled,  and  have  a  sweet  and  powerful  tone.  Other  members  of  this  family 
are  Nicolo  and  Michele  (1720-60),  both  makers  of  medium  ability. 

BERQSON  (Michel).  Polish  comp.,  B.  Warsaw,  May,  1820.  Writer  of  Pf. 
music,  lieder,  etc.     A  brilliant  pianist,  and  comp.  of  much  taste. 

BEBGrT  (Christian  Gottlob  August).  German  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Freiberg, 
June  17,  1771.    Org.  of  Ch.  of  St.  Peter,  Bautzen.    D.  Bautzen,  Feb.  lo,  1837. 

Works. — La  Passion,  oratorio,  op.  10.  Operas :  Laura  et  Fernando ;  Die 
Wunderkur  ;  List  gegen  List ;  Erwin  und  Elmira  ;  Das  Stsendchen.  Symphony 
for  orch.,  op.  12.  Collections  of  Songs  for  voice  and  Pf.;  Cantatas;  Pianoforte 
and  Organ  music,  church  music,  etc. 

BEBINGEB  (Oscar).     German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Baden,  1844.     First  ap- 
peared as  pianist  at  the  Saturday  Concerts  of  the  Crystal  Palace,  Sydenham, 
1861  ;  S.  at  Leipzig  Cons,  under  Moscheles,  Reinecke,  and  Richter,  1864;  S. 
at  Berlin  under  Carl  Tausig  and  F.  Weitzmann.     Resided  in  London  since 
1 87 1.     Established  the  "Academy  for  the  Higher  Development  of  Pianoforte 
Playing,"  1873.     Has  given  concerts  in  London  and  played  at  provincial  festi- 
Works. — Pianoforte:  Three  series  of  six  pieces  for  small  hands  ;  From  blush  to 
bloom  ;  Gavotte  ;  Allegretto  ;  Transcription  from  Serenade  by  G.  Weber  ;  Three 
fairy  Tales  ;  Queen  Mab ;  Gnome's  wedding  ;  Undine  ;   Two  Sonatinas,  in  F  and, 
Bflat;  Andante  and  Presto  Agitato,  Pf.  and  orch.,  produced  at  Crystal  Palace 
Concerts,  and  F.  H.  Co  wen's  Orchestral  Concerts,  1880.     Songs,  etc. 

BEBINGEB  (Robert),  brother  of  the  above.  German  pianist  and  comp. ,  B. 
Furtwangen,  in  the  Black  Forest,  June  14,  1841.  Pianist  at  the  Crystal  Palace, 
Sydenham,  from  1861.  Has  played  at  numerous  London  and  Provincial  con- 
certs, and  is  cond.  of  several  Choral  Societies.  Lectured  on  the  History  of 
Pianoforte  music  and  literature. 
Works.— Songs ;  Choruses  ;  Two  orchestral  pieces,  both  performed  ;    Works 

for  the  Pianoforte,  etc. 

BEBIOT  (Charles  AugUSte  de).     Belgian  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Louvain, 

Feb.  20,  l8e2.     S.  under  Baillot  and  Viotti  at  Paris,  1821.      jCI^*«^  in  Paris. 

Appeared   in   London,    at   Philharmonic    Soc.    Concert,    May,    1826.       Solo 

violinist  to  King  of  the  Netherlands,    1826-30.      Travelled  on  Concert-tour 

with  Mdlle.  Malibran  in  England,  France,  Belgium,  and  Italy,   1830-1835. 

Married  to  Mdlle.  Malibran,  1835.    Prof,  of  violin  in  Brussels  Cons.,  1843-52. 

Retired,  1852.     D.  Brussels,  April  8,  1870. 

Works. — op.  1-3.  Airs  with  variations,  for  violin  and  orch.,  in  D  niinor,  D,  and 

E;   opp.  7,  12,  15.    Airs  varied  for  vn.  and  orch. ;   op.  9.  Ten  studies  for  violin 

solo ;  op.  14.  Variations  for  vn.  and  Pf.,  in  A  ;  op.  19.  Duet  for  2  vns.,  in  E  flat ; 

op.  25.  Duet  on  an  original  theme,  in  B  flat ;  op.  26.  First  concerto  for  vn.  and  orch., 

in  D ;  op.  27.  Six  Studies  for  vn.  and  Pf  ;  op.  32.  Second  concerto  for  vn.  and 

orch.,  in  B  minor;    op.  33.  Nocturne  (Rossini),  vn.  and  Pf.  ;   op.  35.  Le  Fruit  de 

I'etude — six  easy  duets  tor  2  vns ;    op.  37.  Three  characteristic  studies  for  vn.  and 

Pf.  ;  op.  39.  Souvenirs  d'Auber,  violin  duet ;  op.  41.  Le  Progres,  duets  for  2  vns.  ; 

op.  42.  Air  with  variations  for  vn.  and  orch.,  in  D  ;    op.  43.  Three  grand  studies 

for  2  vns.;    op.   44.   Third  concerto  for  violin   and   orch.,   in  E;    op.   45.    Six 

Morceaux  de  Salon  on  original  themes  for  vn,  and  Pf.  ;  op.  46.  Fourth  concerto  for 

violin  and  orch.,  in  D  min.  ;  op.  48.   Souvenir  de  Boulogne,  duets  for  2  vns.  ;  op. 

50.  La  Soiree  de  Boulogne,  do.  ;    op.  52.  Air  with  variations  for  vn.  and  Pf.  ;    op. 

54.  Duet  for  2  vns.  ;  op.  55.  Fifth  concerto  for  vn.  and  orch,  in  D  ;  op.  58.  First 

trio  for  Pf.,  violin,  and  "cello  ;  op.  59,  Valsss,  vn.,  and  Pf.  ;  op.  67.  Three  duets,  con- 

certante,  for  2  vns.  ;   op.  68.   First  sonata  concertante  for  vn.  and  Pf.  ;  op.  69.  Air 

with  variations,  vn.  and  Pf.,  in  D  ;  op.  70.  Sixth  concerto  for  violin  and  orch.,  in  A ; 

op.  71.  Second  trio  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello  ;  op.  72.  Duet,  Pf.  and  vn.  ;   opp.  73, 

74.  Duets,  vn.  and  Pf.  ;   op.  75.  Guide  des  Violonistes,  studies  m  2  parts ;  op.  76. 

Seventh  concerto  for  violin  and  orch.,  in  G;  op.  77-98.  Minor  works  for  violin  and 

other  instruments  ;   op.  99.  Eighth  concerto  for  violin  and  orch.,  m  G  ;    op.  100. 

84  BER  —  BER 

Fantasia  for  violin  and  orch.  ;  op.  122.  Overture  for  Pf.  and  vn.  ;  op.  127.  Tenth 
concerto  for  vn.  and  orch.,  in  A  minor.  Methode  de  Violon,  en  trois  parties,  Paris, 
1858.  A  number  of  minor  works  consisting  of  variations  and  arrangements  of 
operatic  airs  constitute  the  remaining  portion  of  de  Beriot's  works. 

Eeriot  was  a  prolific  composer,  and  as  bright  and  clever  in  one  work  as  in 
another.  His  compositions  are  moderately  easy,  brilliant,  and  always  pretty.  The 
airs  and  concertos  are  of  especial  value  to  the  violinist.  In  them  will  be  found  a 
wealth  of  bright  ideas,  and  exercise  of  benefit  alike  to  the  fingers  and  the  mind. 
As  a  violinist  de  Beriot  is  generally  classed  along  with  the  school  of  which  Paginini 
is  the  chief.  This  school  aims  at  securing  popular  applause  by  the  practice  of 
various  tricks  tending  to  mystify  by  their  seeming  complexity.  That  Beriot  was  a 
follower  in  this  school  cannot  be  doubted.  But  that  he  was  superior  as  an  artist  to 
Paganini  is  also  true.  His  compositions  are  not  whimsical  nor  eccentric,  and  can 
be  appreciated  by  any  one.  ilis  dexterity,  if  inferior  to  that  of  Paganini,  was 
counterbalanced  by  his  less  frequent  indulgence  in  mechanical  trickery. 

BEBIOT  (Charles  WUfrid  de).  French  pianist  and  comp.,  son  of  the  above, 
B.  Paris,  Feb.  12,  1833.     Comp.  Pf.  music,  songs,  etc. 

BERLIN  (JohanU  Daniel).  German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Memel,  1710.  D. 
1775.  Writer  on  music,  and  comp.  of  chamber  music.  "  Anleitung  zur  Tono- 
metrie, ..."  1767,  is  his  chief  work. 

BEBLIOZ  (Hector).     French  comp.,  B.  C6te-Saint- Andre,  Isere,  December  II, 

1803.      Sent  to  Paris  to  study  medicine,  1821.     S.  music  under  Lesueur  and 

Reicha  attheCons.    Gained  second  prize  for  comp.    Gained  the  Grand  "Prixd 

Rome,"  1830.      Travelled  in  Italy,  Germany,  and  Russia.      Married  to  Miss 

Smithson,  an  Irish  actress.      Librarian  to  the  Paris  Cons.,  1839.     Decorated 

vrith  the  Cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  1839.      Cond.  New  Philharmonic 

Concerts,  London,  1852;  cond.  his  "  Benvenuto  Cellini,"  at  Covent  Garden 

Theatre,  London,  June  25,  1853.     D.  Paris,  March  8  [9],  1869. 

Works. — Op.  i.  Overture — Waverley,  for  full  orch.  [c.  1828];  op.  2.  Irlande  1 

Melodies  for  one  and  two  voices,  choruses  and  Pf.  accomp. ;  op.  3.  Overture — Des 

Francs-Juges.  for  full  orch.;  op.  4.  Overture — King  Lear,  for  full   orch.;  op.  S- 

Messe  des  Morts  (Requiene),  for  solo  voices,  chorus  and  orch.,  Paris,  1837 ;  op.  6. 

Le  cinq  Mai,  Chant  for  Death  of  Napoleon  I.,  for  bass  solo,  chorus  and  orch.; 

op.  7.  Les  Nuits  d'  ete  :  Six  songs  for  solo  voice  and  Pf.;  op.  8.  Reverie  et  Caprice, 

for  violin  and  orch.;  op.  10.  Traite  d'  Instrumentation;  op.  II.  8ara  la  baigneuse, 

ballade  for  three  choruses  and  orch.;  op.  12.  La  Captive:   Reverie  for  contralto 

voice  and  orch. ;  op.  13.  Fleurs  des  Landes  :  Five  songs  for  solo  voice  and  Pf. ;  op. 

14.  Episode  sur  la  vie  d'un  artist :  Symphonie-fantastique,  for  full  orch.;  op.  14  a. 
Le  Retour  a  la  vie,  Melalogue,  for  solo  voices,  chorus  and  orch.,  Paris,  1832;  .op. 

15.  Symphony  :  Symphonic  Funfebre  et  Triomphale,  with  an  orch.  of  string,.instru- 
ments  and  a  choir  ad  libitum  ;  op.  16.  Symphony  :  Harold  in  Italic,  for  full  orch., 
in  four  parts,  with  an  alto-principal  part,  Paris,  1834,  London,  185S  >  op-  17- 
Symphony  :  Romeo  et  Julietta,  for  full  orch.,  with  -solos  and  chorus,  Paris,  1839, 
Vienna,  1856  ;  op.  18.  Tristia,  Meditation  Religieuse,  for  three  choirs  and  orch.; 
op.  19.  Feuillets  d'  Album,  three  pieces  for  Pf^;  op.  20.  Vox  Populi,  Hymn  for  ■ 
two  choirs  and  orch.;  op.  21.  Overture  :  Le  Corsaire,  for  full  orch.;  op.  22.  Te 
Deum  for  three  choirs  and  organ  ;  op.  23.  Opera ':  Benvenuto  Cellini,  in  three  acts, 
Paris,  1838,  London,  1853  ;  op.  24.  La  Damnation  de  Faust,  Legend  m  four  parts, 
for  full  orch.,  solo  voices  and  chorus,  Paris,  1846  ;  op.  25.  L'Enfance  du  Christ : 
Trilogie  Sacr^e,  for  solo  voices,  chorus  and  orch.  (Part  I.,  Le  Songe  d'  Herode  ; 
Part  II.,  La  Fuite  en  Egypte  ;  Part  III.;  L'  Arriv^e  k  Sais),  Paris,  1854  ;  op.  26. 
L'  Imperiale  :  Cantata  for  two  choruses  and  orch.  Unnumbered  Works :  La  Belle 
Isabeau,  chorus  and  orch.  ;  Le  Temple  universal,  for  chorus  and  organ  ;  Priere 
du  Matin,  for  chorus  and  Pf. ;  Le  Chasseur  danois,  for  bass  voice  and  Pf. ;  L'  In- 
vitation a  la  valse  (Weber),  arranged  for  orch.;  March  Marocaine  (L.  de  Meyer), 
arranged  for  orch. ;  Recitatives  for  Der  Freischiitz  (Weber);  Beatrice  et  Benedict, 
opera  in  2  acts,  Paris,  1862  ;  Les  Troyens  a  Carthage,  opera  in  5  acts,  and  a  pre- 
lude, Paris,  1864  ;  La  Prise  de  Troie,  opera  in  three  acts.  Literary  Works:  'A  tra- 
vers  chants,  etudes  musicale,  adorations,  boutades  et  critiques,  Paris,  i2mo,  1862  ; 
Voyage  Musical  en  AUemagne  et  en  Italie  :  etudes  sur  Beethoven,  Gluck  et  Weber, 
Paris,  2  vols.,  8vo,  1844  ;  Les  Soirees  de  I'Orchestre,  Paris,  1853  ;  Les  Grotesques 



de  la  Musique,  Paris,  8vo,  1859 ;  M^raoires  d'  Hector  Berlioz,  comprenant  ses 
voyages  en  Italie,  en  AUemagne  en  Russie  et  en  Angleterre,  i8o3-i8'5s,  Paris,  Svo, 
1870,  In  addition  to  the  foregoing  works,  Berlioz  wrote  a  large  number  of  contribu- 
tions to  periodical  literature. 

Only  within  recent  times  has  the  genius  of  Berlioz  been  fully  admitled. 
In  his  own  day  he  received  but  scant  attention,  and,  it  may  be  said,  less  than 
justice ;  but  now  a  complete  revulsion  of  feeling  has  taken  place  among 
musicians,  and  we  see  as  the  result  Berlioz  elevated  to  the  highest  place  among 
instrumental  composers.  His  works  are  of  a  bold  and  original  stamp,  and  strike 
the  ordinary  and  non-partizan  observer  as  being  on  the  whole  whimsical,  and 
marked  by  an  undue  straining  after  impressive  effect.  His  admirers,  on  the  other 
hand,  discern  nothing  in  them  which  does  not  discover  some  profound  wrinkle  of 
an  incomprehensible  mind.  It  may  safely  be  said,  however,  be  the  merits  of  the 
works  ever  so  high,  that  without  the  printed  programme,  their  value  as  works  of 
art  would  be  very  questionable.  A  great  array  of  forces  managed  .with  skill 
denotes  an  ambitious  mechanic  rather  than  an  inspired  architect ;  and  when  we  see 
conjoined  to  this  display  a  continual  effort  to  be  vast,  profound,  or  terror-inspiring, 
the  reflection  is  forced  upon  us  that  there  must  be  some  considerable  weakness  to 
hide  beneath  all  this  weight  of  the  machinery  of  genius.  His  works  have  been 
repeatedly  performed  in  Britain  within  recent  years,  and  the  result  has  been  con- 
siderably to  modify  the  impressions  formed  of  the  supernatural  power  of  the  com- 
poser. He  has  been  found  to  be  merely  human,  but  also  ambitious,  and  one  who 
strove  to  force  the  orchestra  into  the  delineation  of  scenes  and  events  which  are 
quite  beyond  the  graphic  powers  of  musical  art,  and  certainly  beyond  the  capa- 
bilities of  instrumental  resource.  A  long  time  must  pass  before  his  place  is 
thoroughly  fixed,  and  in  the  meantime  it  is  only  just  to  admit  that,  when  considered 
apart  from  their  trappings  of  instrumental  trickery,  some  of  his  works  are  of  the 
most  dignified  and  noble  nature.  "The  Damnation  of  Faust,"  the  "Requiem," 
the  operas,  and  certain  other  works  are  most  striking  and  inspired  creations. 
Others,,  again,  though  picturesque  and  full  of  variety,  seem  overweighed  by  a  super- 
fluity of  orchestral  colouring. 

Miich  has  been  written  in  recent  years  anent  Berlioz  and  his  works,  and  among 
works  of  interest  may  be  named  : — "Autobiography  of  Hector  Berlioz  from  1803 
to  1865  ;  comprising  his  Travels  in  Italy,  Germany,  Russsia,  and  England.  Trans, 
by  Rachel  and  Eleanor  Holmes."  Lond.,  2  vols.,  8vo,  1884.  "Correspondence 
inedite,  avec  notice  biographique  par  D.  Bernard."  Paris,  1879,  2nd  ed.  "  L'CEuvre 
Dramatique  de  H.  Berlioz,  par  A.  Ernst."  Paris,  1884.  "Berlioz,  I'homme  et 
I'artiste  d'apres  des  documents  nouveaux,  par  E.  Hippeau."  Paris,  1883,  with  por- 
trait. "Berlioz,"  by  Joseph  Bennett,  London,  1883.  " Lettres  intimes. "  Paris, 
1881.  "Life  and  Letters  of  Berlioz,  Trans,  by  H.  M.  Dunstan."  Lond.,  2  vols., 
Svo,  1882 — from  Bernard's  work.  In  addition  to  the  foregoing  reference  should  be 
made  to  the  following  magazine  articles  : — Eraser's  Magazine,  1848  (vol.  38),  and 
1851"  (vol.  45) ;  Eclectic  Magazine,  v.  15;  All  the  Year  Round,  1868  (vol.  21); 
London  Society  (vol.  39)  ;  Edinburgh  Review,  1870  (vol.  133) ;  Atlantic  Monthly, 
1877  (vol.  41) ;  Appleton's  Journal,  1880  (vol.  24),  etc.  An  edition  of  his  literary 
works  was  published  in  Geirman  by  R.  Pohl,  Leipzig,  1865,  in  4  vols,  under  the 
title,  "Gesammelte  Schrifte." 

BEBLYN  (Anton  W.)  Dutch  comp.,  B.  Amsterdam,  May  2,  1817.  D. 
Amsterdam,  Jan.  20,  1870.  Writer  of  operas,  symphonies,  cantatas,  oratorios, 
concertos,  quartets,  songs,  etc. 

BEBNABEI  (Giuseppe  Ercole).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Caprarola,  1620.  S. 
under  Benevoli.  Chap. -master  St.  John,  Latern,  and  at  Munich.  D.  Munich, 
1690.  He  comp.  "Concerto  madrigalesco  a  tre  voci,"  1669;  "Madrigali  a 
cinque  e  sei  voci,''  1669  ;  "Opus  Motettorum,"  1690;  Magnificats,  etc.  His 
son,  Giuseppe  Antonio,  B.  Rome,  1659,  D.  Munich,  March  9,  1732,  comp. 
masses,  operas,  and  instrumental  music. 

BEBNACCHI  (Antonio).  Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Bologna  [1690].  S.  under 
Pistocchi.  Sang  in  London  in  Handel's  "Rinaldo,"  1717.  ,  Returned  to 
Italy.  Vocalist  in  service  of  the  Elector  of  Bavaria.  Re-appeared  in  London, 
where  he  sang  in  Italian  opera,  1729.      Settled  at  Bologna  as  teacher,  1730. 

86  B  E  R  —  b'e  R 

Principal  of  the  Socifeta  Filarmonica,  Bologna,  1748-49.     D.  Bologna,  March, 

This  vocalist  enjoyed  much  success  in  his  time,  and  was  regarded  as  a  good 
exponent  of  the  music  of  Handel. 

BERNARD  (Paul).  French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Poitiers,  Oct.  4,  1827. 
S.  under  Halevy.     Writer  of  Pf.  music,  critical  miscellanies,  etc.     D.  1879. 

BERNABDIN  (Bernard)  or  Courtois.  French  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  1826. 
D.  Paris,  1870.     Wrote  dramatic  music,  violin  pieces,  etc. 

BERNASCONI  (Antonia).  Italian  soprano  vocalist  who  flourished  during  last 
century.  She  made  her  dibut  in  Gluck's  "  Alceste,"  Vienna,  1764.  Sang  in 
London,  1768,  and  throughout  Europe  with  some  success. 

BERNEB  (Friedrich  Wilhelm).     German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Breslau,  March 

16,  1780.     Studied  under  his  father,  an  org.,  and  Reichardt.     Org.  of  Church 

of  S.  Elizabeth,  Breslau.      Compiled  a  catalogue  of  the  music  in  suppressed 

monasteries.     D.  Breslau,  May,  1827. 

Works. — Cantata,  libretto  by  S.  G.   Biirde,  for  four  voices  and  orch.  ;  Three 

songs  for  2  sopranos,  tenor  and  bass,  op.  26 ;   Der  Here  is  Gott,  Hymn  for  4  male 

voices  and  orch.  of  wind  instruments  ;   Le  Maltre  de  Chapelle,  comic  interlude ; 

Three  Choruses  for  a  Tragedy  ;  Numerous  pieces  for  the  Pf. ;    Preludes  and  Oifer- 

toires  for  the  organ ;  Songs  ;  Church  music,  etc.     Grundregeln  des  Gesanges,  nach 

Hiller  entwarfen,   Breslau,  1815  ;   Theorie  der  Choralzwischenspiele,   1819  ;    Die 

Lehre  der  Musikalischen  Interpunktion,  1821.      His  biography  was  published  in 


BERNHARD  (Christoph).  German  comp.,  org.,  and  writer,  B.  Dantzig, 
1612.     D.  1692. 

BERNHARDT  (J.  W.)  Author  of  "Music  and  Mind,  and  Musical  Physics." 
Lond.  [1878]. 

BERNIER  (Nicolas).  French  Comp.,  B.  Mantes-sur-Seine,  June  28,  1664. 
D.  Paris,  1734.     Writer  of  church  music,  "Motets,"  1703,  1713,  etc. 

BERNSDORF  (Eduard).  German  writer  and  song  comp.,  B.  Dessau,  March 
25,  1825.  S.  under  F.  Schneider  and  Marx.  Edited  the  "Neues  Universal- 
Lexikon  der  Tonkunst,"  Dresden,  3  vols.,  1855.  This  writer  has  gained  con- 
siderable notoriety  in  Germany  as  a  species  of  Hazlitt  or  Jeffsry  in  musical 

BERRE  (Ferdinand).  Belgian  comp.,  B.  Ganshoren,  Feb.  5,  1843.  Writer 
of  operas,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BERSELLI  (Matteo).  Italian  tenor  vocalist,  who  flourished  at  the  beginning 
of  last  century.  Sang  in  London  in  Buononcini's  "Astartus,"  Nov.  19,  1720. 
Biography  unknown.     Disappeared  about  1721. 

BERTALI  (Antonio).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Verona,  1605.  D.  [?]  Wrote 
masses,  sonatas,  etc. 

BERTELMAN  (J.  G-.).  Dutch  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Amsterdam,  1782.  D. 
1854.     Wrote  masses,  cantatas,  overtures,  songs,  etc. 

BERTELSMANN  (Carl  August).  German  comp.,  B.  GUtersloh,  Westphalia, 
Aug  3,  i8n.  D.  Amsterdam,  Nov.  30,  1861.  Writer  of  part-songs,  lieder, 
organ  music,  etc. 

BERTEZEN  (Salvatore).  Italian  writer,  author  of  "Principi  della  Musica," 
London,  8vo,  1781.  Trans,  as  "  Extract  of  the  Work  entitled  Principles  of 
Music,"  London,  Svo,  1782. 

BERTHA  (Alexander).  Hungarian  comp.  and  celebrated  pianist.  B.  Pesth. 
Pupil  of  Moscheles  and  Billow.     Comp.  for  the  Pf.  and  writer  of  songs. 

BERTHATJME  (Isidore).  French  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Paris,  1752.  D.  S. 
PetersbHrg,  March  2p,  j8o?. 

BER  —  BER  87 

BEETflOLD  (Carl  Friedrich  Theodor).  German  comp.,  B.  Dresden,  Dec.  ig, 
1815.    Wrote  masses,  symphonies,  oratorios,  etc.    D.  Dresden,  April  28,  1882. 

BERTIN  (Louise  Angelique).  French  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  near  Paris,  1805. 
Has  sung  successfully  in  public.  She  has  also  composed  three  operas,  Le 
Loup  garou,  1827  ;  Faust,  1831 ;  and  Notre-Dame  de  Paris,  1836.  D.  Paris, 
April,  1877. 

BERTINI  (AugUSte).  French  writer.  Author  of  "Phonological  System  for 
Learning  and  Acquiring  extraordinary  Facility  on  all  Musical  Instruments  in  a 
very  short  space  of  time,"...Lond.,  fo,  1830.  [Other  editions.]  "Stigmato- 
graphie  ou  I'art  d'ecrire  avec  des  points, "...  Paris,  8vo,  11.  d. 

BEBTINI  (Domenico).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Lucca,  June  26,  1826.  Writer  of 
cantatas,  masses,  etc. 

BEBTINI  (Henri  Jerome).     French  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  London,  Oct.  28, 
1798.     S.  under  hia  father,  etc.     Travelled  through  Germany  and  Holland. 
Travelled  in  England  and  Scotland.     Resided  in  Paris  as  teacher  and  concert- 
giver  from  1821.     D.  Meylan,  near  Grenoble,  Oct.  i,  1876. 
Works. — Studies  for  the  Pf.,  opp.  29,  32,  66,  86,  94,  100,  133,  134,  1340,  137, 
142,  147,  166,  175,  176,  177,  178,  180;  Trios  for  Pf.,  violin,  and 'cello  ;   Sextets 
for  Pf.,  2  violins,  viola,  'cello,  and  bass,  opp.  79,  85,  90,  114  ;  Sonatas  for  Pf.  and 
violin,  opp.  152,  153,  156  ;   Nonetto  for  Pf  and  wind  instruments. 

The  series  of  "  Studies"  in  the  foregoing  list  are  the  works  by  which  Bertini  will 
continue  to  be  known.  He  was  a  renowned  pianist  in  his  day,  and  contributed  not 
a  little  to  the  development  of  the  brilliant  school  of  execution.  Like  Heller  and 
Ascher,  to  whose  school  he  belonged,  he  excelled  in  music  of  a  light  and  dashing 

BEBTINI  (Salvatore).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Palermo,  1721.  S.  under  Pozzuolo. 
D.  Dec.  16,  1794.  Comp.  church  music,  sonatas,  etc.  His  son,  Gujseppe, 
Abbe',  B.  Palermo,  1756,  D.  after  1847,  wrote  a  "  Dizionario  Storico-critico 
degli  Scrittori  di  Musica,"  Palerm,"  4  vols.,  4to,  1814-15. 

BERTINOTTI  (Teresa).  Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Savigliano,  Piedmont, 
1776.  Sang  in  London,  Paris,  Germany,  Spain,  and  Italy  with  much  success. 
Married  to  Felice  Radicati.     D.  Bologna,  Feb.  12,  1854. 

BEBTOLLI  (Francesca).  Italian  contralto  vocalist  who  flourished  in  the  1 8th 
century.     Sang  in  Handel's  operas  during  1729-37.     D.  [unknown]. 

BEBTON  (Henri  Montan),      French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Paris,  Sept.   17, 
1767.      S.  under  Rey  and  Sacchini.      Violinist  in  orch.  of  the  Opera,   Paris, 
1773.      Fofmed  connection  with  Mdlle.  Maillard,  by  whom  he  had  an  illegiti- 
mate son,  Francois,  1782.     Prof,  bf  Harmony  at  Paris  Cons.,  i79S-     Cond.  of 
Italian  Opera,  Paris,  1807.      Mem.  of  the  Institut,  1815.     D.  Paris,  April  22, 
Works. — Operas:  Le  Premier  Navigateur,  1786;   Les  Promesses  de  Mariage, 
1787;  La  Dame  invisible.  1787;  Cora,  1789;   Les  Brouilleries,   1789;   Les  Deux 
Sentinelles,  1790.      Les  Rigueurs  du  Cloitre,  1790;    Le  Nouveau  d'Assas,  1791  ; 
Les  Deux  Sous-lieutenants,   1791 ;    Eugene,  1792;   Viala,  1792;   Tyrtee,    1793; 
Ponce  de  Leon,  1794;  Le  Souper  de  Famille,  1796;  Le  Denouementin  attendu,  1798; 
Montano  et  Stephanie,    1799;    L'Amour  bizarre,    1799;    Le  Delire,    1799;    Le 
Nouvelle  au  camp,  1799;   Le  Grand  Deuil,  1801 ;  Le  Concert  interrompu,  1802; 
Aline,  Reine  de  Golconde,  1803  ;    La  Romance,  1804  ;  Delia  et  Verdikan,  1805  ; 
Le  Vaisseau  amiral,  1805;   Les  Maris-gar9ons,  1806;    Le  Chevalier  de  S^nanges, 
1807 ;   Ninon  chez  Madame  de  Sevigne,   1807 ;     Fran9oise  de  Foix,   1809 ;    Le 
Charme  de  la  voix,  181 1;  Valentin,  1814;  Feodor,  1816  ;    Roger  de  Sicile.  1817  ; 
Corisandro,  1820  ;  Virginie,  1823  ;  Les  Mousquetaires,  1824;  La  M^re  et  la  Fille; 
Les  Petits  Appartements,  1827.      Cantatas:  various.      Oratorios:  Absalon,  1786; 
Jepht^  ;    David  dans  le  temple ;    Les  Bergers  de  Bethl^em.      Ballets.      Romances 
for  voice  and    Pf.       TraitI    d'Harmonie... Paris,   4to    [1815] ;    De  la    Musique 
mfecanique  et  de  la  Musique  philosophique,  Paris,  1822  ;  Writings  against  Rossini 
.and  other  literary  works, 

88  BER  —  BES 

Like  other  French  composers,  Berton  has  only  enjoyed  a  temporary  success. 
His  works  are  now  unknown  outside  historical  books,  and  may  be  said. to  be  dead 
to  the  musical  world. 

BERTON  (Francois).  French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  May  3,  1784.  Natural  son  of 
H.  M.  Berton  and  Mdlle.  Maillard.  S.  at  Paris  Cons.,  1796.  D.  [?]  Wrote 
several  operas  and  ballets. 

BERTON  (Pierre  Montan).      French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  1727.     Leader  at  the 
Paris  Opera  House.     D.  Paris,  1780.     Father  of  Henri  M.  Berton. 
Works. — Operas:   Deucalion  et  Pyrrha,  1755  ;    Erosine,  1 768  ;   Sylvie,  1766  ; 
Theonis,  1767  ;  Adele  de  Ponthieu,  1773,  etc. 

BERTONI   (Ferdinando   Giuseppe).      Italian  comp.   and  org.,  B.   Venice, 
1727.      S.  under  Padre  Martini.     Org.  of  S.  Mark's,  Venice,   1750.      Choir- 
master of  Cons,  dei  Mendicanti,   1757-97.     Appeared  in  London  as  comp., 
1778.     Choir-master  of  S.  Mark's,  Venice,  1785.     D.  i8lo. 
Works. — Operas:  Oriazio  e  Curiazio,  1746  ;  La  Vedova  Accorta,  1746;  Cajetto, 
1747;  Ipermestra,  1748;  Le  Pescatrici,  1752;    Genevra,  1753;   La  Moda,   1754;. 
Le  Vicenda  amorose,  1760  ;  La  Belle  Girometta  ;  Amore  in  Musica,  1763;  Achille 
in  Sciro,  1764;  L'Ingannatore  ingannato,   1764;  L'Olimpiade,  1765;  Alessandro 
nell  Indie,  1770  ;  L'Anello  incantato,  1771  ;  Andromacca,  1772  ;  Aristo  e  Temira, 
1774  ;    Orfeo,  1776  ;    Ezio,  1777  ;   Telemacco,  1777  ;   Quinto  Fabio,  1778  ;   Tan- 
credi,    1778;   Artaserse,    London,    1780;    Armida,    1781  ;    Eumene,    1784;    La 
Nitteti,  1789;  Ifigenia  in  Aulide,  1790.    Cantatas;  Ballets;  String  Quartets,  etc. 

BERTUCH  (Karl  Volckmar).    German  org.,  B.  EYfiirt,  1730.    D.  Berlin,  1776. 

BERWALD   (Johann   Friedrich).     Swedish  comp.,  B.  Stockholm,  July  23, 

1788.     Travelled  as  an  infant  prodigy  till  1817.     Cond.  and  choir-master  at 

Stockholm,   1819-68.     D.  Stockholm,  Sept.,  1861. 
Works. — Op.   i.  Three  Polonaises  for   Pf.  and  violin,   1798;  Symphony  for 

orch.,  1799;  Three  quartets  for  stringed  instruments,  1808;  Sonata  for  Pf., 

op.  6.  ;  Songs,  etc. 
This  musician  did  much  for  the  propagation  of  musical  taste  in  Sweden  as  a 
conductor,  although  none  of  his  works,  save  the  songs,  are  of  much  value.     His 
cousin  Franz  (B.  Stockholm,  1796.    D.  there,  April  3,  i858),  comp.  much  instru- 
mental music. 
BESLER  (Samuel).     German  comp.,  B.  Silesia,  Dec.  15,  1574.     D.  Breslau, 

July  19,  1625.     Wrote  church  music,  etc. 

BESOZZI  (Alessandro).  Italian  oboe-player,  B.  Parma,  1700.  Oboist  to  the 
King  of  Sardinia.  D.  Turin,  1775.  One  of  a  most  famous  family  of  instru- 
mentalists, of  whom  Antonio,  his  brother  (B.  Parma,  1707 ;  oboist  to  King 
of  Sardinia,  1775-1781 ;  D.  1781);  Carlo,  son  of  Antonio,  oboist  (B.  Dresden, 
1745  ;  D.  (?)  ;  and  HiERONiMO,  his  brother,  basson-player  (B.  Parma,  1713 ; 
D.  Turin  [?]  ;)  were  the  chief  members,  forming  one  of  the  most  remarkable 
groups  of  wind  instrument  performers  known  to  musical  history, 

BESSEMS  (Antoine).  Belgian  comp.  and  violinist.  B.  Antwerp,  .April  4, 
1806.  D.  Paris,  Oct.  19,  1868.  Wrote  concertos  for  violin,  masses,  Pf. 
music,  songs,  etc. 

BESSON    (Gustave   AugUSte).      French  maker   of  wind  instruments.      Has 
gained  several  prizes  in  Exhibitions  of  1851,  1855,  etc.,  for  excellence  of  manu- ' 
facture.     The  manufactory  is  in  Paris  with  branches. 

BEST  (William  Thomas).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.Carlisle,  Aug.  13,  1826.  S. 
under  Young  of  Carlisle  Cath.  Org.  successively  of  Pembroke  Chap.,  Liver- 
-  pool,  1840 ;  the  Church  for  the  Blind,  Liverpool,  1847  ;  Liverpool  Philarmonic 
Soc,  1848  ;  Panopticon  of  Science  and  Art,  London,  1852  ;  Church  of  S. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields,  1852;  Lincoln's  Inn  Chap.,  1854;  St.  George's  Hall, 
Liverpool,  1855  ;  Parish  Church  of  Wallasay,  Birkenhead,  i860  ;  Holy  Trinity 
Church,  near  Liverpool,  1863  ;  Musical  Soc.  of  Liverpool,  1868  ;  Royal  Albert 
Hall,  1871  ;  West  Derby  Parish  Church,  1879.  Has  played  frequently  in 
Paris,  Rome,  the  English  provinces,  London,  and  in  Scotland  and  Ireland, 

BET  —  B  E  V  89 

Works. — 0»-^a« ;  Arrangements  for  the  Scores  of  the  Great  Masters,  5  vols.; 
The  Art  of  Organ  Playing,  in  4  parts,  London,  n.  d-.;  Collection  of  Pieces  expressly 
Composed  for  Church  Use,  6  Books;  Sonata  for  Org.,  in  G  ;  Thirty  Progressive 
Studies  for  the  Use  of  Young  Students  ;  Handel  Album,  20  vols.;  Four  Concert 
Fantasias  ;  Christmas  Fantasy  on  Ancient  English  Carols  ;  Modern  School  for  the 
Organ  (Cocks),  Lond.  1855  ;  Handel's  Six  Organ  Concertos  (edited)  2  series  ;  and 
opera  and  oratorio  songs ;  Hommage  k  Handel,  by  I.  Moscheles,  arranged  for  org. ; 
Three  Preludes  and  Fugues  ;  Six  Concert  Pieces ;  Andante  with  vars. ;  Introduction 
and  Fugue  (ded.  to  Hesse) ;  Collection  of  Italian  org.  comps.,  edited  ;  "  Cecilia," 
a  collection  of  org.  pieces  in  diverse  styles ;  Overture  for  orch. ,  Festival, 
in  C  ;  and  Marche  Triomphale.  Pianoforte  Music :  Marche  Militaire  ;  Romanesca, 
op.  16  ;  Notturno,  op.  27  ;  Marche  Triomphale,  op.  21  ;  Serenade  from  Don  Juan. 
Church  Music :  Morning  and  Evening  Service,  composed  for  the  Parish  Church, 
Leeds,  op.  40  ;  A  Morning,  Communion,  and  Evening  Service  in  simple  chant 
form  ;  A  Morning  and  Evening  Chant  Service  ;  A  Communion  Service,  consisting 
.  of  Kyrie,  Nicene  Creed,  Sanctus,  and  Gloria ;  An  Evening  Service  adapted  to  the 
Ancient  Gregorian  Plain  Chant ;  Benedicite  omnia  opera  ;  Te  Deum  in  C  ;  The 
Athanasian  Creed.  Anthems,  etc. :  Behold  I  bring  you  glad  tidings  ;  I  will  magnify 
Thee,  O  God,  my  King  ;  Praise  the  Lord,  call  upon  His  name  ;  The  Lord  is  great 
in  Sion  ;  While  shepherds  watched  their  flocks  by  night ;  Abide  with  me  (hymn) ; 
Jesus  Christ  is  risen  (hymn)  ;  Dies  Irse  (hymn).  What  mournful  thoughts.  Glee  for 
5  voices. 

Mr.  Best  is  generally  acknowledged  to  be  the  greatest  master  of  the  organ  now 
living  in  Britain.  He  belongs  to  that  school  of  modern  development  which  en- 
deavours to  make  the  organ  the  exponent  of  orchestral  works.  That  the  organ  is  in 
itself  capable  of  producing  orchestral  effects  in  an  adequate  manner  is  indisputable, 
and  the  excellent  manner  in  which  it  has  been  proved  should  be  sufficient  to  reconcile 
those  who  imagine  that  it  is  performing  out  of  its  function  and  lending  its  powers  to 
trickery.  Best's  technical  knowledge  of  the  instrument  is  great,  while  he  possesses 
the  utmost  command  over  its  various  features.  His  recitals  at  Liverpool  are  among 
the  most  interesting  items  of  the  musical  season  in  that  city,  and  he  has  played  with 
the  greatest  success  throughout  the  provinces  of  England  and  in  Scotland.  He  is  great 
in  every  style,  from  Bach  to  Guilmant,  and  is  particularly  grand  in  his  rendering  of 
the  divine  fugues  of  the  former  master.  His  compositions  for  the  Church 
Service  are  also  highly  deserving  of  praise,  and  are  frequently  produced  in  cathe- 
drals and  churches  throughout  England.  Many  of  his  anthems  are  in  constant 
use  in  English  churches.  His  didactic  works  are  among  the  standard  instruction 
books  of  the  period,  and  are  remarkable  for  the  clearness  of  their  explanations  and 
the  practical  character  of  their  descriptions. 

BETTINI  (Alessandro).      Italian  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Rome,  1830.     S.  under 
Sgatelli.      ZlSut  at   Madrid  in   1853.      DMut  in  England  at  H.M.  Theatre, 
London,  i862.      Sang  in  St.  Petersburg.      Married  to  Mdlle.  Trebelli,  1863. 
Signer  Bettini  is  allowed  to  be  a  most  useful  tenor,  and  his  voice  is  of  an  agree- 
able quality. 

BETTS  (Arthur).  English  violinist  and  comp.  of  end  of  i8th  and  beginning  of 
19th  centuries.  B.  in  Lincolnshire.  S.  under  Hindmarsh,  Votti,  Dussek,  and 
Steibelt.     Comp.  sonatas,  duets  for  vn.  and  'cello ;  arrangements,  etc. 

BETTS  (Edward).  English  musician  and  writer  of  18th  century.  He  compiled 
"An  Introduction  to  the_  Skill  of  Musick;"  Anthems,  Hymns,  and  "Psalm 
Tunes  in  several  parts."    Lond.,  Svo,  1724. 

BETTS  (John).  English  violin-niaker,  B.  Stamford,  Lincolnshire,  1755.  Pupil 
of  Richard  Duke.  Carried  on  business  in  shop  in  Royal  Exchange,  London. 
D.  London,  1823.  The  quality  of  his  violins  is  admired  by  some  judges  but 
depreciated  by  others.  His  nephew,  Edv^^ard  Betts,  also  a  pupil  of  Duke's, 
copied  Amati  with  great  success.     He  died  [1815-20]. 

BEUMEB  (Henri).  French  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Leuwarden,  1831.  Writer 
of  violin  music,  ballets,  overtures,  songs. 

BEVIN  (Elway).  Welsh  comp.  and  org.,  B.  about  middle  of  i6th  century 
[1560-70].     S.  under  Tallis.    Org.  of  Bristol  Cath.,  1589.     Gent.  Extraordin- 

90  BEX B  I  A 

ary,  Chap.-Roy.,  1605.  Lost  both  places  on  being  discovered  a  Roman  Catholic, 
1637.     D.  [1640]. 

Works.— A  Briefe  and  Short  Introduction  to  the  Art  of  Musicke,  to  teach  how 
to  make  Discant  of  all  Proportions  that  are  in  use  :  very  necessary  for  all  sach  as 
are  desirous  to  attaine  to  knowledge  in  the  Art ;  and  may,  by  Practice,  if  they  can 
sing,  soon  be  able  to  compose  three,  four,  and  five  parts ;  and  also  to  compose  all 
sorts  of  Canons  that  are  usuall,  by  these  Directions,  of  two  or  three  parts  in  one, 
upon  a  Plain  Song,  1631  ;  A  Short  Service  in  D  minor,  and  "Praise  the  Lord," 
anthem,  in  Barnard's  Collection.     Other  anthems  exist  in  manuscript. 

Bevin  was  the  teacher  of  Dr.  Child.  "  Though  the  accent  o£  his  compositions  is 
not  always  correct,  and  his  modulation  partakes  of  the  antique,  the  fulness  of  his  har- 
mony, and  general  dignity  of  his  style,  compensate  for  those  defects,  and  demand 
the  indulgence  due  to  a  man  of  acknowledged  science  and  genius." — Busby. 
Bevin  is  usually  credited  with  having  been  the  first  in  England  to  systematise  the 
rules  for  the  composition  of  canons. 

BEXFIELD  (WiUiam  Richard).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Norwich,  April 
27,  1824.  S.  under  Dr.  Zachariah  Buck.  Org.  ot  Boston  Ch.,  Lincoln. 
Mus.  Bac.  Oxon.,  1846.  Unsuccessful  candidate  for  the  Music  Professorship 
of  Oxford  University.  Org.  of  St.  Helen's  Church,  Bishopgate  Street,  Lond., 
1848.  Mus.  Doc.  Cantab.,  1849.  D.  London,  Oct.  29,  1853. 
Works. — Israel  Restored,  oratorio,  Sept.  22,  1852  ;  reproduced,  1879  ;  Church 

Anthems,  in  score,  with  portrait,  Lond.,  n.  d.  ;    A  Set  of  Fugues  for  the  Organ, 

Lond. ,  li.  d.  ;  songs  and  part-songs ;  organ  music,  etc. 

The  revivification  of  this  composer's  oratorio  in  1879  gave  rise  to  much  favourable 

criticism  among  competent  writers,  and  it  was  allowed  that  had  Bexfield  lived  he 

would  have  proved  an  ornament  to  the  English  school  of  church  music.      "  Israel 

Restored  "  is  a  work  of  much  promise,  but  cannot  be  said  to  be  a  mature  work  of 


BEYEBi  (Ferdinand).      German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Querfurt,   Saxony,  July 
25,  1803.     Was  arranger  and  editor  in  employment  of  Messrs.  Schott  and  Co., 
Mayence.     D.  Mayence,  May  14,  1863. 
Works. — Pianoforte :  Des  Hausesletzte  Stunde,  Fantasia,  op.  31  ;  Les  Charmes 
de   I'opera,    op.    33 ;    Repertoire   des  Jeunes   Pianistes,    op.    36 ;    Bouquets    de 
Melodies,  op.  42  ;    Six  Morceaux  Elegants  sur  des  Airs  allemands  favoris,  op.  80  ; 
Le  Premier  Debut,  24  pieces  arranged  for  Pf.,  op.  83  ;   Fleurs  Italiennes,  op.  87  ; 
Heures  de-Joisir,  dances,  op.  92  ;  Fantasias  and  minor  arrangements  without  num- 
ber. ,   Berger's  works  possess  considerable  value  as  teaching  pieces,  but  their 
artistic  rfierits  are  not  much  above  the  average. 

BEYLE  (Marie  Henri).     French  writer,  B.  Grenoble,  1783.     D.  Paris,  1842. 

He  published,  under  the  nom  de  plume  of  L.  A.  C.  Rombet,  "  Lettres  ecrites  de 

Vienne  en  Autriche  sur  le  cHebre  compositeur  Joseph  Haydn,  suivies  d'  une 

vie  de  Mozart,  et  de  considerations  sur  Metastase  et  1'  ^tat  present  de  la  Musique 

en  France  et  en  Italic,"  Paris,  8vo,  1814.     Re-issued  as  "Vies  de  Haydn,  et 

de .  Metastase, "  Paris,  8vo,  1854.     This  work  was  stolen  from  a  similar  book 

issued  by  Carpani.      It  was  translated  into  English  as  "The  Lives  of  Haydn 

.  and  Mozart  with  Observations  on  Metastasio..."  Lond.,  8vo,  1817  ;  2nd  edit., 

•  1818.   Under  the  name  of  M.  de  Stendhal  he  also  published  a  "Vie  de  Rossini," 

Paris,  1823.   English  translation,  anonymous,  1824.  Second  edition,  Paris,  1854. 

,      This  is  also  a  plagarism  of  a  work  by  Carpani.     JBeyle's  other  writings  are  very 

numerous,  and  comprise  many  other  subjects  besides  music. 

BEZDECK  (Friedrich  Wenzel).  Bohemian  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Prague, 
Sept.  24,  1804.     Writer  of  quartets,  Pf.  music,  violin  music,  songs,  etc. 

BIAGGrI  (Geiblamo  Alessandro),  IppoUto  d'  Albano.  Italian  writer  and  critic, 
B.  Milan,  1815.  S.  music  at  Milan  Con.  He  acted  as  musical  critic  for  the 
Gazetta  d'  Italia,  and  wrote  a  work  entitled  ' '  Delia  Musica  Religiosa  e  delle 
questioni  inerenti  discorso,"  Milan,  8vo,  1856.  He  has  also  contributed 
largely  to  periodical  literature. 

BIAL  (Carl).  German  comp.  of  Pf,  music  and  songs.  B.  Habelschwerdt,  near 
GlaU,  July  14,  1833, 

B I  A  —  BID 


BIANCHI  (Francesco).      Italian  comp.,  B.  Cremona,   1752.     Chap. -master  at 

Cremona.      Mem.  of  Italian  opera  orch.  at  Paris,  1775.      Assistant  cond.  at 

Ch.  of  S.  Ambrogio,  Milan,  1784.     Second  org.  of  S.  Mark's,  Venice,  1785. 

Came  to  London,   1793.      Married  to  Miss  Jackson,    1800.      Teacher   and 

comp.  in  London.      Committed  suicide.   Hammersmith,  London,  Nov.  27, 


Works. — Operas:  La  Reduction  de  Paris,  1777;  Castor  a  Polluce,  1780;  Trionfo 

della  Pace,   1782;  Demofoonte,   1783;  Brisside,   1784;  La  Caccia  d'  Enrico  iv., 

1784;  Aspardeprincipe  Battriano,  1784;  II  Dissertoro,  1785 ;  La  Villanella  rapita, 

1 785 ;  Piramo  et  Tisbe,  1 786  ;  La  Vergine  del  Sole,  1 786 ;  Scipione  Africano,  1 787 ; 

La  Secchia  rapita,  1787  ;  L'  Orfano  della  China,  1787  ;  Pizarro,  1788  ;  Mesenzio, 

1788;  Alessandro  nell' Indie,  1788;  Tarara,  1788;   II  Ritratto,  1788;  L' Inglese 

stravagante,  1789  ;  II  Gatto,  1789  ;  La  Morte  di  Giulio  Cesare,  1789  ;  L'  Arminio, 

1790;   La  Dame  bizzaria,  1790  ;   Cajo  Ostilio,  1791  ;   La  Capriccioso  ravveduta, 

1793;  L'Olandese,  1794;  La  Stravagante,  1795;  Zenobia,  Lend.;  Inez  de  Castro; 

Aci  e  Galatea  ;  La  Semiramide,  1798.     Oratorios:  Agar,  1791  ;  Joas,  1791.    Songs 

and  other  vocal  music. 

Bianchi  was  the  teacher  of  Sir  H.  R.  Bishop  and  other  musicians  ytho  have  at- 
tained eminence.  His  operas  were  pleasing  but  not  original.  They  are  now  com- 
pletely forgotten. 

BIBEB  (Heinrich  Johann  Franz  von).  Bohemian  violinist  and  comp.   B.  War- 
tenberg,  1638.     Vice  chap.-master  at  Court  of  Bishop  of  Salzburg.     D.  Salz- 
burg, 1698. 
Works. — Fidicinium  Sacro  profanum,  1681  ;  Harmonico  artificioso-ariosa  ;  Ves- 
perae  longiores  ac  breviores,  una  cum  litaniis  Lauretanis  a  quatuor  vocibus,  Salz- 
burg, 1693  ;  Sonatas  for  violin  and  bass,  etc. 

He  was  esteemed  an  excellent  performer  and  composer  in  his  day,  and  introduced 
several  effects  into  the  style  of  violin  playing  practised  in  his  time. 

BIBL  (Andreas).  Austrian  comp.,  B.  Vienna,  April  8,  1797  (1807).  Org.  at 
the  Ch.  of  S.  Stephen,  Vienna,  from  1818. 
Works. — Twelve  preludes  for  org.,  op.  3;  Salvi  Regina  for  4  voices  and  org., 
op.  5  ;  Three  Ave  Maria,  do.,  op.  6  ;  Two  Tantum  Ergo,  for  4  voices  and  org., 
op.  8;  Graduel,  for  4  voices,  strings,  and  org.,  op.  9;  Cadences  for  the  org.,  op. 
10;  Thirty-two  Versets  for  org.,  op.  7  ;  Three  Prelude  for  org.,  op.  r2.  ;  Do.,  op. 
13 ;  Do.,  op.  15 ;  Twenty  Preludes  for  organ,  op.  16 ;  Fugue  for  the  organ,  in  C, 
op.  17;  Offertoire  for  tenor  voice,  chorus,  small  orch.,  and  org.,  op.  18;  Graduel 
for  4  voices,  small  orch.,  and  org.,  op.  19;  Mass  for  4  voices,  small  orch.,  and 
org.,  op.  20);  Tantum  Ergo,  for  soprano  voice,  chorus  and  orch.,  op.  21  ;  Tantum 
Ergo  for  contralto  solo,  chorus,  and  orch.,  in  E  fiat,  op.  22 ;  Prelude  and  Fugue 
for  org.,  op.  23,  etc. 

BIBL  (Rudolph).  Son  of  the  above,  B.  Vienna,  1832.  He  has  written  a  num- 
ber of  works  for  organ  and  Pianoforte,  and  is  a  good  performer  on  the  former 
instrument.  ; 

BICKHAM  (George).  English  engraver  and  penman,  flourished  in  the  first 
part  of  the  i8th  century.  He  published  "  The  Musical  Entertainer,"  2  vols.  fo. 
[c.  1750],  a  collection  of  songs  of  some  value.     He  died  in  1769. 

BICKING  (Alfred).  German  comp.  and  vocalist;  B.  Berlin,  1840.  D.  1864. 
Wrote  an  opera,  songs,  etc. 

BICENELL  (John  Laurence),  English  writer  and  barrister-at-law,  and 
reputed  author  of  "Musical  Travels  through  England,  by  Joel  Collier,  Licen- 
ciate  in  Music."  Lond.,  l2mo,  1774  (various  editions).  Inl8l8  appeared 
"Redivivus,  an  entirely  edition  of  that  celebrated  Author's  Musical  Travels." 
The  work  is  a  satire  on  Burney,  and  is  an  amusing  production,  now  getting 
very  scarce.  It  has  also  been  ascribed  to  Peter  Beckford,  a  writer  and  musical 
amateur  of  last  century. 

BIDDLE  (Horace  P.)  American  theoretical  writer,  has  published  the  "Musical 
Scale,"  a  scientific  treatise  on  the  ton?s  of  the  scales,  etc,    (Ditson,  Boston,  n.d.) 

92  BIE — BIL 

BIENAEVEE  (Paul  Emile).  French  comp.,  teacher,  and  writer,  B.  Paris, 
July  6,  1802.  Prof,  of  accompaniment  and  harmony  in  Paris  Cons,  from  1828. 
D.  Paris,  Jan.  17,  1869.  He  was  chiefly  celebrated  as  a  successful  teacher. 
He  wrote  "I'Histoire  du  Piano  depuis  son  origine,  etc."  Paris,  3  vols;,  1863; 
"Cinquante  etudes  d'harmonie  pratique."     Paris,  1844. 

BIEBY   (Gottlob  Benedict).      German  comp.,    B.   Dresden,  July  25,   1772. 
S.  under  Weinlig,     Music  director  of  opera  at  Vienna,  1807  ;  ditto  at  Breslau, 
1824.     D.  Breslau,  May  5,  1840. 
"Works. — Numerous  operettas  and  cantatas,  a  complete  list  of  which  is  contained 
in  the  "  Dictionnaire  "  of  Fetis. 

A  few  of  his  cantatas  still  survive,  but  are  not  generally  known. 

BIGGrS  (Edward  Smith).  English  glee  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  during  latter 
half  of  i8th  century.  D.  about  [1820].  Was  a  celebrated  teacher  of  music  in 

Vio^VLS.— Pianoforte:  Twenty-eight  Waltzes ;  Rondos  and  and  Marches.  Glees: 
Ah  !  me,  with  that  false  one ;  A  poor  soul  sat  sighing ;  Beneath  this  stone  lies 
Catherine  Gray ;  Bring  the  song ;  Cease  sorrow  (from  Jommelli) ;  Hark  !  what 
sound ;  Here  beneath  this  willow  sleepeth  ;  Here's  lawn  as  white  as  driven  snow ; 
In  my  cot,  tho'  small's  my  store  ;  Lost  is  my  quiet  for  ever ;  Now  ev'ning's  come  ; 
O  !  synge  unto  mie  Roundelaie ;  Tho'  ruthless  war;  Under  the  greenwood  tree; 
Where  feeds  your  flock ;  Will  you  buy  any  tape  ?.  Songs :  £ix  English  Songs... the 
words  from  Mrs.  Opie ;  The  suicide ;  Come,  my  lads,  time  posts  away ;  Ha  ! 
what  is  this  ?  ;  Fox  and  the  crow ;  I  once  rejoiced  ;  Barbara  Allan  ;  Whar  hae  ye 
been  a'  day,  my  boy  Tammy  ? ;  Where  are  you  going  my  pretty  maid  ?.  Duets ; 
Sets  of  Welsh  and  Russian  Airs. 

BIGtGS  (Rev.  L.  0.)  English  writer  of  "English  Hymnology"  (a  series  of 
articles  reprinted  from  the  "Monthly  Packet"). 

BIGLIANI  (Vincenzo).  Italian  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Alexandria,  1801.  D. 
Turin,  1876.     Writer  of  church  music,  etc. 

BIGNON  (Louis).  French  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Paris,  July  12,  1827.  D. 
Marseilles,  1874. 

BIGOT  (Marie),  nee  Kiene.     German  pianist,   B.   Colmar,    1786.      Resided  at 
Paris,  where  she  was  married  to  M.  Bigot  in  1804.     D.  Paris,  Sept.  16,  1820. 
She  was  a  fine  performer  of  the  music  of  Mozart,  and  excelled  in  interpreting 
Beethoven  and  others  of  the  classical  school. 

BILLEBT  (Karl  Friedrich  August).  German  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Stettin, 
Sept.  14,  1821.  Has  composed  a  number  of  symphonies,  overtures,  and  other 
instrumental  music  of  considerable  merit.  His  songs  and  sacred  compositions 
are  also  ol  great  repute.     D.  Berlin,  Jan.  2,  1876. 

BILLET  (Alexandre  Philippe).  French  comp.  and  pianist.  B.  S.  Peters- 
burg, Mar.  14,  1817.  S.  at  Paris  Cons.  Travelled  in  Italy  and  resided  in 
London  as  teacher  and  comp.  for  the  pf. 

BILLINGS  (William).  American  comp.,  B.  Boston,  Oct.  7,  1746.  D.  Bos- 
ton, Sept.  26,  1800. 

Works.— The  New  England  Psalm  Singer,  1700  ;  The  Singing  Master's  Assis- 
tant, 1778  (arranged  from  number  i) ;  Music  in  Miniature,  1779  ;  The  Psalm 
Singer's  Amusement,  1781  ;  The  SuflFolk  Harmony,  1786;  The  Continental  Har- 
mony, 1794;  Single  anthems,  etc. 

Billings,  who  was  at  one  time  a  tanner,  is  regarded  as  the  first  American  comp. 
of  any  note.  His  psalms  are  pretty,  and  laid  the  foundation  no  doubt  of  the  modern 
style  of  sentimental  psalmody  affected  in  the  States. 

BILLINGTON  (Elizabeth),  nie  Weichsell.  German  soprano  vocalist,  B.  [1765] 
or  London,  [1768].  Married  to  James  Billington,  a  double-bass  player,  1784. 
Made  dBut  at  Dublin  in  "  Orpheus  and  Eurydice."  DSbut  in  London,  Feb. 
13,  1786,  as  Rosetta  in  "Love  in  a  Village."    Went  to  Italy  with  her  fiusband, 

BIL  —  BIR  93 

1794.     Sang  at  Naples,  1794.    Her  husband  died,  1794.   Appeared  at  Venice, 
1796.    Married  to  a  M   Felissent,  1798.    Separated  from  him,  1798.     Returned 
to  England,  and  appeared  at  different  times  at  Drury  Lane  and  Covent  Garden 
Theatres,  the  Ancient  and  Vocal  Concerts,  etc.,  1801-17.     Reconciled  to   her 
husband  (M.  Felissent)  and  retired  with  him  to  Venice,   1818.     D.  Venice, 
Aug.  28,  1818. 
This  vocalist,  said  to  be  one  of  the  most  handsome  and  dissolute  women  of  her 
time,  was  classed  among  the  greatest  of  living  singers.     Her  voice  was  of  extreme 
compass  amd  remarkable  for  its  sweetness.     Her  acting  was  inferior,  and  was  only 
compensated  for  by  the  great  beauty  of  her  person.     Her  letters  were  published  to- 
wards the  commencement  of  this  century,  and  created  a  great  scandal.     Some  bio- 
graphies of  recent  date  hold  that  her  manner  of  life  was  not  so  bad  as  has  been  re- 
presented, and  that  the  cruelty  of  her  French  husband  was  a  sufficient  excuse  for  any 
little  failing.    Full  details  of  her  career  will  be  found  in  Hogarth's  ' '  Memoirs  of  the 
Musical  Drama,"  and  in  "  Memoirs  of  Mrs.  Billington,  from  her  Birth  ;  containing 
a  variety  of  matter,  ludicrous,  theatrical,  musical,  and  with  copies  of  several  original 
letters  written  by  Mrs.  Billington  to  her  Mother,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1792.    A  suppressed 

BILLINGTON  (Thomas).     English  pianist,  harpist,  and  comp.,  B.  about  end 

of  i8th  century.     He  lived  in  London  as  a  teacher  of  the  piano  and  harp. 

The  dates  of  his  birth  and  death  are  unknown.     [Supposed  to  have  been  the 

husband  or  brother-in-law  of  above.] 

Works. — Music  to  Gray's  Elegies  ;  Pope's  Elojsa  to  Abelard  ;  Prior's  Garland  ; 

Petrarch's  Laura  ;  The  Children  in  the  Wood,  Morton  ;   Twelve  canzonets   for  2 

voices ;  Six  songs  for  voice  and  Pf. ;  Sonatas,  various,  for  Pf. ;   Music  to  Young's 

Night  Thoughts  ;  Music  to  Pope's  Elegy  to  the  Memory  of  an  Unfortunate  Lady  ; 

Numerous  Glees ;  Songs;  Miscellaneous  Pf.  music;  Scotch  airs,  etc.,  harmonized, 

Lond.  [1785]. 

BILSE  (Benjamin).    German  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Liegnitz,'  Aug.  17,  1816. 

He  has  composed  a  great  amount  of  popular  dance-music,  and  conducts  a  famous 
orchestra  of  70  performers  at  Berlin. 

BIMBONI  (Giovacchino).     Italian  trumpet-player,  B.  Florence,  Aug.  19,  1810. 

BINCHOIS  (Egidius)  or  Gillies.  French  comp.  of  church  music,  B.  in  Picardy 
[1406].  Chap. -master  in  service  of  the  Duke  of  Bourgogne.  D.  [1465]. 
Comp.  masses,  chansons,  etc. 

BING  (Jacob).  German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Eschenbach,  July  16,  1821.  D 
April  17,  1841.     Wrote  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BINGLEY  (Eev.  WUliam,  M.A.)  English  writer,  B.  Doncaster,  1774.  S.  at 
Cambridge.  D.  London,  March  11,  1823.  Author  of  "Musical  Biography,  or 
Memoirs  of  the  Lives  and  Writings  of  the  most  Eminent  Musical  Composers 
and  Writers  who  have  flourished  in  the  different  countries  of  Europe  during 
the  last  Three  Centuries,"  London,  1814,  2  vols.  8vo;  2nd  edit.,  Lond.,  1834, 
2  vols.  ;  an  imperfect  and  inaccurate  work.  Animal  Biography,  1802,  3 
vols.,  etc. 

BINNET  (Thomas).  English  writer,  author  of  "  The  Service  of  Song  in  the 
House  of  the  Lord."     Lond.,  1849. 

BIRCH  (Rev.  Edward).  English  author,  wrote  "A  Tract  on  Responding, 
with  a  Postscript  on  Singing."     Manchester,  1862. 

BIRCH  (Samuel).     English  comp.,  B.  London,  Nov.  8,  1757.     Served  as  Lord 
Mayor  in  1815.     D.  London,  1840. 
Works.— The  Mariners,  musical  entertainment,  1793  ;  "The  Packet  Boat,  or  a 
Peep  behind  the  Veil,"  a  masque,  Covent  Garden,  May  13,  1794;   The  Adopted 
Child,    1795;   The  Smugglers,   musical  drama,    1796;    Fast  Asleep,  do.,   1795 
Albert  and  Adelaide,  do.,  1798.    Glees  ;  songs,  etc. 

BIRCH  (William  Henry).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Uxbridge,  May,  1826. 
S.  under  Elvey,  Blagrove  and  R.  Barnett.   Org.  of  S.  Mary's  Ch.,  Amersham. 

94  B  I  R  —  BIS 

Prof.  Music  at  Caversham,  near  Reading.     Comp.  of  a  number  of  operettas, 
anthems,  songs,  etc. 

BIBCHALL  (Robert).  English  music  publisher,  was  business  manager  of  the 
Ancient  Concerts  and  one  of  the  first  to  establish  a  Circulating  Musical  Library. 
He  was  originally  in  the  employment  of  Randall  and  was  succeeded  by  Lons- 
dale and  Mills.  He  published  works  by  Beethoven,  Mozart,  Haydn,  and 
others.     D.  1819. 

BIRD  (Horace).  American  teacher  and  writer,  author  of  "Bird's  Singing 
School  Companion  "  (with  Joseph  Bird),  Boston,  n.  d. ;  Songs,  etc. 

BIRD  (Joseph).  American  teacher  and  writer,  has  published  "Bird's  Vocal 
Music  Reader  (Ditson,  Boston,  n.  d.),  and  edited,  with  Horace  Bird,  a  num- 
ber of  useful  collections  of  music  adopted  for  use  in  Schools.  He  has  also 
published  "  Gleanings  from  the  History  of  Music."     Boston,  8vo,  1850. 

BIRB  (H.  D.).  American  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1837.  Is  presently  located  in 
Chicago,  where  he  is  a  teacher  and  organist,  of  ability.  His  compositions  are 
not  known  in  England. 

BIRD  (William  Hamilton).  English  collector.  Author  of  "The  Oriental 
Miscellany,  a  Collection  of  the  most  favourite  Airs  of  Hindoostan,  adapted  for 
the  Harpsichord,"  Calcutta,  fo.  1789. 

BIRD  (William).     See  Byrd  (William). 

BIRKENSHA  (John).     Irish  (?)  writer.     Lived  in  London  as  teacher  of  the 
viol  in  the  first  half  of  the  17th  century. 
He  translated  the  "  Templum  Musicum  "  of  Johannes   Henricus  Alstedius,  and 
published  it  in  1664.     For  particulars  of  Birkensha  see  Busby's  History,  vol.  ii.,  p. 
246,  and  the  "  Imperial  Dictionary  of  Biography." 

BIBEENSTOCK  (Julius  Adam).  German  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Alsfeld, 
Feb.  19,  1687.     D.  Feb.  26,  1733. 

BISCACOIAlirTI  (Eliza  Ostinelli).  American  vocalist,  B.  Boston,  Mass., 
1825.     Sang  with  success  in  America  and  Europe. 

BISCHOFF  (Carl  Bernard).  German  comp.,  B.  Nieder-Roeblingen,  Weimar, 
Dec.  24,  1807.  Writer  of  oratorios;  "  Christus,"  "Joas,"etc.;  also  motets, 
and  other  vocal  music. 

BISCHOFF  (Gaspard  Josef).      German  comp.,   B.  Ausbach,  April  7,  1823. 

Writer  of  church  music,  an  opera,  songs,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BISCHOFF  (Ludwig  Friedrich  Christoph).  German  comp.  and  teacher,  B. 
Dessau,  Nov.  27,  1794.  S.  at  Berlin  University  from  1812.  Pro.  at  Berlin, 
and  Director  of  the  Gymnasium  at  Wesel,  1823-49.  Founded  several  musical 
societies.     D.  Cologne,  Feb.  24,  1867. 

BISHENDEN  (Charles  James).  English  writer  and  bass  singer,  B.  1848. 
Author  of  "The  Voice,  and  how  to  use  it,"  " How  to  Sing,"  etc. 

BISHOP  (Anna),  nk  Riviere,  wife  of  the  undernoted.  A  French  soprano 
vocalist,  B.  London,  1812  [1814-15].  S.  under  Moscheles  at  the  R.  A.  M. 
Married  Bishop,  1832.  Z'^fe;  at  London,  1837.  Sang  at  the  Musical  Festivals 
of  Gloucester,  York,  and  Hereford.  Travelled  with  Bochsa  in  Europe,  1839. 
Appeared  in  Copenhagen,  1839.  Sang  in  Stockholm,  1840.  St.  Petersburg, 
1840.  Sang  in  Russia  with  great  success,  1840-1.  Appeared  in  Austria, 
etc.,  1842.  Visited  Italy,  1843.  Went  to  America,  1846.  Travelled  in 
America,  Australia,  etc.,  1853-8.  Married  to  Martin  Schultz,  of  New  York, 
1858.  Returned  to  England  in  1858.  Returned  to  America,  1859.  Travelled 
round  the  world  concert-giving,  1865-69,  and  again  in  1873-76.  Between  the 
years  1839  and  1843  she  sang  at  260  concerts.  She  was  a  cultivated  vocalist 
and  member  of  many  musical  societies.     D.  New  York,  March  18  [20],  1884. 

BISHOP  (Sir  Henry  Rowley).  English  comp.,  B.  London,  Nov.  18,  1786. 
S.  music  under  F.  Bianchi.     Musical  Director  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  1810- 

BIS — BIS  95 

n.     Founded  (with  others)  the  Philarmonic  Soc,  1813.   Visited  Dublin,  1820. 
Cond.  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  1825.     Musical  director  at  Vauxhall  Gardens, 
1830.     Mus.  Bac.  Oxon,,  1839.     Musical  director  at  Covent  Garden  Theatre, 
1840-41.     Cond.  of  the  Ancient  Concerts,   1840-48,     Prof,  of  Music  at  Edin- 
burgh University  (in  succession  to  John  Thomson),  1841-43.     Knighted,  1842. 
Prof,  of  Music  at  Oxford  University  (in  succession  to  Dr.  Crotch),  1848.     Mus. 
Doc.  Oxon.,  1853.     D.  London,  April  30,  1855. 
Works. — Operas  and  Musical  Dramas:  Angelina,  farce,   1804;  Tamerlan  et 
Bajazet,  ballet,  1806  ;  Narcissa  et  les  Graces,  grand  anacreontic  ballet,  1806  ;   Car- 
actacus,  ballet,   1806;   Love  in  a  Tub,  a  pastoral  ballet,  1806;   The  Mysterious 
Bride,  1808;  The  Circassian  Bride,  1809;  Mora's  Love,  ballet,  1809;  The  Vintagers, 
1809;   The  Maniac,  or,  Swiss  Banditti,  i8lo  ;    The  Knight  of  Snowdoun,  181 1  ; 
The  Virgin  of  the  Sun,  1812  ;   The  CEthiop,  or  Child  of  the  Desert,  1812  ;  The 
Renegade,  1812  ;  Haroun  Alraschid  (altered  from  The  ^thiop),  1813  ;  The  Brazen 
Bust,  1813;  Harry  Le  Roy,  1813;  The  Miller  and  His  Men,  1813;  For  England  Ho  ! 

1813  ;  The  Farmer's  Wife  (with  Reeve  and  Davy),  1814  ;  The  Wandering  Boys, 
or  The  Castle  of  Olival,  1814  ;  Sadak  and  Kalasrade,  or  The  Waters  of  Oblivion, 
1814;  The  Grand  Alliance,  1S14;  The  Forest  of  Bondy,  or  Dog  of  Montargus, 

1814  ;  The  Maid  of  the  Mill,  comic  opera,  1814  ;  The  Noble  Outlaw,  1815  ;  Tele- 
machus,  1815  ;  A  Midsummer  Night's  Dream  (Shakespere),  1816  ;  Guy  Mannering, 
or  The  Gypsey's  Prophecy  (from  Scott),  (with  Whittaker),  l8l6  ;  The  Heir  of  Vironi, 
or  Honesty  the  Best  Policy,  1817  ;  Don  Juan,  or  The  Libertine  (compiled  from 
Mozart),  1817  ;  The  Duke  of  Savoy,  or  Wife  and  Mistress,  1817  ;  The  Barber  of 
Seville  (compiled  from  Rossini),  1818 ;  The  Marriage  of  Figaro  (compiled  from 
Mozart),  1819;  The  Heart  of  Midlothian  (from  Scott;,  1819  ;  A  Roland  for  an 
Oliver,  1819;  The  Gnome  King,  or  The  Giant  Mountains,  1819  ;  The  Comedy  ot 
Errors  (Shakes.),  1819;  The  Antiquary  (from  Scott),  1820;  The  Battle  of  Both- 
well  Brigg,  1820  ;  Henri  Quatre,  or  Paris  in  the  Olden  Time,  1820 ;  Twelfth  Night 
(Shakes.),  1820  ;  Don  John,  or  The  Two  Violettas,  1820 ;  The  Two  Gentlemen  of 
Verona  (Shakes.),  1821 ;  Montrose,  or  The  Children  of  the  Mist  (from  Scott), 
1820;  The  Law  of  Java,  1822  ;  Maid  Marian,  or  The  Huntress  of  Arlingford,  opera 
1822  ;  Clari,  or  The  Maid  of  Milan,  opera  in  three  acts  (J.  H.  Payne),  1823  ;  The 
Beacon  of  Liberty,  1823  ;  Cortez,  or  The  Conquest  of  Mexico,  1823  ;  Native  Land, 
or  Return  from  Slavery,  1824 ;  Charles  the  Second,  operetta,  1824 ;  The  Fall  of 
Algiers,  opera,  3  acts,  1825  ;  Hofer,  The  Tell  of  the  Tyrol  (compiled  from  Rossini), 
1825  ;  Edward  the  Black  Prince,  1825  ;  Aladdin,  or  The  Wonderful  Lamp,  opera 
(by  J.  R.  Planche),  London,  1825  ;  The  Knights  of  the  Cross,  opera,  1826  ;  Under 
the  Oak,  opera,  1830;  Adelaide,  or  The  Royal  William,  opera,  1832;  Home, 
Sweet  Home,  operatic  drama,  2  acts,  1832  ;  The  Magic  Fan,  or  The  Fillip  on  the 
Nose,  operetta,  1832  ;  Yelva,  musical  drama,  2  acts,  1833  ;  The  Rencontre,  operatic 
comedy,  1833;  The  Doom  Kiss,  opera,  1836;  The  Slave,  opera  in  3  acts,  by  J.  R. 
Planchfe,  1816  ;  As  You  Like  It  (Shakes. ) ;  Aurora,  ballet ;  Brother  and  Sister, 
1814 ;  Cymon  (from  M.  Arne),  1815  ;  Comus,  1815  ;  Dr.  Sangrado,  ballet,  1814  ; 
December  and  May ;  Don  Pedro,  tragedy  (2  glees)  ;  Der  Freyschutz  (compiled  from 
Weber),  1824;  Englishman  in  India,  comic  opera,  1827  ;  Faustus,  1825  ;  Fortuna- 
tus  and  his  Sons,  1S19  ;  John  of  Paris  (from  Boieldieu),  1814  ;  John  du  Bart  (inci- 
dental music),  1815  ;  Ninetta,  opera,  3  acts  ;  The  Bottle  of  Champagne,  operetta  ; 
The  Czar  of  Muscovy,  opera  ;  The  Humorous  Lieutenant,  1817  ;  The  Romance  of 
a  Day,  operatic  drama;  Zuma,  or  The  Tree  of  Health,  comic  opera,  1818.  The 
Fallen  Angel,  oratorio;  The  Seventh  Day,  cantata,  1833.  Glees:  Six  original 
English  glees ;  Poetry  by  Hemans,  Baillie,  etc. ;  Twelve  original  English  glees ; 
Complete  collection  of  glees,  8  vols.,  1839  (other  collections  have  since  ap- 
peared, one — Novello's — with  orch.  accompaniments).  Songs:  Songs  for  the 
seasons,  by  T.  H.  Bayly;  Select  and  rare  Scottish  melodies.  Poetry  by  Hogg; 
Songs  of  the  old  chateau,  Poetry  by  Bayly ;  Lays  and  legends  of  the 
Rhine,  J.  R.  Planchfe ;  Do.  of  the  Upper  Rhine ;  Melodies  of  various  nations, 
Bayly  ;  Songs  for  leisure  hours,  W.  Walton  ;  Edition  of  Handel's  Trios,  choruses, 
etc.;  Grand  triumphal  ode,  Accession  of  the  King;  Funeral  Ode;  The  Jolly 
Beggars,  cantata  by  Robert  Burns  ;  Single  songs  in  great  numbers.  Pf.  music,  and 
various  pieces  of  instrumental  music.  English  national  melodies.  Poetry,  edit,  by 
Chas.  Mackay.  Syllabus  of  a  course  of  six  lectures  on  the  origin  and  progress  of 
the  lyric  drama,  or  opera.  be  delivered  in  the  Manchester  Athenaeum,  8vo,  1845 

9^  BIS  —  BIS 

It  is  believed  that,  had  Bishop  earnestly  endeavoured  to  regenerate  English 
opera,  he  would  have  succeeded.  He  possessed  high  attainments  in  musical 
knowledge,  and  was  possessed  of  a  fine  imagination  and  much  dramatic  perception. 
His  vocal  music  is  especially  fine,  and  certainly  not  inferior  to  that  of  any  English 
operatic  composer.  What  he  most  lacked  was  consistency.  Having  a  personal 
knowledge  of  his  powers  he  seems  to  have  produced  work  after  work  without  the 
slightest  regard  to  care.  He  sinned  in  wasting  rather  than  in  economising  his 
genius,  and  produced  a  vast  number  of  pieces,  some  of  which  possessed  very  little 

The  works  which  maybe  noted  as  Bishop's  best  are — "The  Knight  of  Snow- 
doun,"  "  Clari,"  "  Cortez,"  "  Fall  of  Algiers,"  "  Oberon,"  and  "The  Slave,"  with, 
perhaps,  his  music  to  Shakespeare's  plays.  They  are  not  in  the  strict  operatic  form 
made  classical  by  Mozart,  Weber,  etc.,  containing  expressive  instrumental  aids  and 
making  use  of  the  recitative,  but  are  simply  in  that  form  of  musical  drama  known 
as  English  ballad  opera.  Bishop  wrote  with  fluency  and  refinement,  if  carelessly, 
and  showed  on  every  possible  occasion  a  strong  feeling  for  the  truly  artistic. 

It  is  in  his  vocal  music  that  Bishop  shows  in  his  full  powers,  and  his  glees  are 
still  frequently  performed  and  stand  high  in  public  esteem.  These  works — many 
of  which  appeared  in  operas — are,  in  the  highest  sense  of  the  word,  art-songs. 
They  are  conceived  and  shaped  conformably  to  the  purest  art  principles,  and 
must  be  known  as  classics  equally  with  the  work  of  other  composers.  Such  works 
as  "Blow  gentle  gales,"  "Where  art  thou,  beam  of  light?,"  "Up,  quit  thy 
bower;"  "Sleep,  gentle  lady,"  etc.,  are  musical  gems  from  whatever  standpoint 
they  may  be  viewed. 

Bishop  is  one  of  the  best  among  English  lyrical  composers.  He  lacks  to  a  cer- 
tain extent  that  quaint  unaffected  style  which  is  so  admirable  a  feature  in  the  older 
composers,  but  on  the  other  hand  some  of  his  concerted  vocal  music  is  unsurpassed 
in  variety.  Had  he  concentrated  his  powers  on  the  production  of  dramatic  music 
wholly  his  own,  the  record  of  his  life,  would  have  been  rich  in  works  of  lasting 

BISHOP  (John).    English  org.  and  writer,  B.  Cheltenham,  July  31,  1817.    Org. 

of  S.  Paul's  Ch.,  Cheltenham,  1831.     Org.  at  Blackburn,  Lancashire,  1838-9. 

Org.  of  S.  James'  Ch.,  Cheltenham  ;    Roman  Catholic  Chap.,  do  ;   St.  John's 

Church,  do.  Org.  appointments  all  resigned,  1852. 
Works. — Remarks  on  the  Causes  of  the  Present  generally  degraded  state  of 
Music  in  our  Churches,  i860;  Brief  Memoir  of  George  Frederick  Handel,  fo., 
1856;  Selection  of  favourite  Pieces  by  the  Great  Masters,  adapted  a^  solos  for  the 
organ,  with  pedal  obbligato ;  'Repertorium  Musicee  Antiquaa,  a  Miscellaneous  col- 
lection of  classical  compositions  by  the  greatest  masters  of  Italy,  Germany,  etc. 
(edited  with  Joseph  Warren),  Lo'iidon,  1848.  Translator  of  Czerny's  School  of 
Practical  Composition  (Cocks) ;  Reitha's  Course  of  Musical  Composition  (edited 
only)  ;  G.  Weber's  Theory  of  Musical  Gomposition  (edited  from  Warner's  American 
edit.,  with  additions) ;  Otto's  Treatise  6n  the  Violin  ;  Czerny's  Art  of  Playing  the 
Ancient  and  Modern  Pianoforte  Works;  Campagnoli's  Method  for  the  Violin; 
Spohr's  Violin  School ;  Duport's  Violoncello  School ;  Hamilton's  Dictionary  of 
Musical  Terms,  edited.  Remarks  on  the  Singing  of  the  Daily  Psalins,  prefixed  to 
2  Collections  of  Chants,  1852-1857.     Anthems;  organ  music;  songs,  etc. 

Mr.  Bishop  has  enriched  the  educational  resources  of  England  by  his  admirable 
translations  of  standard  foreign  theoretical  works.  They  have  long  been  established 
as  part  of  our  musical  literature,  and  are  useful  class-books.  As  an  organist  Mr.- 
Bishop  has  earned  fame,  and  is  known  over  the  greater  portion  of  England  as  an 
authority  on  church  music  and  psalmody. 

BISHOP  (John).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1665.  D.  1737.  Org.  of  Win- 
chester Cath. 

BISSET  (Catherine).  English  pianist,  B.  London,  1795.  Eldest  daughter  of 
Robert  Bisset,  LL.D.,  author  of  the  "  Life  of  Burke,"  etc.  Early  exhibited 
talent  for  music.  S.  under  J.  B.  Cramer.  Appeared  at  New  Musical  Fund 
Concert,  181 1.  Played  in  Paris,  with  success,  1823.  D.  Barnes,  Feb.,  1864. 
Miss  Bisset  was  almost  exclusively  engaged  at  private  concerts  given  by  the 



nobility,  and  was  a  performer  of  first-rate  ability.  Her  early  ability  as  a  pianist, 
and  the  promise  she  gave,  induced  her  instructor  (Cramer)  to  teach  her  without 
emolument.  Her  younger  sister,  Elizabeth  Anne,  B.  London,  i8oo|  was  a 
harpist  and  comp.  of  great  talent,  who  S.  under  F.  Dizi,  and  became  widely 
known  by  her  performance  and  compositions.  Among  the  latter  may  be  named 
"Fantasia  on  C.  E.  Horn's  air,  'Through  the  Wood,'"  1840 ;  "Fantaise 
brillante  pour  la  Harp,"  1840;  "The  Sailor's  Adieu,"  ballad,  1842.  The 
date  and  place  of  her  death  has  not  been  ascertained. 

BITTER  (Oarl  Hermann).  German  writer,  B.  Schwedt-on-the-Oder,  Feb.  27, 
1813.  Employed  in  Government  of  Prussia.  Chiefly  known  to  musicians  by  his 
"Johann  Sebastian  Bach,"  Berlin,  2  vols.,  1865  ;  his  "Carl  Philipp  Emanuel 
and  Wilhelm  Friedeman  Bach  und  deren  Briider,"  Berlin,. 2  vols,  8vo,  1898  ; 
and  by  his  organisation  of  several  large  musical  festivals.  Recent  publications 
by  Bitter  are — "Beitrag.  zur  Geschichte  des  Oratoriums,"  Berlin,  1872  ;  and 
"Eine  Studie  zum  Stabat  mater."     Leipzig,  1883. 

BIZET  (Alexander  Cesar  Leopold  or  Georges).     French  comp.,  B.  f  aris, 

Oct.  25,  1838.      S.  under  HaMvy.     Gained  the  "Prix  de  Rome"  at  Paris 

Cons.,   1857.      Married  to  Mdlle.  Halevy.     Lived  in  Paris  as  teacher  and 

composer.     D.  Paris,  June  3,  1875. 

Works. — Operas  and  Operettas :  Docteur  Miracle,  1857  ;  Vasco  de  Gama,  1863 ; 

Les  Pecheurs  de  Perles,  1863 ;  Le  Jolie  Fille  de  Perth,  1867 ;  Djamileh,  1872 ; 

L'Arlesienne,  1872  ;  Carmen,  opera  in  4  acts,  Paris,  March  3,  1875  !  Noah,  opera, 

unfinished  work    of   Halevy 's,    Carlsruhe,     1885.      Overture  for    orch.,   Patrie. 

Songs,  etc. 
The  renown  of  Bizet  rests  solely  on  "Carmen,"  a  work  which  has  attained  the 

greatest  popularity,  despite  a  somewhat  savoury  libretto.     It  is  a  clever  and  original 

work  and  seems  destined  to  maintain  a  place  on  the  stage  for  some  time.     Bizet's 

other  works  are  rarely  if  ever  produced. 

BLACKWELL  (Isaac).  English  comp.,  flourished  during  latter  part  of  l6th 
century.  Comp.  "  Choice  Ayres,  Songs,  and  Dialogues  to  the  theorbo-lute 
and  bass- violo,"  Lond.,  1657. 

BLAES-MEERTI  (Elisa),  «A  Meerti,  German  vocalist,  B.  Antwerp,  1820. 
Married  to  Arnold  Joseph  Blaes,  Prof,  in  Brussels  Cons.  Sang  at  the  Gewand- 
haus  Concerts,  Leipzig,  1839.  Sang  with  success  in  various  Continental 
towns.     Resides  in  Brussels  as  a  teacher  of  music. 

BLAGROVE  (R.  M.)  English  violinist  and  teacher.  Author  of  "A  New  and 
Improved  System  to  the  Art  of  Playing  the  Violin  "...Lond.,  1828. 

BLAGROVE  (Henry  Gamble).  English  violinist,  B.  Nottingham,  Oct.,  181 1. 
Son  of  above.  First  appeared  in  public,  1816.  Taken  to  London  by  his 
Father,  1817.  Played  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  1817.  S.  under  Spagnoletti, 
1821.  Pupil  at  the  R.  A.M.,  1823.  Gained  silver  medal,  R.  A.M.,  for  violin- 
playing,  1824.  Mem.  of  Queen  Adelaide's  private  band,  1830-1837.  S.  under 
Spohr  in  Germany,  1833-34.  Played  at  London  Concerts  and  Provincial 
Festivals.  D.  London,  Dec.  15,  1872. 
Blagrove  was  one  of  the  best  among  the  small  array  of  first-rate  English  violinists. 

He  had  a  great  reputation  throughout  the  provinces  of  England,  and  was  well-known 

in  Scotland.     His  tone  was  pure,  if  not  remarkably  powerful,  and  he  had  perfect 

command  over  the  mechanical  requirements  of  the  instrument. 

BLAHETEA  (Leopoldine).  Austrian  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Guntramsdorf, 
Vienna,  Nov.  15,  1809.     Wrote  an  opera,  lieder,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BLAINVILLE  (Charles  Henri).    French  violinist  and  comp.    B.  Tours,  171 1. 

D.  Paris,  1769.     Wrote  on  the  science  of  music  and  composed  various  pieces. 
BLAKE  (Benjamin).     English  comp.,   B.  Kingsland,   1751.     S.   by  himself. 

Learned  the  violin,    1760.      Mem.  of  orch.   of  Italian  opera,  Lond.,  1768. 

Prof,  of  music  in  Public  School  at  Kensington,  1789-1810.     D.  Lond.,  1827. 
Works.— Three  Books  of  Six  Duets  for  violin  and  viola.     Six  Sonatas  for  Pf. 
and  violin.     Collection  of  Sacred  Music  for  voices  and  organ.     Three  Solos  for 

9^  BLA  —  BLA 

viola,  with  bass  accomp.     Glees  and  Songs.     A  Musical  Dialogue  between  Master 
and  Scholar. 

BLAKE   (Rev.   Edward,  D.D.)      English  comp.,   B.    1708.      Prebendary  of 
Salisbury  Cath.     Rector  of  S.  Thomas'  Church,  Salisbury.     D.  June,  1765. 
Composed  Anthems  and  instrumental  duets. 

BLAMONT  (Francois  Colin  de).  French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Versailles, 
Nov.  22,  1690.  D.  Paris,  Feb.  14,  1760.  Wrote  numerous  cantatas,  ballets, 
and  other  works,  of  which  the  following  list  is  representative  : — Les  F6tes 
Grecques  et  Romaines,  1723  ;  Les  Fetes  de  Thetis  ;  Diane  et  Endymion, 
1731  ;  Les  Caracteres  de  I'Amour,  1738  ;  Jupiter  vainqueur  des  Titans,  1745  ; 
Les  Amours  du  Printemps ;  Les  Fetes  du  Labyrinthe,  1728  ;  Zephire  et  Flore, 
1739;  U  Pastor  Fido.  Also  Motets,  Songs,  and  an  "Essai  sur  les  goAts 
anciens  et  modernes  de  la  musique  Frangaise,"  Paris,  1754- 

BLANC  (Adolph).  French  comp.,  B.  Manosque,  June  24,  1828.  Writer  of 
chamber  music,  trios,  quartets,  quintets,  etc. 

BLANCHARD  (Henry  Louis).  French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Bordeaux,  1778. 
D.  Paris,  1858. 

BLANCKS  (Edward).  English  comp.,  flourished  during  l6th  cent.  Comp. 
tunes  in  Este's  "  Whole  Booke  of  Psalmes." 

BLAND  (Maria  Theresa),  nie  Romanzini.     Italian  vocalist,  B.  London,  1769. 

First  appeared  at  Royal  Circus,  London,  1773.     Sang  at  Dublin  Theatre. 

Debut  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  Oct.  24,  1786.     Married  Mr.  Bland,  brother  to 

Mrs.  Jordan.     Sang  at  Haymarket  Theatre,  1791.     Sang  in  London  till  1824. 

D.  insane  (?) 
She  was  a  magnificent  ballad  vocalist,  and  earned  most  of  her  success  on  the 
operatic  stage. 

BLAND  (John).      English  music-publisher,  issued  among  other  works   "The 

Ladies  Collection  of  Catches,  Glees,  Canons,   Canzonets,   Madrigals,  etc," 

Lond.,  fol.   3  vols.   [1720];  also  the   "Gentleman's  Collection"  about  same 


He  published  a  "  Collection  of  Sonatas,  Lessons,  Overtures,  etc.,  for  Harpsichord 

or  Pianoforte,"  Lond.,  n.d.     Continued  by  F.  Linley  in  5  vols. 

BLANDFORD  (George,  Marquis  of),  Fourth  Duke  of  Marlborough,  B.  Jan. 
26  [1738].  D.  Jan.  30,  1817.  Musical  amateur  comp.,  was  connected  with 
many  of  the  musical  enterprises  of  the  end  of  last  and  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century.  He  published  "Twelve  Glees  for  three  and  four  Voices. " 
Lond.  [1798] ;  and  a  Collection  of  Vocal  Music.  Also  Sonatas,  various,  for 
Pianoforte,  opp.  1,  2,  3. 

BLANGINI  (Giuseppe  Marco  Marie  Felice).   Italian  tenor  vocalist,  teacher, 

and  comp.,   B.  Turin,  Nov.   18,   1781.     S.  as  chor.  in  Turin  Cath.,   1789. 

Went  to   Paris,    1799.      Resided  at   Munich  from   1805.       Chap. -master  to 

Princess  Borghese  at  Munich,  1806.     Music-director  to  King  Jerome  at  Cassel, 

1809.    Music-director  at  Paris,  to  the  Emperor,  1814.    D.  Paris,  Dec.  18,  1841. 

Works. — Operas :  La  Fausse  Duegne,  1802  (work  left  unfinished  by  Dellamaria) ; 

Z^lie  et  Terville,  1803  ;  Chimere  et  Realite,  1803  ;  Encore  un  tour  de  Calife,  1805  : 

Nephtali,  ou  les  Ammonites,  1806  ;  Ines  de  Castro  ;  Les  Fetes  Lac^d^moniennes, 

1810;    Les  Femmes  vengees,   1811  :    L'Amour  Philosophe,   1811;    Le  Naufrage 

comique,  1812;  La  Fee  Urgele,  1812;  La  Princesse  de  Cachemire,  1812;  Trajano 

in  Dacia,   1814;    La  Sourde-Muette,  1815;    La  Comtesse  de  Lamark,  1817;  Le 

Jeune  Oncle,  1820;  Marie  Therise,  1820;  Le  Due  d'Aquitaine,  1823;  Le  Projet 

de  Pi&ce,    1825 ;    La   Saint-Henri,    1825 ;    L'Intendant,    1826 ;     Le   Coureur  de 

Veuves,   1827  ;   Le  Jeu  de  Cache-Cache,   1827  ;    Le  Morceau  d'ensemble,  1825  ; 

L'Anneau  de  la  Fiancee,  1827  :  Le  Chanteur  de  Soci^te,  1830;  La  Marquise  de 

Brinvilliers,   1831  (with  Cherubini,  Carafa,  etc.);    Un   Premier  pas,   183 1 ;    Les 

Gondoliers,  1833  ;  Le  Vieux  de  la  Montagne.     Romances  for  solo  voice  and  Pf.  to 

the  number  of  upwards  of  100.     Nocturnes  for  2  voices.    Collections  of  Canzonets 

fetA — ELE 


for  voice  and  Pf.     Motets  and  Masses  for  4  voices  and  orch.     Notturnos  for  3 
voices.     Lond.,  n.  d. 

The  great  popularity  of  Blangini's  Italian  and  French  songs,  or  romances,  was 
chiefly  due  to  their  agreeable  character.  Their  reputation,  like  that  of  his  operas, 
is  fading.  His  life  was  published  by  Villemarest  in  1834,  under  title  of  "  Souvenirs 
de  F.  Blangini  maitre  de  chapelle  du  roi  de  Baviire,  membre  de  la  Legion  d'honneur 
et  de  rinstitut  historique  de  France,"  1797-1834. 

BLASERNA  (Pietro).  Author  of  "The  Theory  of  Sound  in  its  Relation  to 
Music,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1876.     (International  Scientific  Series.) 

BLASTS  (Francesco  Antonio  de).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  1765.  D. 
Florence,  Aug.  22,  1851.  Comp.  operas,  ballets,  oratorios,  masses,  overtures, 
and  theoretical  works.  His  son  Carlo  was  a  writer  on  music ;  and  his  daugh- 
ter, Virginia  (B.  Marseilles,  1804.  D.  Florence,  May  11,  1838),  a,  soprano 
vocalist  of  note. 

BLASIUS  (Matthieu  Frederic).  French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  1758,  D. 

BLASSMAN  (Adolf  Josef  Maria).  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Dresden, 
Oct.  27,  1823. 

BLAZE  (Henri  Sebastien).     French  comp.,  B.  Cavaillon,  1763.     D.  May  II, 

Wrote  duets  for  Harp  and  Pianoforte  ;  Sonatas  for  Pf. ;  Songs  ;  and  a  Romance 
entitled  "Julien,  ou  le  Pretre,"  Paris,  1805. 

BLAZE  (Francois  Henri  Joseph),  or  CastU-Blaze.      French  writer,  son  of 

above,  B.  Cavaillon,  Dec.  1784.      S.  for  the  Law.      S.  at  Paris  Cons.,  1799. 

Sous-prefet  in  Department  of  Vaucluse,  1820.     Musical  critic  to  Journal  des 

Debats,  1822-32.     D.  Paris,  Dec.  11,  1857. 

This  writer,  otherwise  known  as   Castil-Blaze,  contributed  to  the  periodical 

literature  of  his  time  many  articles  on  'musical  subjects.      He  also  wrote  "De 

I'Opera  en  France,"  Paris,  2  vols.,  1820;    "  Dictionnaire  de  musique  moderne," 

Paris,  2  vols.,  1821 ;"  "  Chapelle-musique  des  Rois  de  France,"  1832;    "Moliere 

musicien  notes  sur  les  oeuvres  de  cet  illustre  maitre..."  2  vols.,  1852;    "Theatres 

Lyriques  de  Paris,"  2  vols.,  1855  ;  "  L'opera  Itajien  de  1548  h.  1856,"  Paris,  1856. 

His  son,  Henry  Blaze,  Baron  de  Bury,  B.  Avignon,  1813,  wrote  articles  on 

musicians  in  the  "  Revue  des  Deux  Mondes  "  and  elsewhere,  reprinted  as  "Musi- 

ciens  Contemporains,"  Paris,  1856;  "Meyerbeer,  et  son  Temps,"  Paris,  1865,  etc. 

BLEW  (William  Charles  Arlington).  English  writer  and  Barrister-at-Law, 
B.  London,  1848.  Called  to  the  Bar,  1876.  Author  of  "Organs  and 
Organists  in  Parish  Churches ;  a  Handbook  of  the  Law  relating  to  the  Cus- 
tody, Control,  and  Use  of  Organs,  and  the  Duties,  Rights,  and  Disabilities  of 
Organists  .."  Lond.,  8vo,  1878. 

BLEWITT  (Jonas).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  in  first  half  of  l8th  century. 
Held  important  organ  appointments  now  untraceable.  Performed  publicly  at 
festivals,  etc.     D.  1805. 

Works. — Treatise  on  the  Organ,  with  explanatory  voluntaries,  op.  4,  London, 
n.  d. ;  Ten  Voluntaries,  or  preces  for  the  organ,  in  easy  and  familiar  style,  equally 
adapted  for  the  church  or  chamber  with  organ,  proper  directions  for  the  use  of 
the  stops,  etc.,  op.  S  ;  Twelve  easy  and  familiar  movements  for  the  organ,  op.  6. 

Blewitt  was  one  of  the  greatest  organists  of  last  century,  and  was  famed  for  his 
powerful  and  effective  style.  His  work  on  the  organ  is  now  superseded,  and  his 
compositions  are  antiquated,  but  both  possess  many  good  points. 

BLEWITT  (Jonathan  or  John).  Son  of  above,  English  comp.  and  org.,  B. 
London,  1782,  S.  under  his  father  and  Battishill.  Deputy  org.  to  his  father, 
1793-  Org.  at  Haverhill,  Suffolk ;  do.  at  Brecon ;  do.  at  Shefifield ;  do.  of 
St.  Andrew's  Church,  Dublin,  181 1.  Comp.  and  cond.  at  Theatre  Royal, 
Dublin,  181 1.     Grand  Org.  to  the  Magonic  Soc.  of  Ireland.     Returned  to 

iOO  BLI  —  Bid 

London,  1826  Musical  director  at  Sadler's  Wells  Theatre,  1828-29.  Teacher 
of  vocal  music  and  org.  in  London.  D.  London,  Sept.  4,  1853. 
Works. — Music  to  Plays,  etc.:  Harlequin,  or  the  Man  in  the  Moon,  1826  ;  The 
Talisman  of  the  Elements  ;  Auld  Robin  Gray  ;  My  Old  Woman;  The  Corsair;  The 
Magician  ;  The  Island  of  Saints  ;  Rory  O'More  ;  Mischief  Making,  etc.  Instru- 
mental: Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch. ;  Sonatas  and  Duets  for  Pf.  ;  Caprices,  fugues, 
and  sonatas  for  the  organ.  The  Vocal  Assistant,  treatise  on  singing,  Lond.,  n.d. 
Songs :  A  nice  little  man  ;  Adieu  my  moustachios ;  Barney  Brallaghan  ;  England, 
merry  England  ;  Let  us  drink  to  old  friends ;  My  hopes  are  fixed  upon  thee ; 
Emerald  Isle ;  The  White  Cliffs  of  England ;  Good  bye  ;  Groves  of  Blarney  ; 
Hamlet ;  I  saw  him  but  once  ;  New  cries  of  London  ;  O  for  a  cot ;  Our  jolly  stout 
jackets  of  blue ;  Phillis,  have  you  seen  my  love  ? ;  Pic-nic ;  When  crowned  with 
summer  roses. 

BLISS  (Mrs.  J.  W.)     See  Lindsay  (Miss). 

BLITHEMAN  (William).     English  comp.  and  org.,  flourished  in  latter  half  of 
i6th  century.     Org.  of  the  Chap.  Royal.     Mus.  Bac.  Cantab.,  1586.      Mus. 
Doc.  do.  [15  ?].     D.  1590. 
Blitheman  was  the  preceptor  of  Dr.  John  Bull,  and  was  succeeded  by  him  at  the 
Chapel  Royal  in  1591.      His  biography  is  unknown,  but  it  is  believed  that  he  com- 
posed church  music  and  had  much  celebrity  in  his  time. 

BLOCKLEY  (John).  English  comp.,  writer,  and  publisher,  B.  1800.  Engaged 
in  music-publishing  business  in  London.  D.  London,  Dec.  24,  1882. 
Works. — The  Sabbath  Minstrel  [collection  of  sacred  music],  Lond.,  8vo,  n.  d.  j 
The  Singer's  Companion,  Lond.,  fo.,  n.d.  Songs:  My  childhood's  home;  I 
remember  thy  voice ;  We  have  been  friends  together ;  The  absent  one ;  A  blessing 
on  thine  eyes ;  The  Arab's  farewell  to  his  favourite  steed ;  The  friend  of  our  early 
days  ;  Love  not ;  Love  on  (reply) ;  The  Englishman  ;  and  numerous  otlier  songs 
written  to  words  of  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Norton,  etc. 

BLODEE  (Wilhelm).    Bohemian  flute-player  and  comp.,  B.  Oct.  14,  1834. 

BLOW  (John).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  North  Collingham,  Nottingham, 
1648.      One  of  Children  of  Chap.    Roy.,   1660.      S.    under  Captain  Cook, 
Hingeston,  and  Christopher  Gibbons.     Org.  of  Westminster  Abbey,  1669-80. 
Gent,  of  Chap.-Roy.,  Mar.,  1674.      Master  of  the  Children,  do.,  July,  1674. 
Org.  of  Chap.-Royal.      Private  Musician  to  King  James  II.,  1685.      Almoner 
and  master  of  the  choristers  of  St.  Paul's  Cath.,  1687.      Re-appointed  org.  of 
Westminster  Abbey,    1695-1708.      Married   Elizabeth  Braddock.      Comp.  to 
Chap.-Royal,  1699.     D.  London,  Oct.  I,  1708. 
Works. — Amphion  Anglicus,  a  work  of  many  compositions  for'  one,  two,  three, 
and   four  voices,    with  several  accompagnements  of  Instrumental   Musick,  and  a 
Thorow-Bass  to  each  song,  figur'd  for  an  Organ,  Harpsichord,  or  Theorboe-Lute, 
Lond.   fo.    [1700].     Odes:    A   Second  Musical   Entertainment,   performed  on  St. 
Cecilia's  Day,   November   22,    1684,    words   by  John    Oldham,    London,    1684 ; 
Great  Quire  of  Heaven,  St.  Cecilia's  Day,  1691  ;  Te  Deum  and  Jubilate,  composed 
for  St.  Cecilia's  Day,  1695;    Triumphant  Fame,   St.  Cecilia's  Day,  1700;    Arise, 
Great  Monarch,    New  Year's  Day,    1681  ;    New  Year's  Day  Ode,    1683 ;    Hail, 
Monarch,  do.,  1686  ;    Is  it  a  Dream?,  do.,  1687  ;    Ye  Sons  of  Phcebus,  do,  1688  ; 
others  in  1689  and  1693-94;  Appear  in  all  thy  pomp,  appear,  do.,  1700;  Ode  on 
the  Death  of  Mr.  Henry  Purcell,  the  words  by  Mr.  Dryden,  London,  1696;  Three 
Elegies  upon  the  much  lamented  loss  of  our  late  most  Gracious  Queen  Mary, — sett 
to  Musick  by  Dr.  Blow  and  Mr.  Henry  Purcell,  Lond.,  fol.,  1695.    Church  Services 
in  A,  G,  and  E  minor,  one  in  triple  measure  and  10  unedited.     Anthems,  number- 
ing about  100,  published  in  Boyce's  Collection,  Clifford's  Collection,  Page's  Har- 
monia  Sacra,   Novello's  Series;  others  existing  in  MS.     A  choice  Collection   of 
Lessons  for  the  Harpsichord,    Spinnet,   etc.,   containing  four   Setts,   as  grounds, 
almands,  corants,  sarabands,  minuets,  and  jiggs,  1698.      A  Choice  Collection  of 
Lessons,  being  excellently  sett  to  the  Harpsichord,  etc.,  by  Blow  and  Purcell,  1705' 
Catches  in  the  "Pleasant  Musical  Companion," published  in  various  editions  ;  Do. 
pub,  in  The  Catch  Club,  or  Merry  Companions ;  Songs  in  D'Urfey's  collections, 
and  in  others  of  the  same  period  ;  Organ  music  j  various. 

BLO  —  BOC  lol 

Dr.  Blow  was  one  of  those  musicians  of  whom  England  has  so  many — dry, 
severe,  and  scholastic,  but  often  grand  and  dignified.  His  works  are,  on  the 
whole,  more  suggestive  of  learning  than  of  fancy,  though  many  of  his  songs  and 
some  of  his  anthems  are  very  fine,  both  as  regards  melody  and  construction. 

BLOXSOME  (Charles).  English  writer,  author  of  "  Elementary  Practice  for 
the  Vocal  Student,"  Lond.,  1857;  "Elements  of  Singing,  Chord  and  Scale 
Exercises  to  Develop  the  Voice,"  Lond.,  n.  d. 

BLUM  (Karl).  German  org.,  comp,,  and  poet,  B.  Berlin,  1788.  D.  Berlin, 
July  2,  1844. 

BLUMBNTHAL  (Jacob).  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Hamburg,  Oct.  4, 
1829.  S.  under  Sechter,  Grund,  and  Bocklet.  S.  at  Paris  Cons,  from  1846 
under  Halevy.  Settled  in  London,  1848,  as  pianist  and  piano  teacher. 
Presently  residing  there. 
Works. — Trio  for  Pf.,  violin,  and  'cello,  op.  26.  Pianoforte:  Op.  I.  La 
Source,  caprice ;  op.  2.  Two  Caprices ;  op.  3.  Three  Melodies ;  op.  4.  Fete 
Cosaque,  caprice ;  op.  5.  Three  Mazurkas ;  op.  7.  Fantasia ;  op.  8.  Les 
deux  Anges;  op.  10.  Two  Nocturnes;  op.  II.  Caprice;  op.  14.  Ballade; 
op.  15.  Reverie-Nocturne;  op.  16.  Fantasia;  op.  17.  Two  Marches;  op. 
18.  Fantasia  ;  op.  19.  Nocturne-Impromptu ;  op.  20.  Three  Mazurkas ;  op.  21. 
Three  Pieces;  op.  27.  March  ;  op.  28.  Third  Nocturne;  op.  30.  Elegie;  op.  31. 
Tyrolienne ;  op.  33.  L'Exaltation  ;  op.  34.  Chanson ;  op.  36.  Fantasia ;  op.  37. 
Souvenir  ;  op.  38.  Nocturne  ;  op.  39.  La  Caressante  ;  op.  40.  Barcarolle  ;  op.  41. 
Rondo- Galop ;  op.  42,  43,  44,  45,  46,  47,  48.  Morceaux  de  Salon,  various; 
Le  Parfum,  op.  60;  op.  66.  Nocturne;  op,  69.  Adagio  Sostenute ;  op.  73'  Chant 
Religieux ;  op.  8l.  L'Appasionata ;  Valses  and  Salon  pieces  innumerable.  Six 
Part-songs  (Novello).  Songs :  The  Message  ;  My  Queen  ;  Bend  of  the  River  ; 
Boatman's  Song  ;  Clear  and  Cool ;  Comrades,  send  the  flagon  round  ;  Gondoliera; 
Good  night ;  Hebe  ;  Leoline ;  Love  the  Pilgrim  ;  Sweet  is  true  love  ;  Thinking  of 
thee ;  The  wedding  day  ;  Yes  ;  The  Requital ;  Days  that  are  no  more  ;  Life  ;  My 
Palace  ;  Her  Name  /  Arise  and  follow  me  ! ;  Chemin  du  Paradis. 

BLUIOIEB  (Martin).  German  comp.,  B.  FUrstemberg,  Nov.  21,  1827. 
Writer  of  lieder,  cantatas,  Columbus,  1853,  etc.  ;  oratorios,  Abraham,  i860; 
Fall  of  Jerusalem,  18S1. 

BOCCABADATI  (Luigia).     Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Parma.     DSbut  in 

1817.    Appeared  in  London  in  Rossini's  "Cenerentola,"  Feb.,  1833.    Married 

to  M.  Gazzuoli.     D.  Turin,  Oct.,  1850. 

"Her  voice,  like  most  flexible  voices,  is  of  a  thin  quality  ;   her  intonation  is 

generally  perfect,  and  her  style  is  purely  Italian  ;  rather  meretricious  in  ornament 

perhaps,  but  expressive.     Her  species,  of  voice  is  properly  denominated,  voce  di 

testa,  and  we  observed,  that  some  melodies  were  not  only  transposed,  but  disguised 

by  inversion.      However,  altogether  it  was  a  respectable  performance,  and  her 

reception  was  very  flattering." — Athenaum,  1833,  p.  124. 

BOCCHEBINI  (Luigi).     Italian  comp.,  B.  Lucca,  Jan.  14,   1740.     S.  music 
at  Rome.     Travelled  through  Italy  and  France  with  Manfredi.     Played  at  the 
"Concerts  Spirituels,"  Paris,  1768.     Played  in  Spain  by  invitation  without 
success.     Chamber  musician  to  the  King  of  Prussia,  Frederich  Wilhelm  II., 
'785-97.     D.  in  impoverished  circumstances,  Madrid,  May  28,  1805. 
Works. — Op.  i.  Sei  Sinfonie  o  sia  quartetti  per  dui  violoni,  alto  e  'cello,  Paris; 
op.  2-3.  Two  sets  of  six  trios  for  2  vns.  and  'cello ;  op.  4.  Six  symphonies  (quartets) 
for  2  vns.,  viola,  and  'cello ;  op.  5.  Six  duets  for  2  vns.  ;  op.  6.  Six  sonatas  for 
harpsichord  and  violin,  1768;  op.  da.  Six  quartets  for  2  vns.,  viola,  and  'cello,  1769 ; 
op.  7.  Six  conversazioni  (or  trios)  for  2  vns.  and  'cello  ;  op.  8.  Concerto  for  2  vns., 
oboe,  viola,  'cello,  and  D-bass ;  op.  9.  Six  Terzetti  for  2  vns.  and  'cello ;  op.  10. 
Six  quartets  for  strings,  1770;  op.  Ii.  Six  Divertissements  for  2  vns.,  viola,  and 
bass  ;  op.  12.  Six  quintets  for  2  vns.,  viola,  and  2  'cellos,  1771  ;  op.  13.  Six  quin- 
tets for  2  vns.,  viola,  and  2  cellos,  1771 ;  op.  14.  Six  Terzetti  for  vn.,  viola,  and 
'cello,  1772;  op.  15.  Six  Divertissements  for  2  vns.,  flute  oblig.,  viola,  2  'cellos  and 
bass,  1773  ;  op.  16.  Six  symphonies  for  various  instruments,  1771 ;  op.  17.  (?)  Six 

loa  Boc  —  Boc 

quintets  for  2  vns.,  viola,  and  2  'cellos,  1774;  op.  20.  Six  quintets  for  strings  ;  op. 
21.  Six  quintets  for  flute,  2  vns.,  viola,  and  'cello ;  op.  22.  Six  symphonies  for  2 
vns.,  viola,  and  bass,  (iboe,  flute,  and  horn,  1775  ;  op.  23.  Six  quintets  for  2  vns., 
viola,  and  2  'cellos,  1775  ;  op.  24.  Six  sestets  concertanti  for  2  vns.,  2  violas,  and 
2  'cellos,  1776;  op.  25.  Six  quintets  for  flute,  2  vns.,  viola,  and  'cello,  1774;  op. 
26.  Six  quartets  for  strings,  1775  ;  op.  27,  Six  do.,  1777 ;  op.  27a.  Concerto  for 
flute;  op.  28.  Six  trios  for  2  vns.  and  'cello;  op.  29,  30,  31.  (?)  op.  32.  Six  quar- 
tets for  strings,  1778;  op.  33.  Six  do.,  1780;  op.  34.  Concerto  for 'cello ;  op.  35. 
Six  trios  for  2  vns.  and  'cello,  1781  ;  op.  36;  Three  quintets  for  2  vns.,  alto,  and 
2  'cellos,  1788 ;  op.  37.  Six  duets  for  2  vns.  ;  op.  370.  Twenty-four  quintets  for  2 
vns.,  alto,  and  2  'cellos ;  op.  38.  Six  trios  for  violin,  alto,  and  'cello,  1793 ;  op.  39. 
Twelve  quartets  for  strings;  op.  40.  Six  quartets  (short)  for  strings,  1796;  op.  41. 
Symphony  for  eight  instruments,  1797  ;  op.  42.  Sextet  for  2  vns.,  viola,  horn,  and 
2  'cellos ;  Do.,  for  violin,  viola,  oboe,  or  ilute,  bassoon,  horn,  and  bass,  1 797  ;  op. 
43.  Overtuie  for  full  orch.,  1790 ;  op.  44.  Six  trios  for  2  vns.  and  'cello,  1796  ;  op. 
45.  Six  quintets  for  flute  or  oboe,  2  vns.,  viola,  and  'cello,  1797  ;  op.  46.  Six  duets 
for  2  vns.  ;  op.  46a.  Six  quintets  for  Pf.,  2  vns.,  alto,  and  'cello,  1797;  op.  47. 
Twelve  quintets  for  strings ;  op.  48.  Six  do.  ;  op.  49.  Six  do.  ;  op.  50.  Six  string 
quartets,  1788;  op.  51.  Six  do.,  1779;  op.  52  to  57  (?)  op.  58.  Six  quartets  for 
strings,  1799.  Unnumbered  works  consisting  of  Sonatas,  Trios,  Symphonies, 
Quintets,  Quartets,  Concertos  for  Violoncello,  a  Stabat  Mater,  etc. 

The  numerous  delicious  bits  of  melody  and  harmony  which  this  composer  has 
given  the  world,  to  say  nothing  of  his  invention  of  the  string  quartet,  should  secure 
for  him  the  favour  of  posterity.  The  amount  of  Boccherini's  compositions  though 
great,  is  not  such  as  had  a  damaging  influence  on  his  originality  of  idea  or  flow  of 
melody.  The  reproach  of  vulgarity  as  common-placeness  is  also  inapplicable  to  his 
works.  There  is  a  brightness  of  style  and  a  simplicity  of  structure  about  his  music 
which  is  extremely  refreshing.  The  absence  of  laboured  phrases  and  construction 
is  also  very  pleasing.  Boccherini  was  a  noted  violoncellist,  and  played  music  of  his 
own  composition, 

BOCHSA  (Robert  Nicolas  Charles).  French  harp-player  and  comp.,  B. 
Montmedi,  1789.  Appeared  as  pianist  at  an  early  age.  Resided  at  Bordeaux 
till  1806.  S.  at  Paris  Cons,  under  Catel  and  Mehul,  1806.  S.  harp  under 
Marin  and  Nadermann.  Harpist  to  the  Emperor  Napoleon  I.,  1813.  Harpist 
to  Louis  XVin.  Do.  to  the  Due  de  Berri.  Discovered  in  connection  with 
some  forgeries,  1817.  Came  to  England  (London),  1817.  Cond.  the  Lenten 
Oratorios  with  Sir  George  Smart,  1822-23.  Prof-  of  Harp  at  R.  A.  M.. 
Secretary  do.  Dismissed  from  the  R.A.M.  on  his  character  becoming  known, 
1827.  Cond.  at  King's  Theatre,  London,  1826-32.  Travelled  with  Madam 
Anna  Bishop  in  America,  Europe,  and  Australia.  D.  Sydney,  Australia,  Jan. 
7,  1856. 

Works.— Oratorio :  Le  Deluge  Universel.  Operas:  Les  H^ritiers  de  Paimpol, 
1813  ;  Alphonse  d'Aragon,  1814  ;  Les  Heritiers  Michau,  1814  ;  Les  Noces  de 
Gamacle,  1815;  Le  Roi  et  la  Ligue,  1815;  La  Lettre  de  change,  1815;  La 
Bataille  de  Denain,  1816;  Un  Mari  pour  etrenne,  i8i5.  Method  for  the  Harp. 
Ballets :  Beniowsky ;  or,  the  Exiles  of  Kamschatka ;  Le  Corsaire,  etc.  Fan- 
tasias, Studies,  Variations,  Concertos  and  Arrangements  for  Harp.  Bohemian 
Melodies,  harmonised,  Lond.,  n.  d.     Songs,  etc. 

Bochsa  was  the  leading  harpist  of  his  time,  and  was  one  of  the  most  influential 
teachers  of  that  instrument.  His  compositions  for  the  harp  still  survive,  but  his 
memory  is  best  kept  green  through  his  pupils  or  their  descendents.  Parish-Alvars 
and  J.  B.  Chatterton  were  his  best-known  English  pupils.  Of  his  private  character 
nothing  need  be  said.  His  harp  compositions  are  brilliant  in  style,  and  afford 
ample  scope  for  performers. 

BOCKMUHL  (Robert  Emil).    German  violoncellist  and  comp.,  B.  Frankfort- 
on-the-Maine,  1820.     Is  still  living  as  a  'cellist  and  teacher. 
Works. — Didactic    work    on    the    Violoncello.      Fantasias,    Divertissements, 
Caprices,  Concertos,  Sonatas,  etc.  for  the  violoncello,  with  accompaniments  for 
piano  or  orchestra, 

These  works  .possess  some  value  for  those  who  are  studying  the  instrument. 

BOC  —  BOH  103 


BODDA.     See  Pyne  (Louisa). 

BODENSCHATZ  (Erhard).  German  comp.  and  collector,  B.  Lichtenberg 
[1570].  D.  Querfurt,  1638.  Famed  for  his  collections  of  ancient  sacred 
music,  especially  "Florilegium  Portense,  Pars  prima  continens  cxv.  cantiones 
selectissimas,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8  vocum,"  Lipzig,  1603.  Second  part,  1606. 
"Psalterium  Davidis,"  Leipzig,  1605.     "  Harmonia  Angelica, "  1608,  etc. 

BOEHM  (Caxl  Leopold.)  Austrian  comp.  and  violoncellist,  B.  Vienna,  Nov.  4, 
1806.     Writer  of  concertos,  etc. 

BOEHM  (Joseph).  Bohemian  violinist,  B.  Pesth,  1798.  S.  under  Rode.  DSbut 
at  Vienna,  1815.  Prof,  at  Vienna  Cons.,  1819-48.  Mem.  of  Imperial  band, 
Vienna,  1821.     Retired  in  1868.     D.  Vienna,  Mar.,  1876. 

Works. — op.  1.  Polonaise  for  violin,  with  quartet  accomp.  ;  op.  2.  and  3.  Vari- 
ations for  violin ;  op.  4.  Two  polonaises  for  violin  and  quartet  accomp ;  Five 
variations  for  violin  and  orch.,  op.  8  ;  Four  variations  (Rossini)  for  vn.  and  orch., 
op.  9  ;  Concertino  for  vn.  and  orch.,  op.  10.     Quartets  for  strings,  etc. 

This  professor  has  the  honour  of  having  taught  more  musicians  who  have  attained 
eminence  as  violinists  than  perhaps  any  other  master.  Ernst,  Joachim,  Singer, 
Helmesberger,  and  L.  Strauss  are  among  the  more  noted.  Personally  he  was  an 
able  performer  and  composed  some  serviceable  music  for  his  instrument. 

BOEHM  (Theobald).     German  flute-player  and  inventor,  B.  Munich,  Bavaria, 
1802.     Chap. -master  at  Munich.     Perfected  his  system  of  fingering  for  flutes, 
oboes,  clarionets,  etc.,  1831.     Received  Prize  medal  at  Exhibition  of  1851, 
London.     D.  Dec,  1881. 
Works. — Fantasias  for  the  Flute,  opp.  8,  21,  23,  24,  etc.     Variations.     Polon- 
aises.    Rondos.     Studies.      "Ueber  den  Fliitenbau  und  die  neuesten  Verbesser- 
ungen  desselben,"  Mayence,  1847,  etc. 

Boehm  patented  the  well-known  system  of  fingering  for  keyed  instruments,  which 
is  named  after  him.  See  History  of  the  Boehm  Flute,  by  Christopher  Welch, 
M.A.,  Lond.,  1883.  It  makes  easy  the  performance  of  difficult  solos,  but  as 
mechanism,  adds  much  to  the  weight  and  detracts  from  the  tone  of  the  instrument. 
Recent  improvements  have  modified  its  defects  and  perfected  its  capabilities  as  a 
solo-performing  instrument.  The  invention  has  been  adopted  by  many  makers. 
His  work  on  the  flute  has  been  translated  as  "An  Essay  on  the  Construction  of 
Flutes,  giving  a  History  and  Description  of  the  most  recent  Improvements,  with  an 
Explanation  of  the  Principles  of  Acoustics,  applicable  to  the  Manufacture  of  Wind 
Instruments,"  by  W.  S.  Broadwood,  Lond.,  1882. 

BOEHNEK  (Johann  Ludwig).  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Toesselstadt, 
Gotha,  Jan.  8,  1787.  A  good  teacher  and  capable  performer.  D.  i860. 
Works. — Pianoforte,  etc. :  Variations,  op.  3.  Quartet  for  Pf.,  vn.,  alto,  and 
'cello  ;  Variations,  op.  6.  Concertos:  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  E  flat,  op.  7  ;  in  D,  op.  8  j 
in  C,  op.  II.  Serenade  for  orch.  in  F,  op.  9.  Concertos  for  Pf.,  op.  13  and  14. 
Sonata,  op.  IJ.  Fantasias,  op.  19  and  20.  Fantasia  for  clarinet  and  orch.  in  C, 
op.  21.  Fantasia,  Pf.,  op.  22.  Variations  for  horn  and  string  accomp.,  op.  24. 
Fantasia,  Pf.  duet,  op.  60.  Overture:  Der  Dreiherrenstein,  for  orch.  Twelve 
quartets  for  stringed  instruments.     Motets.     Songs,  and  other  vocal  music. 

BOELY  Alexandre  Pierre  Francois).  French  org.,  pianist,  and  comp.,  B. 
Versailles,  April  19,  1785.  D.  Paris,  Dec.  27,  1858.  Comp.  much  Pf.  and 
org.  music,  duets,  trios,  etc. 

BOERS  (J.  0.)  Dutch  violinist  and  comp,,  B.  Nimeguen,  1812.  Writer  of 
symphonies,  psalms,  songs,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BOHBEB  (Maximilian).  German  comp.  and  violoncellist,  B.  Munich,  1785. 
S.  'cello  under  A.  Schwartz.  'Cellist  in  Court  band  at  Munich.  S.  under 
Romberg.  Resided  in  Paris  till  1830.  Principal  'cellist  at  Court  of  Stuttgart. 
Travelled  in  Russia  and  America,  1838-43.  Travelled  in  Holland,  Belgium, 
and  England,  1847.     Composed  music  for  the  violoncello,  etc.     D.  1867. 

104  BO  I  —  BO  I 

Other  members  of  this  family  were  talented  musicians,  but  notably  Anton 
BoHRER  (1783-1852),  who  composed  much  good  music  for  the  violin.  His  works 
extend  over  100  op.  numbers,  and  include  concertos,  etc.  Caspar  Bohrer,  father 
of  the  foregoing  (B.  Mannheim,  1744.  D.  Munich,  1809,)  was  a  famous  trumpet- 
player.     Anton's  daughter  Sophie  (1828-1849)  was  a  pianist  of  some  ability. 

BOIELDIEU  (Francois  Adrien),      French  comp.,  B.  Rouen,  Dec.  16,  1775. 

Chorister  in  Rouen  Cath.      S.  under  Broche,  the  org.  there,  till  1791.     Went 

to  Paris,   1794.      Prof,  of  Pf.  at   Paris  Cons.,    1800.      Married   to  Mdlle. 

Mafleuroy,  1802.      Was  unhappy  in  this  union.      Went  to  S.  Petersburg  to 

avoid  his  wife,  1802.     Appointed  Chap. -master  to  Emperor  of  Russia,  1802. 

Returned  to  Paris,  181I.     Accompanist  to  the  King's  Band,   1815.     Married 

to  Mdlle  Philis,  his  first  wife  having  died,  i8i6.    Member  of  the  Institut,  1817. 

Prof,  of  Comp.  at  Paris  Cons.,  rSiy.     Mem.  of  Legion  of  Honour,  1821.     D. 

Grosbois  near  Bordeaux,  Oct.  8,  1834. 

Wos!ks.— 0/eraj.-  La  Fille  coupable,  Rouen,  1793;  Rosalie  et  Myrza,  1795  ; 

La  Famille  Suisse,  Paris,   1797;   I'Heureuse  Nouvelle,   1797;    Le  Pari,   1797; 

Zoraime  et  Zulnare,  1798  ;   La  Dot  de  Suzette,  1798  ;    Les  Meprises  Espagnoles, 

1799;  Emma,  ou  la  Prisonni^re  (with  Cherubini),   1799;  Beniowski  (by  Duval), 

1800;    Le  Calife  de  Bagdad  (by  St.  Just  Dancourt),   Paris,  Sept.  16,  1800 ;    Ma 

Xante  Aurore,  Jan.  13,  1803  ;  Le  Baiser  et  la  Quittance  (with  Mehul.  Kreutzer,  and  ' 

Nicolo),  1803  ;  Aline,  reine  de  Golconde,  St.  Petersburg,  1804 ;  Amour  et  Myst^re  ; 

Abderkhan  ;  Un  Tour  de  Soubrettte  ;  La  Jeune  Femme  colere,  1805  (Paris,  1812); 

Tel^maque,  1806;   Les  Voitures  versees  (by  Dupaty),   1808;    La  Dame  invisible, 

180S  ;    Rien   de  trop,  1810  ;   Jean  de  Paris,  Paris,  April  4,  1812  (in  English  by 

Bishop,   London,    1814);    Le   Nouveau   Seigneur   de   Village,    1813 ;    Bayard   k 

M^zi^res  (with  Cherubini,  Catel,  and  Nicolo),  1814;  Les  B&rnais  (with  Kreutzer), 

1814 ;  Angela  (with  S    Gail),  1814  ;   Fa  F6te  du  Village  voisin,  1816 ;  Charles  de 

France,  ou  Amour  et  Gloire  (with  Herold),  1816  ;  Le  Petit  Chaperon  rouge,  1818  ; 

Blanche  de  Provence  (with  Berton,  etc.),  1821 ;    Les  Trois  Genres  (with  Auber) 

1824  ;  Pharamond  (with  Berton  and  Kreutzer),  1825  ;  La  Dame  blanche  (from  Sir 

W.  Scott's   "Monastery"  and   "Guy  Mannering"),   Op^ra  Comique,   Dec.    10, 

1825,  London,  Covent   Garden,  Jan.  2,  1827  ;    Les  Deux  Nuits  (by  Bouilly  and 

Scribe),  1829;  La  Marquise  de  Brinvilliers  (with  Auber,  etc.),  1831.     Instrumental 

music,  church  music,  etc. 

Boieldieu  wxs  the  founder  of  modern  French  opera,  and  himself  an  excellent 
composer  of  co;nic  operas.  His  music  is  beautiful,  fresh,  and  rarely  trivial,  and  he 
seems  to  have  heen  in  possession  of  a  great  command  over  the  more  cheerful  capa- 
bilities of  instrumental  expression.  The  adaptability  of  his  music  to  the  comic 
situations  constantly  occurring  in  his  works  is  so  obvious  and  apt  as  to  do  away  with 
the  feeling  of  incongruity  which  arises  when  consideration  is  given  to  the  stupidity 
of  a  libretto  and  the  beauty  of  its  music.  The  genial  character  of  the  music  to 
"Jean  de  Paris  "  is  typical  of  most  of  his  works.  Boieldieu's  instrumentation  is 
always  effective,  though  scored  for  a  smaller  orchestra  than  is  now  considered 
necessary ;  and  some  of  his  overtures  are  occasionally  heard  in  concert  rooms  ; 
while  those  to  "La  Dame  Blanche  "  and  "  Le  Calife  de  Bagdad  "  are  in  constant 
use  in  small  orchestras  all  over  the  world.  The  pieces  by  which  he  is  best  known 
in  France  and  elsewhere  are  those  named  "  Le  Calife  de  Bagdad,"  "Jean  de 
Paris,''  and  "  La  Dame  Blanche,"  which  latter  is  especially  deserving  of  praise,  as 
much  for  the  agreeable  melodies  interspersed  throughout  course,  as  for  the  never- 
flagging  spirit  and  freshness  of  its  general  treatment.  "Jean  de  Paris  "  was  adapted 
to  the  Enghsh  stage  by  Bishop,  and  with  other  operas  of  Boieldieu  was  very  suc- 
cessful. "The  Calife  de  Bagdad"  overture  alone  survives,  but  not  a  few  of 
Boieldieu's  minor  pieces  are  constantly  in  use  on  the  Continent.  The  best  works  on 
Boieldieu  are  the  following  :— "  Boieldieu  sa  vie,  ses'oeuvres,  son  caractere,  sa  cor- 
respondance,''  by  A.  Pougin,  Paris,  1875. 

His  son,  Adrien  L.  V.,  B.  Paris,  November  3,  1816.  S.  under  his  father,  and 
obtained  consi.ierable  success  as  a  composer.  D.  Combs-la-Ville,  near  Paris, 
July,  1883  Among  his  operas  may  be  named  Marguerite,  1838  ;  L'Ai'eule,  1841  ; 
Le  Bouquet  de  I'Infante,  1847  ;  La  Butte  des  Moulins,  1852  ;  La  Fille  Invisible, 
1854  ;  La  Halte  du  Roi,  1875.     He  also  comp.  masses,  cantatas,  etc. 

BOISMORTIEB  (Joseph  Bodin  de).  fFrench  comp.,  B.  Perpignan,  1691.    D. 

BOI  —  BON  105 

Paris,  17&5.     Writer  of  operas,  cantatas,  motets,  sonatas,  concertos,  serenades, 
string  music,  etc. 

BOISSELOT  (Xavier).  French  comp.  and  Pf.  manufacturer,  B.  Montpel'lier, 
Dec.  3,  181 1.     Writer  of  cantatas,  operas,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BOITO  (ArrigO).  Italian  comp,  and  poet,  B.  [Milan,  February  24],  Padua, 
1842.     S.  at  Milan  Cons,  from  Sept.,  1853      Visited  London,  1880. 

Works. — Mefistofele,  opera,  Milan,  Sep.,  1868  ;  Bologna,  Oct.  4,  187S  ;  London, 
July  6,  1880.  Ero,  e  Leandro,  opera  (MS.)  Le  Sorelle  d'  Italia,  Allegory,  libretto 
only.  Poetical  works,  various.  Marcello — one  of  the  "  Great  Musicians  "  Series, 
edited  by  Hueffer. 

The  work  by  which  Boito  has  suddenly  become  known  to  the  musical  world  is 
"Mefistofele,"  an  opera  which  owes  much  of  its  success  to  the  music  and  legend  so 
skilfully  blended.  Boito  has  endeavoured  to  transfuse  his  opera  with  an  interest 
wholly  apart  from  the  conventional  musical  and  dramatic  elements.  How  far  he  is 
justified  in  making  use  of  an  additional  motive  cannot  be  now  entered  into,  but  it 
may  be  pointed  out  that  Wagner  has  in  a  different  fashion  furnished  a  precedent. 
The  psychological  opera  is  a  novelty  in  many  respects,  but  it  does  not  follow  that 
the  idea  of  embodying  the  principles  of  good  and  evil  in  the  action  of  a  theatrical 
entertainment  is  by  any  means  new.  We  find  in  the  mediaeval  miracle  plays  and 
mysteries,  characters  which  are  intended  to  typify  not  only  the  primary  elements  of 
good  and  evil,  but  their  numerous  sub-divisions.  In  them  evil,  or  the  devil,  assumed 
a  tangible  shape  ;  appearing  as  a  tailed  and  horned  monster.  The  Mefistofele  of 
Bbito's  opera,  as  in  Gounod's,  is  also  a  tangible  devil,  representing  evil,  but  shorn 
of  certain  appendages  which  formerly  carried  terror  into  the  hearts  of  old  world 

BOLCK  (Oskaf).  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Hohenstein,  Mar.  4,  1839. 
Presently  a  conductor  and  teacher  in  Germany. 
Works. — Pierre  Robin,  opera,  Altenburg,  1874 ;  Der  Schmied  von  Gretna 
Green,  opera,  Leipzig,  1882,  Paris,  1884 ;  Six  Lieder  for  voice  and  Pf., 
op.  5  ;  Madchens  Gestandnisse,  for  voice  and  Pf.,  op.  7  ;  Sechs  Charakterbilder  in 
2  books,  for  Pf.,  op.  46 ;  Herbstklange,  Five  songs  for  barytone  or  contralto 
voice  and  Pf ,  op.  51.     Two  anthems  published  by  Messrs.  Novello  &  Co. 

BOMBET.    See  Beyle  (Henri). 

BOMTEMPO  (JoaS  DomingOS).  Portuguese  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Lisbon, 
1775.  Settled  in  Paris,  1795.  Visited  London.  Director  of  Lisbon  Cons. 
Knight  of  the  Order  of  Christ,  Portugal.  Director  of  Court  Band,  etc.  D. 
Lisbon,  Aug.,  1842.  He  comp.  Operas,  Church  Music,  Pf.  Music,  etc.,  and 
wrote  a  Method  for  the  Pf. 

BONA  (Valerio).  Italian  ecclesiastic  and  comp.,  flourished  at  end  of  i6th  cent. 
Wrote  a  work  on  counterpoint  (1595),  masses,  motets,  madrigals,  etc. 

BONAWITZ  (Johann  Heinricll).  German  comp.,  B.  Durkheim-on-the 
Rhine,  Dec.  4,  1839.  S.  at  Li^ge  Cons.  Resided  for  a  time  in  the  United 
States.  Teacher  and  comp  in  London.  Comp.  The  Bride  of  Messina,  opera, 
Philadelphia,  1874.  Ostrolenka,  opera,  1875.  1""^,  Lond.,  1885.  Requiem 
Mass,  Lond. ,  1 88 1 .  Concertos,  sonatas,  etc. ,  for  Pf.  Songs  and  other  vocal  music. 
As  a  pianist  Heir  Bonawitz  has  given  "  Beethoven  Recitals  "  and  "  Historical 

Concerts"  in  Germany,  Austria,  France,  etc.,  and  has  been  on  concert  tours  with 

Dr.  J.  Joachim  in  Germany,  Italy,  Russia,  etc.,  in  1880-82. 

BONAZZO  (Giuseppe).  Italian  double-bass  player  and  comp,  B.  1824.  D. 
Trieste,  1880. 

BOND  (OapeD-     English  comp.  and  org.,  lived  in  Coventry  during  middle  of  last 
century.      The  dates  of  his  birth  and  death  are  unknown.      He  was  org.  and 
cond.  of  the  first  Birmingham  Musical  Festival,  1768. 
Works.— Six  Anthems  in  Score,  one  of  which  is  for  Christmas  Day,  1769.     Six 

Concertos  for  4  violins,  tenor,  and  'cello,  with  thorough  bass,  1766.     Glees  and 

Songs . 

Io6  BON  —  BOR 

BOND  (Hugh).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Exeter,  beginning  of  l8th  century. 
Lay-vicar  Exeter  Cath.,  1762.     Org.  of  Ch.  of  S.  Mary  Arches.     D.  1792. 

Works. — Twelve  Hymns  and  four  Anthems,  for  four  voices,    Lond.,  n.  d. 
Glees  and  Songs. 

BONFICHI  (Paolo).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Livraga,  Lodi,  Oct.  16,  1769.  D. 
Dec,  1840.     Wrote  oratorios,  etc. 

BONMABCHE  (Jean).    Belgian  comp.  of  church  music,  B.  Ypres,  1520.    D.  (?) 

BONNYBOOTS.     An  English  singer  and  dancer  of  much  fame  in  the  reign  of 
Queen  Elizabeth  bore  this  nickname. 
Noticed  in  Hawkins'  "  History  of  Music." 

BONOLDI  (Claudio).  Italian  tenor  vocalist  and  comp.,  B.  Piacenza,  1783. 
D.  1846.     Comp.  Pf.  music  and  songs. 

BOOM  (Johann  Van).  Dutch  comp.,  B.  Utrecht,  Oct  15,  1807.  D.  Stock- 
holm, 1872.  Wrote  music  for  the  Pianoforte,  on  which  he  was  a  performer. 
His  father  and  brother  were  composers. 

BOOSBY  &  CO.     English  music  publishers,  established  about  1819  by  Thomas 
Boosey.    Published  originally  valuable  copyright  works  by  Hummel,  Romberg, 
De  Beriot,  Rossini,  and  a  number  of  popular  Italian  operas.     In  1854  they 
were  deprived  of  the  exclusive  right  of  publishing  Italian  operas  by  a  decision 
of  the  House  of  Lords. 
They  publish  a  large  amount  of  vocal  music,  and  their  publications  include  songs 
by  Abt,  G.  B.  Allen,  Balfe,  Benedict,  Blumenthal,  Claribel,  F.  Clay,  F.  H.  Cowen, 
Miss  Dolby,  Virginia  Gabriel  (March),  A.  S.   Gatty,  Hatton,  G.  Linley,  J.   L. 
Molloy,   Pinsuti,   Richards,   Sullivan,  and  J.   Thomas.     The  instrumental  publi- 
cations include  compositions  by  Beethoven,  Benedict,  Cowen,  Favarger,  GoUmick, 
Kuhe,  Mozart,  Oury,   Richards,   Rubinstein,  Thalberg,  Schumann,  etc.     Among 
their  Series  of  publications  may  be  also  mentioned  the  "  Royal  Edition  of  Operas," 
edited  by  Messrs.   Sullivan  and  Pittman ;    the   "Musical   Cabinet,"  comprising 
Operas  arranged  for  Pf.  solo,  Albums  of  Vocal  Music,  etc.  ;  their  Royal  Edition  of 
Song  Books  and  Operatic  Albums  ;  "  The  Cavendish  Music  Books;"  Collections 
of  Standard    Songs    and   Pf.   Music,    etc.       In   addition   to    the    works  already 
mentioned  they  publish  the  large  choral  works  of  Bach,  Handel,  Mendelssohn, 
Beethoven,  Sullivan,  Webbe,  Cowen,  Boyce,  etc.     "The  Choralist"  is  the  collec- 
tive title  of  a  large  body  of  concerted  vocal  music  issued  in  good  style  in  penny 
numbers.    They  also  issue  a  great  number  of  popular  tutors  for  various  instruments, 
and  publish  some  standard  theoretical  works.    Their  ' '  Military  Journal, "  established 
in  184s,  '5  ^°  important  annual  collection  of  band  music.     In  addition  to  their 
publications,  Messrs.   Boosey   manufacture   an  improved  class  of  military  band 

BOOTH  (Karl  Edmund  Otto  von).      German  comp.,  violonist,   org.,   and 

pianist,  B.  Schloss  Weinheim,  Weinheim,  Baden,  March  13,  1842.      S.  music 

at  Carlsruhe  Cons.      S.  violin  under  Concert-meister  Will,  a  pupil  of  Spohr. 

Debut  as  violinist  in  Town  Hall,  Birmingham,  1853.     Settled  permanently  in 

London,  1856.     S.  composition  under  B.  Molique  ;  organ  under  Dr.  Steggall. 

Org.  at  St.  Matthew's,  Eayswater,  l868-7S. 

Works.— Symphony  in  C  minor  (MS.) ;  Operetta,  Prizes  and  Blanks  (MS.) ; 

A  Cantata  (MS) ;  Overture,  Godiva,  for  orch.  (MS.) ;  Marchia  Fun^bre,  for  orch. 

(MS. )   A  Te  Deum  in  D  ;  Anthems  and  Church  Services.     Sonata  Quasi  Fantasia, 

for  organ  ;    Offertoires  for  org.  ;    Quartets  and  Quintets  for  stringed  instruments 

(MS.) ;  Victoria  March  for  orch.  ;   Sonata  in  A  minor  for  violin  and  Pf.  ;  Do.  in 

D  for  violin  and  Pf.  ;  Romance  in  F  for  vn.  and  Pf. ;  Morceaux  Faciles  :  'Ten  Easy 

pieces  for  violin  and  Pf.  ;  Wanderlieder — sketches  for  Pf.  ;  Gavotte  and  Bourse  for 

Pf.      Songs:  Fancies;  The  Star  Angel;  Break,  break,  break;  Autumn  Leaflets; 

The  Broken  Tryst ;  Greeting  ;  Pretty  little  Warbler,  stay  ;  The  Fisher  ;  Beautiful 

May,  four-part  song,  etc. 

BOBDE.    See  Laborde, 

B  0  R  —  EOT 


BOBDESE  (Luigi).     Italian   comp.,    B.   Naples,    1815.      S.   at  Naples   Cons. 
Went  to  Paris,  1834.     Resided  there  from  1834. 
He  has  composed  a  number  of  light  operas,  such  as  Zelimo  e  Zoraide,  1834  ;  La 
Mantille,  1837;  L'Automate  de  Vaucanson,  1840;  Jeanne  de  Naples,  1840;  Les 
Deux  Bambins,  1848,  which  have  achieved  temporary  popularity. 

BOBDOGNI  (Marco).  Italian  comp.  and  vocal  teacher,  B.  Bergamo,  1788. 
S.  under  Simon  Mayr.  Dibut  in  opera  at  Milan,  1813.  Appeared  in  Paris, 
1819.  Prof,  of  Singing  in  Paris  Cons.,  1820.  Chevalier  of  Legion  of  Honour. 
D.  Paris,  July,  31,  1856. 

Bordogni  trained  a  large  number  of  vocalists  who  have  attained  to  eminence  in 
the  profession,  and  wrote  a  great  quantity  of  vocal  exercises,  solfeggi,  and  other 
works  of  great  use  to  teachers  of  vocalisation. 

BOBDONI.     See  Hasse  (Faustina  B.) 

BOBGHI  (Luigi).      Italian  violinist  and  comp.,   B.  ( ? )     S.  under  Pugnani. 

Teacher  in  London  about  1780.      Violinist  at  Handel  Commemoration,  1784. 

D.  (?) 
Works. — Op.  i.  Six  Sonatas  for  the  violin;   op.  2.  Three  concertos  for  the 
violin  ;   op.  3.  Six  solos  for  the  violin ;   op.  4.  Six  duets  for  2  violins ;    op.  5.  Six 
duets  for  2  vns. ;  op.  6.  Six  duets  for  violin  and  viola  ;  op.  7.  Six  duets  for  violin 
and  'cello.     .Symphonies  for  full  orch.     Italian  canzonets,  songs,  etc. 

BOBNACCINI  (Giuseppe).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Ancona,  1805.  Writer  of 
cantatas,  masses,  motets,  operas,  etc. 

BOBBEMANS  (Joseph).  Belgiancomp.,B.  Brussels,  Nov.  25,  1775.  D.Dec. 
15,  1858.     Writer  of  operas,  masses,  etc. 

BOBTNIANSKY  (Dmitri  Stepanovitcll).  Russian  comp.  and  writer,  B. 
Gloukoif,  Ukraine,  1751.  S.  at  Moscow  and  St.  Petersburg  under  Galuppi. 
Do.  at  Rome,  Naples,  and  Bologna.  Director  of  Empress's  Choir,  1779.  D. 
Sept.  28  (Oct.  9),  1825. 

Works. — Psalms,  masses,  operas,  etc. 

BOSANQUET  (B.  H,  M.)  Contemporary  English  writer,  and  Fellow  of  S. 
John's  College,  Oxford,  has  written  a  work  entitled  "An  Elementary  Treatise 
on  Musical  Intervals  and  Temperament,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1876. 

BOSCHI  (Giuseppe).  Italian  bass  vocalist,  B.  at  end  of  1 8th  century.  Appeared 
in  London,  17 11  and  1720.  Sang  in  London  at  Italian  opera  till  1728,  when 
he  disappeared.  He  sang  principally  in  operas  by  Handel,  and  was  con- 
sidered one  of  the  greatest  bass  vocalists  of  his  period. 

BOSIO  (Angiolina).  Italian  vocalist,  B.  Turin,  Aug.  22,  1830.  S.  at  Milan 
Cons.  Debut,  July,  1846,  in  I  DueFoscari,"  at  Milan.  Sang  in  Italy,  Spain, 
Paris,  and  America  with  much  success.  Married  to  a  Greek  gentleman,  1851. 
Appeared  in  London,  July,  1852,  in  "L'Elisir  d' Amour."  Reappeared  again 
at  different  periods.     D.  St.  Petersburg,  April  12,  1859. 

BOSSENLIENGEB  (Heinricll  Jacob),  German  comp.,  B.  Cassel,  Oct.  27, 
1838.     Writer  of  operettas,  lieder,  etc. 

BOTTESINI  (Giovanni).  Italian  double-bass  player  and  comp.,  B.  Crema, 
Lombardy,  Dec.  24,  1823.  S.  at  Milan  Cons.  Cond.  of  orchestra  at  the 
Havannah  theatre,  1846.  Travelled  in  Britain  and  Europe  as  contra-bassist. 
Leader  of  orchestra  at  Italian  opera,  Paris,  1856.  Travelled  in  Germany, 
Holland,  Belgium,  France,  and  England,  1857-58.  Returned  to  Italy,  1859. 
Teacher  and  composer  there. 
Works. — Operas:  Christope  Colomb,  Havannah,  1846;  L'Assedio  di  Firenze, 

1856  ;  Santa  Radegonda  ;  II  Diavolo  della  notte,  1859  ;  Marion  De  Lorme,  1862  ; 

Vinciguerra,  1870;  Ero  e  Leandro,  1879;  La  Regina  del  Nepal,  1880.    Methode 

Complete  de  Contre-basse,  Paris,  n.  d. ;  English  translation,  Lond.,  n.  d.     Songs, 

chamber  music,  etc. 
To  a  powerful  and  fine  tone  Bottesini  adds  great  powers  of  execution  and  delicacy 

of  phraseology.     His  rendering  of  many  difficult  pieces  of  violin  music  is  superior 

I08  EOT  —  BOW 

to  that  of  a  number  of  violinists,  while  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  in  chamber  music 
he  is  unsurpassed.  His  school  for  the  double  bass  is  the  best  ever  penned.  His 
other  compositions  are  unknown  in  Britain,  but  they  are  highly  spoken  of  in 
authoritative  biographical  works. 

BOTTOMLEY  (Joseph).     English  comp.,  org.,  and  pianist,  B.  Halifax,  York- 
shire,  1786.     S.  under  Grimshaw,  Watts,  Yaniewicz,   Lawton,  and  Woelfl. 
Org.  of  Parish  Ch.  of  Bradford,  1807.     Org.  of  Parish  Ch,,  Sheffield,  1820. 
D.  [?] 
Works. — A  Dictionary  of  Music,  London,   1816.     New  System  of  Practising 

and  Teaching  the  Pianoforte...,  SheflSeldj  4to,  n.  d.      Six  Exercises  for  the  Pf. 

Rondos  and  airs  tor  Pf.     Divertissements  for  Pf.  and  Flute.     Twelve  Sonatinas  for 

Pf.     Songs,  Glees,  etc. 

BOUCHER  (Alexandre  Jean),  French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Paris,  April 
II,  1770.  D.  Paris,  Dec.  29,  1861. 
This  performer  travelled  extensively  in  Spain.  France,  Germany,  and  Italy,  and 
was  everywhere  received  with  much  enthusiasm  consequent  on  his  extraordinary 
powers  as  a  mechanical  violinist.  He  composed  concertos  and  sonatas  for  his 

BOTJFFET  (Jean  Baptiste).  French  comp.  and  Professor  of  Singing,  B. 
Amiens,   Oct.   3,    1770.      D.   Paris,  Jan.   19,   1835.     Wrote  operas,  church 

music,  songs,  etc. 

BODLANGER  (Ernest  Henri  Alexandre).    French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  Sept. 

16,  1815.     S.  at  the  Cons,  under  Alkan  and  Halevy,  1830.    Gained  first  prize 

for  comp.,  with  ■' Achille,"  a  cantata.     Prof,  of  Singing  at  Paris  Cons.,  1871. 

Mem.  Legion  of  Honour,  1869. 

Works. — Operas:  Le  Diable  a  1'  &ole,  1842  ;  Les  Deux  Bergires,  1843;  Una 

Voix,  1845;  La  Cachette,  1847;  Les  Sabots  de  la  Marquise,  1854;  L'  E'ventail, 

i860  ;  Le  Docteur  Magnus,  1864 ;  Don  Quichotte,  1869 ;    Don  Mucarade,  1875. 

Cantatas,  Pf  Music,  etc. 

BOURGAULT  DXJOOURDRAY  (Louis  Albert).  French  comp.,  B.  Nantes, 

Feb.   2,   1840.     S.   at   Paris  Cons.     Gained   "Grand  Prix  de   Rome,"  with 

"Louise  de  Mezi^res,"  cantata,  1S65.     S.  at   Rome  till  l858.     Returned  to 

Paris,  1868.     Founded  an  Amateur  Choral  Soc.   in  Paris  for  performance  of 

works  by  great  masters.     Lectured  on  Musical  history,  etc. 

Works. — Louise  de  Mezieres,  cantata,  1865;  Stabat  Mater,  for  chorus,  org., 

and  orch.,  1868;  Dieu  notre  divin  p^ie,  sacred  cantata  ;  Fantasia  in  C.  minor  for 

orchestra,  1874  >  Gavotte  and  Minuet  for  Pf.  ;  Cantata,  written  in  honour  of  Sainte 

Franijoise  d'  Amboise,   duchesse  de    Bretagne,    1876.     Souvenir   d'   une  mission 

musicale  en  Gr^ce  et  en  Orient,  1876.    Trente  melodies  populaires  de  Gr^ce  et  d' 

Orient.    Conference  sur  la  modalite  dans  la  Musique  Grecque,  Paris,  1879. 

This  composer  is  an  eminent  antiquary,  and  his  collection  of  Greek  and  Eastern 
melodies  is  valuable,  as  also  are  his  remarks  thereon.  A  number  of  his  composi- 
tions have  been  given  in  London,  while  in  Germany  and  France  he  is  generally 
well  known.  His  compositions  are  spoken  of  in  terms  of  much  approval  by  both 
British  and  Foreign  writers. 

BOURGES  (Jean  Maurice).  French  operatic  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Bordeaux, 
Dec.  2,  1812.     D.  Paris,  April,  1881.    Comp.  "Sultana,"  an  opera,  1846,  etc. 

BOURNE  (C.  E.)  English  writer,  author  of  "  The  Great  Composers  ;  or,  Stories 
of  the  Lives  of  Eminent  Musicians,"  London,  8vo,  1884. 

BOUSQUET  (Georges).     French  comp.,  B.  Perpignan  Mar.  12,  1818. 

Works.— O/^^aj;  L'  H6tessede  Lyon,  1844;  Le  Mousquetaire,  1844;  Tabarin, 
1852.     Critical  writings,  etc. 

BOWIE  (John).  Scottish  musician  of  Perth,  published  about  the  end  of  last 
century  "A  Collection  of  Strathspey  Reels  and  Country  Dances,  with  a  Bass, 
etc.     Dedicated  to  the  Countess  of  Kinnoul,"  Edin.,  n.  d, 

BoW  —  BoV  tog 

BOWLEY  (Robert  K.)  English  musician,  B.  London,  May,  1813.  D.  August, 
1870.  Author  of  "Grand  Handel  Musical  Festival  at  the  Crystal  Palace  in 
1857,  a  Letter,"  Lond.,  1856.  "The  Sacred  Harmonic  Society,  a  Thirtyfive 
Years  Retrospect,"  Lond.,  1867.  This  musician  was  connected  with  the  Sacred 
Harmonic  Society,  and  he  assisted  in  establishing  the  GreaP  Handel  Celebra- 
tions at  the  Crystal  Palace,  London. 

BOWMAN  (Edward  M.)   American  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Barnard  Vt.,  July  18th, 

1848.     Org.    of   Second  Baptist   Chureh,   St.   Louis,   Mo.     Associate  of  the 

London  Royal  College  of  Organists.     S.  at  Berlin  under  A.  Haupt  and  E. 

Rohde  for  organ,   Franz  Bendel  for  piano,  and  C.   F.  Weitznian  in  theory, 

composition,  etc.     Also  spent  a  portion  of  the  years   abroad  in  study  with 

Batiste  at  Paris,  and  Drs.  MacFarren,  Bridge,  and  E.  H.  Turpin,  of  London. 

Twice  elected  Pres.  of  the  Music  Teachers  National  Association. 

Works. — Bowman's   Weitzman's  Manual  of  Musical   Theory.     Delivered  the 

following  addresses,  which  have  appeared  at  various  times  in  the  published  reports 

of  the  M.  T.  N.  A.  : — Harmony  :  Historic  points  nnd  Modern  Methods;  Formation 

of  Piano  Touch  ;  Relation  of  Musicians  to  the  Public  ;  Relation  of  the  Professional 

to  the  Amateur  Teacher,  etc. 

Mr.  Bowman  is  well  known  as  a  musician  and  organist  of  ability,  and  as  the 
projector  of  the  "National  College  ol  Teachers"  ha»  a  name  and  place  in  the 
hearts  of  America's  musicians.  His  Weitzman's  theory  is  one  of  the  leading  works 
on  the  subject  in  the  country.  He  was  the  first  American  who  won  the  distinction 
of  "Associate  of  the  College  of  Organists."  He  is  a  painstaking  and  conscientious 
student,  and  in  the  midst  of  his  professional  duties  finds  time  for  a  moderate 
amount  of  excellent  composing.  He  is  recognised  throughout  the  country  as  an 
eminent  organist  and  teacher. 

BOWMAN  (Henry).  English  comp.,  flourished  during  latter  half  of  17th 
cent.  Wrote  "Songs  for  one,  two,  and  three  voyces  to  the  Thorow-Bass. 
With  some  short  Symphonies.  Collected  out  of  some  of  the  Select  Poems  of 
the  incomparable  Mr.  Cowley,  and  others,  and  composed  by  Henry  Bowman, 
Philo-Musicns,"  Oxford,  1677. 

BOX  (Charles).  English  writer,  author  of  "Church  Music  in  the  Metropolis; 
its  Past  and  Present  Condition,  with  Notes,  Critical  and  Explanatory,"  Lond., 
8vo,  1884. 

BOXBEBG  (Christian  Lndwig).  German  comp.,  B.  Sondershausen,  April 
24,  1670.     D.  [?]     Writer  on  the  organ.     Comp.  of  operas,  etc. 

BOYCE  (William).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  London,  17 10.     Chor.  in  S. 
Paul's  Cath.  under  Charles  King.    Articled  Pupil  to  Maurice  Greene,  org.  of 
S.  Paul's.     Org.  of  Oxford  Chap.,  Cavendish  Sq.     S.  under  Dr.  Pepusch. 
Org.  (in  succession  to  Kelway)  of  St.  Michael's,  Cornhill,  1736.     Comp.  to 
Chapel  Royal  and  the  King,  June,  1736.     Cond.   at  Meetings  of  Choirs  of 
Gloucester,  Hereford,  and  Worcester,  1837.     Org.  of  Ch.  of  Allhallows  the 
Great  and  the  Less,  Thames  Street,  1749.     Bac.  and  Doc.  of  Music,  Cam- 
bridge, 1749.     Master  of  Royal  Band  of  Music,  1775.     One  of  the  org.  to 
Chapel  Royal,  1758.     D.  Kensington,  Feb.  7,  1779. 
Works. — Peleus  and  Thetis,  masque,  by  Lord  Lansdowne,   17  ?  ;  Solomon, 
serenata    by    Dr.    Edward    Moore,     1747 ;    The    Chaplet,    a    musical    drama, 
Lond,,    fo.,    1745;    David's    Lamentation    over    Saul    and  Jonathan,    oratorio, 
by    Lockman,     1736 ;    Ode    for    St.    Cecilia's    Day,   by    Lockman ;    Music    to 
the    Shepherd's    Lottery,     1750;     Ode    for    the    Installation    of   the    Duke    of 
Newcastle  as  Chancellor   of   Cambridge    University,     1749 ;     Fifteen  Anthems 
and  a  Te  Deum  and  Jubilate,    1780;    Twelve  Anthems  and  a  Service,    1790; 
Ode  to  Charity;    Pindar's   First   Pythian    Ode,    1749;    Masque    in  the  Tem- 
pest.     Cathedral  Music,   being  a   Collection  in  score  of  the  most   valuable  and 
useful  compositions  for  that  service,  etc.,  [containing  examples  of  Aldrich,  Batten, 
Bevin,  Byrd,  Blow,  Bull,  Child,  Jer.  Clark,  Creyghton,  Croft,  Farrant,  Gibbons, 
Goldwin,  Humphreys,  King  Henry  VHL,  Lawes,  Locke,  Morley,  Purcell,  Rogers, 
Tallis,  Turner,  Tye,  Weldon,  and  Wise] ;  London,  3  vols,  fo.,  1760;  second  edit., 
177s.     Eight  symphonies  for  various  instruments ;  Twelve  sonatas  for  2  violins 

iio  BRA  —  brA 

and  bass,  1749  ;  Ode  for  St.  Cecilia's  Day,  by  Rev.  Mr.  Vidal ;  An  organ  con- 
certo;  Two  odes  in  Home's  "Agis,"  1758;  Lyra  Britannica  .  .  collection 
of  songs,  duets,  and  cantatas,  fo.,  n.  d.  ;  Various  overtures;  Songs,  duets,  etc.,  in 
the  collections  of  the  period,  as  The  British  Orpheus,  etc.  ;  A  Collection  of  Ser- 
vices and  Aiithems,  published  in  4  vols,  by  Novello,  Ewer  &  Co.  (modern). 

Of  the  many  great  composers  of  church  music  whom  England  has  produced, 
Boyce  is  held  in  especial  reverence.  Sabbath  after  Sabbath  his  anthems  and 
services  are  being  heard  in  churches  of  importance  throughout  England.  This  is 
owing  chiefly  to  the  great  suitability  of  his  music  for  use  in  public  worship  ;  but  a 
certain  amount  of  traditional  regard  for  his  works  is  also  in  vogue.  His  anthems 
are  for  the  most  part  admirable  specimens  of  sacred  music,  being  impressed  with 
these  characteristics  of  majesty  and  devout  feeling  which  are  universally  allowed  to 
be  appropriate  attributes  of  Christian  song-offerings.  It  is  almost  impossible  to 
discover  in  the  whole  range  of  Boyce's  writings  a  slovenly  or  flippant  passage. 
There  is  not  the  slightest  appearance  of  any  endeavour  to  gain  applause  by  the 
introduction  of  astounding  progressions  or  flashy  melodies,  and  the  impression 
made  by  his  broad  and  powerful  harmonies  is.  healthy,  inspiring,  and  legitimate  in 
the  highest  degree. 

BRADBURY  (William  B.)     American  comp.  and  writer,   B.  York,  Maine, 

U.S.A.,    1816.      Self-taught  on   many   instruments.      Went   to   Boston   and 

became  an  org.,  1830.     Settled  at  New  York  as  teacher,  1836.     S.  at  Leipzig 

under  Hauptmann,  1847.    Established  a  Pianoforte  manufactory,  1854     Editor 

of  the  "  New  York  Musical  Review."      D.  at  Montclair,  New  Jersey,  Jan.  7, 


Works. — Esther,  the  Beautiful  Queen,  cantata;   Daniel,  cantata  (with  G.  J. 

Root).      Collections:   The  Young   Choir,   1841 ;   School  Singers,  1843;    Flora's 

Festival,   1845 ;   Young  Melodist ;    Musical  Gems ;    Sabbath   School  Melodies ; 

Young  Shawm,  1855  J    Psalmata,  or  Choir  Melodies  ;   Alpine  Glee  Book,  2  vols., 

1850-54;  Metropolitan  Glee  Book;   The  Golden  Chain  ;   Golden  Shower  ;  Fresh 

Laurels  ;  The  Jubilee ;  The  Key  Note ;  The  Temple  Choir  ;  Songs,  etc. 

The  productions  of  this  musician  are  marked  by  a  plainness  and  wealth  of 
familiar  reminiscence  which  make  them  easy  for  performance  by  aspiring  Sunday 
school  choirs.  He  is  said  to  have  done  much  for  music  in  New  York  ;  but  whether 
in  an  artistic  or  popular  sense  is  not  known.  He  collected  a  very  valuable  musical 

BRADE  (William).  English  comp.  and  viol-player,  flourished  about  commence- 
ment of  17th  century.  Published  Paduanen,  Galliarden,  Canzonetten,  etc., 
1609  ;  Neue  Paduanen  und  Gagliarden  mit  stimmen,  1614 ;  Neue  Lustige 
Volten  Couranten,  Balletten,  etc.     D.  at  Frankfort,  1647. 

BRADFORD  (Jacob).  English  comp.  and  teacher,  is  a  Mus.  Bac.  Oxon.,  1873, 
and  Mus.  Doc,  do.,  1878.  Principal  of  the  South  London  Music  Training 

BRADSKY  (Theodor  Wenzel).  Bohemian  comp.,  B.  Raknovik,  Jan.  17, 
1833.  Prof,  in  the  Real-Schule,  Berlin.  D.  Berlin,  Aug.  9,  1881.  Comp; 
operas,  "  Christian  von  Schweden,"  1872,  etc.  ;  songs,  and  instrumental  music. 

BRADY  (Nicholas).  Irish  divine  and  poet,  B.  Bandon,  1659.  D.  Richmond, 
Surrey,  1726.  Associated  with  Tate  in  the  production  of  the  metrical  version 
of  the  Psalms  of  David,  now  in  general  use.  He  also  wrote  ' '  Church  Music 
Vindicated,  a  Sermon,"  Lond.,  1697. 

BRAGA  (Gaetano).     Italian  comp.    and  violoncellist,  B.    Giuhanuova,   June 

BRAHAM  (John).      EngHsh  tenor  vocalist  and  comp.,  B.  London,   1774.     S. 

under  Leoni.      Dlbut  at  Royalty  Theatre,  Wellclose  Square,  London,   1787. 

Appeared  at  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  April  21,  1787.      Sang  in  Bath,  1794. 

S.    under   Rauzzini  at  Bath,    1794.      Sang   at  Drury   Lane   Theatre,    1796, 

Travelled   in   Italy,    and   sang   at  Florence,   Rome,   Naples,   Milan,    Genoa. 

Venice,   etc.,  occasionally  with  Mrs.   Billington.      S.  under  Isola  in  Italy. 

Returned  to  London,  1801.      Re-appeared  at  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  1801. 

Married  to  Miss  Bolton  of  Ardwick,  16.     Appeared  as  "Huon,"  in  Weber's 

bRA  —  brA  iii 

r^    r  -T    y — ■-    r  .  -■  I   . 

"Oberon,"  1826.     Lost  his  fortune  by  failure  of  several  speculations,   1851. 
D.  London,  Feb.  17,  1856. 

Works. — Mtisic  to  Dramas :  The  Cabinet,  1801;  Family  Quarrels,  1802;  The 
English  Fleet,  1802  (containing  "All's  Well,"  duet,  etc.);  Thirty  Thpusand,  1804; 
Out  of  Place,  1805  ;  False  Alarms,  1807  ;  Kais,  or  Love  in  a  Desert,  1808  (with 
Reeve)  ;  The  Devil's  Bridge  (with  C.  E.  Horn),  1812 ;  The  Paragraph  ;  Narensky, 
or.  The  Road  to  Yarostaf;  The  Americans  ;  The  Magicians  (with  M.  P.  King), 
"  Single  songs,  glees,  etc. 

Braham  lived  in  a  period  when  the  naval  achievements  of  Britain  were  the  sub- 
jects of  universal  comment.  The  popular  feeling  ran  high  in  the  direction  of  the 
maintenance  of  a  supremacy  on  the  seas,  and  the  writers  who  appeared  in  response 
to  the  national  manifestations  were  warmly  received.  Among  those,  however, 
Charles  Dibden  and  John  Braham  were  undoubtedly  supreme.  The  former  wrote 
and  the  latter  sang  a  number  of  ballads  highly  suited  to  the  prevailing  taste  of  the 
time.  Braham  possessed  a  voice  of  'considerable  compass  and  remarkable  quality. 
He  excelled  in  ballad  singing,  but  was  also  successful  in  the  more  exacting  dramatic 
music  of  Weber  and  others.  In  songs  of  his  own  composition,  as  the  "  Death  of 
Nelson,"  Braham  excelled  all  others.  This  work  is  a  very  respectable  specimen  of 
the  class  of  song  patronised  in  the  first  part  of  this  century,  and  with  Davy's  "  Bay 
of  Biscay  "  and  Dibdin's  "Tom  Bowling,"  it  is  among  the  most  popular  of  English 
naval  songs.  The  cabinet  opera,  "  The  Americans,"  contains  also  some  melodious 
music,  but  its  merit  is  not  of  a  first-class  order. 

BRAHMS  (Johannes).  German  comp.,  B.  Hamburg,  Mar.  7,  1833.  S.  under 
Marxsen.  Noticed  by  Schumann.  Travelled  in  Germany  as  pianist.  Went 
to  Vienna,  1861.  Cond.  of  the  Sing-Akademie,  1863-73.  Director  of  the 
Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde  Concerts,  1872-1875.  Mem.  of  Academy  of 
Arts,  Berlin,  1874. 

Works. — Op.  i.  Sonata  for  Pf.  in  C  ;  op.  2.  Sonata  for  F  Sharp  minor  ; 
op.  3.  Six  Gesange  fiir  Tenor  oder  Sopran  mit  Pianoforte  ;  op.  4.  Scherzo  for  Pf. 
in  E.  flat  minor ;  op.  5.  Sonata  for  Pf.  in  F  minor ;  op.  6.  Six  Songs  for  voice  and 
Pf.  ;  op.  7.  Do.  ;  op.  8.  Trio  in  B  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello;  op.  9.  Variations  for 
Pf.  on  theme  by  Schumann  ;  op.  10.  Balladen  fiir  Pf  ;  op.  II.  Serenade  for  orch. 
in  D ;  op.  12.  Ave  Maria,  for  female  voices,  org.,  and  orch.  ;  op.  13.  Funeral 
Hymn  for  chorus  and  orch.  of  wind  instruments ;  op.  14.  Eight  Songs  and 
Romances ;  op.  15.  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  D  ;  op.  16.  Serenade  for  small 
orch.,  in  A  ;  op.  17.  Four  part  songs  for  female  voices,  2  horns  and  harp  ;  op.  18. 
Sextet  for  strings,  in  B  flat ;  op.  19.  Five  Songs  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  20.  Three 
duets  for  soprano  and  alto  voices  with  Pf  ;  op.  21.  Two  variations  for  Pf.  ;  op.  22. 
Seven  Marienlieder  for  mixed  choir ;  op.  23.  Variations  for  Pf.  (Schumann) ;  op. 
24.  Variations  and  Fugue  for  Pf.  (Handel)  ;  op.  25.  Quartet  for  Pf.  and  strings  in 
G  minor  ;  op.  26.  Do.  in  A  ;  op.  27.  Psalm  xiii  for  female  voices  and  organ  ;  op, 
28.  Four  duets  for  alto  and  barytone  voices  and  Pf.  ;  op.  29.  Two  motets  for  5 
voices  ;  op.  30.  Giestliches  Lied  von  Paul  Flemming,  for  4  voices  and  organ ;  op. 
31.  Three  quartets  for  S.  A.  T.  B.  ;  op.  32.  Nine  Songs  by  Platen  and  Daumer, 
for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  33.  Fifteen  Romances  from  Tieck's  Magelone,  for  voice  and 
Pf  ;  op.  34.  Quintet  for  Pf.  and  strings  in  F.  minor  ;  op.  340.  Sonata  for  Pf  duet, 
trans,  from  the  Quintet ;  op.  35.  Twenty-eight  variations  for  Pf.  [Paginini] ;  op. 
36.  Sextet  for  strings,  in  G  ;  op.  37.  Three  sacred  choruses  for  female  voices ; 
op.  38.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  'cello,  in  E  minor  ;  op.  39.  Sixteen  waltzes  for  Pf  duet ; 
op.  40.  Trio  for  Pf.,  violin,  and  horn  or  'cello  ;  op.  41.  Five  part  songs  for  Men's 
voices  ;  op.  42.  Three  songs  for  chorus ;  op.  43.  Four  songs  for  solo  voice  and  Pf.  ; 
op.  44.  Twelve  Songs  and  Romances  for  female  chorus;  op.  45.  "Ein  Deutscher 
Requiem,"  German  Requiem,  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orch.,  1868;  op.  46. 
Four  songs  for  voice  and  Pf. ;  op.  47.  Four  do.  ;  op.  48.  Seven  do.  ;  op.  49.  Five 
do.  ;  op.  50.  "  Rinaldo,"  cantata  by  Goethe,  for  solo,  chorus,  and  orch.  ;  op.  51. 
Two  Quartets  for  strings  in  C  minor,  and  A  minor  ;  op.  52.  Liebeslieder,  Waltzes 
for  Pf.  duet  and  voices  ;  op.  53.  Rhapsodic  :  Fragments  from  Goethe's  "  Harzreise," 
for  alto-solo,  male  chorus,  and  orch.  ;  op.  54.  "Schicksalslied."  Song  of  Destiny 
by  F.  Holderlin,  for  chorus  and  orch  ;  op.  55.  Triumphlied  for  8  part  chorus  and 
orch.  ;  op.  56.  Variations  on  theme  by  Haydn,  for  orch.  ;  op.  560.  Do.  for  Pf 
duet ;  op.  57.  Eight  songs  by  Daumer  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  58.  Eight  songs  for 
voice  and  Pf. ;  op.  59 ;  Eight  do. ;  op.  60.  Quartet  for  Pf.  and  strings,  in  C 

112  BRA BRi 

minor  ;  op.  6l.  Four  duets  ior  soprano  and  alto  ;  op.  62.  Seven  songs  for  mixed 
choir  ;  op.  63.  Nine  Lieder  and  Songs  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  64.  Four  Quartets  for 
4  voices ;  op.  65.  Neue  Liebeslieder,  WaHzes  for  Pf.  duet ;  op.  66.  Five  vocal 
duets  ;  op.  67.  Quartet  for  strings,  in  B  flat;  op.  68.  First  Symphony  for  full  orch.,  in 
C  minor,  1876 ;  op.  69.  Nine  songs  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  op.  70.  Four  do.  ;  op.  71. 
Five  do.  ;  op.  72.  Five  do.  ;  op.  ,73.  Second  Symphony  for  full  orch.,  in  D,  1877  ; 
op.  75.  Four  vocal  duets  ;  op.  76.  Eight  Pianoforte  pieces  in  2  books ;  op.  77. 
Concerto  for  violin  and  orch.,  in  D  ;  op.  80.  Akademische  Fest-Ouverture,  for 
full  orch.,  1880;  op.  81.  Tragische  Ouverture,  for  full  orch.,  1880.  Concerto  for 
Pf.  and  orch.,  1881.     Third  Symphony  for  orch.,  in  F,  op.  90,  etc. 

Hailed  from  the  very  outset  of  his  career  as  a  coming  genius,  Brahms  had  small 
difiiculty  in  gaining  a  hearing  for  his  works.  Praised  in  a  general  way  by  every 
class  of  musicians,  because  he  did  not  in  any  great  measure  depart  from  the  standard 
methods  of  composition,  and  made  no  endeavour  to  imitate  a  school  to  be  for  ever 
identified  with  his  name,  Brahm  may  fitly  be  described  as  one  of  those  genuises 
who  neither  retard  nor  advance  contemporary  art.  He  rises  far  above  the  genteel 
mediocrity  of  the  average  German  professor,  but  the  general  tone  of  his  writings  is 
more  learned  than  inspired.  He  is  neither  accounted  extraordinary  and  eccentric 
like  Berlioz,  Liszt,  or  Wagner,  nor  very  staid  and  dull ;  but  he  is  remarkably 
ponderous  and  massive.  Massive  is  perhaps  the  fittest  appellation  which  can  be 
applied  to  his  class  of  genius.  The  truly  legitimate  manner  in  which  he  gains  his 
effects  is  one  of  the  features  which  redeems  his  music  in  a  Jarge  degree  from 
heaviness.  The  honesty  by  which  he  rules  his  artistic  method  is  so  evident 
as  to  banish  all  notions  as  to  quackery  or  undue  assumption  in  his  music. 

His  most  representative  works  are  his  symphonies,  which  have  gained  a  certain 
amount  of  approval  wherever  produced.  They  are  grand  and  dignified  works, 
entirely  free  from  sensation,  and  pervaded  with  a  fervour  of  manner  which  raises 
them  far  above  the  average  concert  works  of  recent  times.  At  the  same  time  it 
must  be  admitted  that  the  beauty  of  a  large  portion  of  his  works  is  somewhat 
marred  by  a  pedantic  manner  which  repels  all  but  the  most  earnest  student. 

BKAINABD  (Silas  and  Sons).  An  American  music-publishing  firm  estab- 
lished in  Cleveland,  Ohio,  in  1836.  Was  originally  a  shop  known  as 
"Brainard's  Bazaar,"  and  subsequently  as  the  "Melodeon."  The  founder  of 
the  firm,  Silas  Brainard,  B.  at  Lempster,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  14,  1814,  D.  in  1871, 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  sons,  Charles  S.  and  Henry  M.,  who  in  February, 
1876,  opened  a  large  store  in  Euclid  Avenue.  Their  publications,  commenced 
to  be  issued  in  1845,  are  many,  numbering  about  16,000  different  pieces,  and 
consisting  of  songs,  choral  music,  instruction  books,  cantatas,  pianoforte 
music,  and  a  monthly  magazine  named  "Brainard's  Musical  World."  This 
journal  is  well  conducted,  and  gives  many  valuable  articles  on  musical  topics, 
as  well  as  a  selected  amount  of  music  of  varying  quality.  Among  the  music 
books  issued  by  the  firm  may  be  mentioned  the  Dollar  Musical  Library, 
The  Crystal  Glee  Book  ;  Brainard's  Musical  Albums  ;  The  Golden  Chord  ; 
Anthems  of  the  Church ;  and  a  great  number  of  song  and  chorus  books  bearing 
as  a  rule  fanciful  titles. 

BBAINARD  (George  W.)  American  musician  and  writer,  author  of  a  "  New 
Method  for  the  Pianoforte,"  Cleveland,  n.  d. 

BBAMBACH  (CarlJosef).     German  comp.,  B.  Bonn,  July  14,  1833, 

Works. — Cantatas:  Die  Mach  des  gesanges ;  Velleda.  Das  Lied  vom  Rhein, 
for  male  chorus  and  brass  orchestra,  op.  40  ;  Four  ClavierstUcke,  op.  I  ;  Vier 
Friihlingslieder,  for  2  soprano  voices  and  Pf.,  op.  2 ;  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  G, 
op.  3  ;  Six  Lieder  for  voice  and  Pf.,  op.  4;  Sextet  for  Pf.,  2  violins,  2  violas,  and 
Pf.,  op.  5;  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  D  minor,  op.  39;  Two  Romances  for 
Violoncello  and  Pf.,  op.  41 ;  Two  Sonatas  for  Pf.,  op.  20 ;  Three  Fantasiestiicke 
for  Pf . ,  op.  34  ;  Songs,  etc. 

BBANDL  (Johann).  German  comp.,  B.  Rohr,  near  Ratisbon,  Nov.  14,  1760. 
S.  under  Valesi,  and  at  Schools  of  Rohr,  Munich,  and  Neuburg.  Musical 
director  to  Prince  Hohenlohe  Bartenstein,  1784.  Music-director  to  Bishop  of 
Bruchsal,  1789.  Do.  to  the  Archduke  of  Baden,  1806.  D.  Cailsruhe,  May 
z6,  1837. 

BRA  —  BRE  113 

Works.— Symphony  for  orch.,  in  D,  op.  25,  1790;  Serenades  for  small  orch., 
op.  4,  1792,  and  op.  7,  1796  ;  Six  quartets  for  strings,  op.  8  ;  Three  sets  of  six 
quintets  for  strings,  op.  8  ;  op.  10  ;  and  op.  II,  1797;  Symphony  for  orch.  in  E  flat, 
op.  12  ;  Quintet  for  Pf.,  vn.,  viola,  bassoon,  and  'cello,  op.  13,  1798 ;  Quintet  for 
violin,  2  violas,  bassoon,  and  'cello,  op.  14 ;  Sextet  for  various  insts.,  op.  16 ;  Six 
String  Quartets,  op.  17,  1799  ;  Quartet  for  strings  in  D  minor,  op.  18,  1799 ; 
Nocturne  for  2  vns.  and  'cello,  op.  19  ;  Symphony  concertante  for  violin,  'cello,  and 
orch.,  op.  20,  iSoi  ;  Germania,  opera,  in  3  acts,  1800  ;  Three  quartets  for  strings, 
op.  23,  1803  ;  Hermann,  opera,  etc. 

BBANDUABDI  (Enrico).  Italian  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  in  Italy,  1846. 
Has  composed  a  number  of  brilliant  salon  pieces,  and  has  played  with  consider- 
able success  throughout  Italy,  etc. 

BBASSIN  (Louis),  or  Bras.sine.  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Aix-la-Chapelle, 
June  24,   1836.      S.   at  Leipzig  Cons,  under  Moscheles,   etc.,  and  also  at 
Cologne.      Prof  of  Pf.  at  Berlin  Cons.      Prof,  of  Pf.  at  Brussels  Cons.      Has 
played  in  various  parts  of  Europe.      Prof,  at  St.  Petersburg  Cons.,  1878-84. 
D.  St.  Petersburg,  May  17,  1884. 
Works. — Operettas:    Der    Thronfolger ;     Der    Missonar.      L'Ecole    moderne 
du  Piano;     Bluette   for   Pf.,    op.    4;     Valse-Caprice    for   Pf.,    op.    6;     Grand 
Galop  Fantastique,  for  Pf.,  op.  5  ;  Le  Chant  du  Soir,  for  Pf.,  op.  7  ;  Le  Ruisseau, 
Morceau  de  Salon,  op.  8  ;  Nocturne  for  Pf.,  op.  9  ;  Pri^re  for  Pf.,  op.  10;  Second 
Valse-Caprice  for  Pf.,  op.  11  ;  Grandes  Etudes  de  Concert  for  Pf.,  op.  12;  R6verie 
Pastoral  for  Pf.,  op.  13 ;  Mazurka  de  Salon,  for  Pf.,  op.  14 ;  Les  Adieux  for  Pf., 
op.  15;    Second  Galop  Fantastique  for  Pf.,  op.   16;  Nocturne  for  Pf.,  op.   17; 
Second  Grand  Polonaise  for  Pf.,  op.  18;  Six  Morceaux  de  Fantaisie  for  Pf.,  op.  21  ; 
Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  op.  22  ;  Third  Grand  Polonaise  for  Pf.,  op.  22;  Trans- 
cription (Gounod),  op.  27 ;   Scherzo  for  Pf.,  op.  24 ;   Works  for  Pf.  and  orch., 
various.    Songs,  part-songs,  etc. 

BBAY  (Mrs.  Anna  Eliza),  nie  Kempe.  English  writer,  B.  St.  Mary,  Newing- 
ton,  Surrey,  Dec.  25,  1790.  D.  London,  Jan.  21,  1S83.  Wrote  a  number  of 
novels  and  miscellaneous  works,  and  ' '  Handel  :  his  Life,  Personal  and  Profes- 
sional, with  Thoughts  on  Sacred  Music,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1857. 

BREAKSFEABE  (Eustace  John).  English  writer  and  comp.,  B.  Birming- 
ham, April  22,  1854.  S.  under  Mr.  S.  S.  Stratton.  Correspondent  of  the 
"Musical  Standard,"  1879.  Author  of  Papers  on  "Musical  Aesthetics" 
(Musical  Assoc,  1880) ;  "Songs  and  Song  Writers,"  1882 ;  "Musical  Expres- 
sion" (Coll.  of  Organists),  1883;  "Notes  on  Musical  Tuition  and  Study,"  re- 
printed from  the  Musical  Standard,  1881.  Translator  of  Hansliclc's  "Vom 
Musikalisch  Schdnen,"  1854;  and  Ehrlich's  "Die  Musik-Aesthetik,"  1882, 
both  preparing  for  publication.  Breakspeare  has  comp.  a  number  of  Songs, 
and  is  well  known  as  a  wiiter  who  has  done  much  to  awaken  an  interest  in 
the  subject  of  musical  aesthetics. 

BBECHIN  (William).  Scottish  Teacher,  and  inventor  of  "Brechin's  Stave 
Sol-fa  Notation,"  B.  Brechin,  Forfar,  1824.  Held  appointments  as  precentor 
in  Montrose,  Forfar,  Perth,  Leith,  and  Edinburgh.  The  principal  feature  of 
his  system  is  the  employment  of  letters,  as  in  the  ordinary  Tonic  Sol-fa,  to 
represent  the  notes,  together  with  certain  signs  to  mark  the  duration.  The 
notes  are  written  on  the  staff.  In  addition  to  the  invention  of  the  Stave 
Sol-fa  Notation,  Brechin  has  edited  and  compiled  "Vocal  Exercises,  Rounds, 
etc.,  in  the  Stave  Sol-fa  Notation,  forming  a  short  course  of  Lessons  in  Sight 
Singing  in  the  key  of  F."  "Congregational  Music,  Psalms,  Hymns,  etc.,  in 
in  Stave  Sol-fa  Notation.''  "The  Standard  Scottish  Psalmody  (compiled  from 
the  foregoing.  "Exercises  in  Sight  Singing."  School  Song  Books.  The  Stave 
Sol-fa  Journal  (publishing  in  parts)  containing  pieces  by  Croft,  Beethoven, 
Mason,  Stevenson,  Blow,  Handel,  etc.     Two  Books  of  Swedish  Songs. 

BBEE  (Johann  Bernard  Van).    Dutch  comp.,  B,  Amsterdam,  Jan.  29,  1801. 
A  prominent  musician  in  Amsterdam,  and  Musical  Director  there,  1821-1857. 
D.  Amsterdam,  Feb.  14,  1857. 
'Works.— Cantatas ;  St.  Cecilia's  Dayj  Lord  Byron.     Overtures  for  orch. 


Il4  feRE  —  ERE 

Masses.     Chamber  Music.     Symphonies  for  orch.     Sappho,  lyric  drama.     Mimm 
dich  in  Acht,  opera,  etc.     Masses,  Motets,  etc. 

BREKELL  (John).  English  divine,  author  of  "A  Discourse  on  Music,  chiefly 
Church  Music :  occasioned  by  the  opening  of  the  new  Organ  at  St.  Peter's 
Church  in  Liverpool... Sermon,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1766. 

BEEITKOPF  and  HABTEL.  German  Music-publishing  firm,  founded  in 
I7I9>  by  B.  C.  Breitkopf.  He  was  born  in  1695,  and  died  1777.  Other 
members  vi^ere  his  sons  J.  G.  I.  Breitkopf  (1719-1794),  and  G.  C.  Hartel 
(Jan.,  1763-1827),  together  with  the  present  representatives  of  the  house. 
The  publications  by  which  they  are  best  known  are  their  great  editions  of  the 
complete  works  of  Palestrina,  Bach,  Mozart,  Beethoven,  Mendelssohn,  Schumann, 
Schubert,  etc.,  someof  which  are  in  course  of  issue.  These  editions  are  the  most  last- 
ing and  monumental  tributes  which  could  possibly  be  raised  to  the  memory  of  the 
great  composers  represented.  Their  catalogue,  which  extends  to  nearly  500  pages, 
contains  the  name  and  some  work  of  nearly  every  continental  musician  of  emi- 
nence, as  well  as  a  few  English  works.  The  following  list  of  musicians,  whose 
works  the  firm  issue,  will  give  some  idea  of  the  vastness  of  the  firm's  operations  : — 
Abert,  Auber,  Bargiel,  Benedict,  Bertini,  Blumenthal,  Brahms,  Bruch,  Burgmiiller, 
CaruUi,  Cherubini,  Chopin,  Clementi,  Cramer,  Czerny,  David  (Ferd.),  Dotzauer, 
Dupont,  Dussek,  Duvernoy,  Eckert,  Field,  Franz,  Gade,  Gernsheim,  Gluck, 
Halevy,  Handel,  Hauptmann,  Heller,  Henselt,  Hiller  (F;),  Hiinten,  Kalkbrenner, 
Kbhler,  Kuhlau,  Kummer,  LefAure-W^ly,  Liszt,  Lobe,  Lortzing,  Lumbye, 
Marschner,  Meyerbeer,  Neukomm,  Onslow,  Paer,  Raff,  Reichardt,  Reinecke, 
Rietz,  Rode,  Rossini,  Rubinstein,  Scarlatti,  Scharwenka,  Schubert,  Schumann, 
Spohr,  Steibelt,  Street,  Taubert,  Thalberg,  Tours,  Viotti,  Voss,  Wagner,  Weber, 
Winter,  Wolfl,  Zumsteeg.  Here  every  school  is  represented,  from  the  most 
frivolous  to  the  most  profound. 

The  connection  of  this  firm  with  the  musical  progress  on  the  continent  has  ever 
been  close,  and  the  ready  recognition  by  the  firm  of  rising  composers  has  been  as 
beneficial  to  the  art  as  it  certainly  has  been  honourable  to  themselves.  Of  their 
productions  it  may  be  said  that  the  engraving,  paper,  and  style  are  in  the  highest 
artistic  taste,  and  that  the  prevailing  correctness  of  their  editions  of  standard  works 
has  given  them  a  widespread  name. 

BREMER  (Johann  Bernhard).  Dutch  pianist,  org.,  and  comp.,  B.  Rotter- 
dam, 1830.     Comp.  of  "Judith,''  an  oratorio,  quartets,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

BREMNER  (Robert).  Scottish  publisher  and  writer,  B.  in  Scotland,  1720. 
Teacher  of  singing  in  Edinburgh,  and  kept  the  music  shop  at  the  sign  of  the 
Harp  and  Hoboy.  Settled  in  London,  with  same  sign,  as  music-seller.  D. 
Kensington,  London,  May  12,  1798. 
Works. — Rudiments  of  Music;  or  a  Short  and  Easy  Treatise  on  that  Subject, 
to  which  is  added  a  Collection  of  the  best  Church  Tunes,  Canons,  and  Anthems. 
Edin.,  l2mo,  1756;  2nd  edit.,  Edin.  ;  3rd  edit,  also  with  Psalms,  London,  1763. 
Thoughts  on  the  Performance  of  Concert  Music,  Lond.,  fol.,  n.  d.  Instruction  for 
the  Guitar.  The  Vocal  Harmonist's  Magazine ;  being  a  Collection  of  Catches, 
Glees,  Canons,  and  Canzonets,  fo.  Lond.,  n.d.  The  Songs  in  the  Gentle  Shep- 
herd adapted  to  the  Guitar,  1759;  Thirty  Scots  Songs  for  a  Voice  and  Harpsichord, 
Edinburgh,  1749;  A  Second  Set  of  Scots  Songs  for  a  Voice  and  Hpsd.,  Edin.  ; 
Twelve  Scots  Songs  for  a  voice  and  guitar,  with  a  thorough  Bass  adapted  for  that 
instrument,  Edin.,  1760;  A  Collection  of  Scots  Reels  or  Country  Dances,  also 
Twelve  Scots  Songs  for  a  voice  or  guitar,  with  a  Bass  for  the  violoncello  or  harpsi- 
chord, Edin.,  n.  d.,  also  Lond,  1764;  A  Curious  Collection  of  Scots  Tunes  with 
variations  for  the  violin  and  a  Bass  for  the  violoncello  or  harpsichord,  Lond.,  1759; 
Thirty  Scots  Songs  adapted  for  a  voice  and  harpsichord  (the  words  by  Allan 
Ramsay),  Lond.,  n.d.  [1760];  The  Freemasons'  Songs,  with  Choruses,  in  three 
and  four  parts,  and  a  Bass  for  the  organ  or  violoncello,  1759  ;  A  Second  Collection 
of  Scots  Reels  or  Country  Dances,  1761. 

BRENDEL  (Carl  Franz).  German  writer  and  critic,  B.  Stollberg  in  the  Harz, 
Nov.  25,  181 1.  Educated  at  Freiberg,  Leipzig,  and  Berlin.  Delivered  histori- 
cal lectures  on  Music.  Resided  at  Leipzig  as  editor  (in  succession  to 
Schumann)  of  the  Neue  Zeitschrift  fiir  Musik.     D,  Leipzig,  Nov.  25,  1868. 

BRE  —  BRI  115 

Works. — Grundziisie  der  Geschichte  der  Musik  ;  Geschichte  der  Musik  in  Ifalien, 
DeuLschland  und  Frankreich,  von  den  ersler  christlichen  Zeiten  bis  auf  die  Gegen- 
wart,  Leipzig,  8vo,  1852  ;  2nd  edit.,  2  vols,  1855  ;  4  editions  to  1875  ;  Die  Musik 
der  Gegenwart  und  die  Gesammtktinst  der  Ziikiinst,  Leipzig,  Svo,  1854;  Anregun- 
gen  fiir  Kiinst,  Leben  und  Weissenchaft  (with  R.  Pohl),  Leipzig,  6  vols,  1856. 

BRENT  (Miss).    See  Pinto  (Mrs). 

BREWER  (Thomas).  English  comp.,  flourished  during  the  17th  century  [1610- 
80].  Educated  at  Christ's  Hospital.  He  was  a  performer  on  the  viol. 
Dates  of  birth  and  death  unknown. 

Works. — Seven  fantasias  for  the  viol;  Rounds  and  catches  in  Hilton's 
"Catch  that  catch  can";  Turn,  Amaryllis,  to  thy  Swain,  part-song  in  Playford's 
Musical  Companion. 

The  biography  of  this  composer  is  unknown.  "Turn,  Amaryllis,''  is  a  well 
known  and  pretty  piece. 

BREWER  &  CO.  An  English  firm  of  music-publishers,  established  in  London 
by  Samuel  Brewer  (B.  1817.  D.  Brighton,  1879).  They  publish  a  great 
number  of  standard  songs  and  concerted  vocal  music  by  all  the  principal 
English  composers,  as  well  as  instrumental  music  of  various  kinds. 

BREWSTER  (Henry).  English  writer.  Author  of  a  "Concise  Method  of 
Playing  Thoroughbass,"  Lond.,  1797- 

BRIAN.    See  Bryne. 

BRICCIALDI  (Giulio).  Italian  flute-player  and  comp.,  B.  Terni,  March  I, 
i8l8.  S.  at  Rome.  Teacher  and  comp.  at  Milan.  D.  Florence,  Dec.  17, 

Works. — Notturno,  for  flute  and  Pf.,  op.  32  ;  Morceau  de  concert  for  Pf.  and 
flute,  op.  61  ;  Andante  and  Polonaise,  do.,  op.  62;  Deux  Fleurs,  do.,  op.  63; 
Caprice  for  flute  and  Pf.,  op.  64 ;  Concerto  for  flute  and  orch.,  op.  65  ;  Cavatina 
for  flute  and  Pf.,  op.  70;  II  Carnevale  di  Venezia,  flute  and  orch.,  op.  77  ;  Con- 
certino, flute,  and  Pf.,  op.  104;  Capriccio  for  flute  and  Pf.,  op.  105;  Fantasias 
on  themes  from  operas.    A  Method  for  the  Flute,  etc. 

This  composer's  works  are  justly  esteemed  by  all  flute  players,  alike  for  their 
brilliancy  and  neatness.  Briccialdi  is  one  of  the  greatest  flute-players  of  recent 
times.  His  works  number  over  200,  but  consist  principally  of  Fantasias.  He 
aided  in  the  improvement  of  flute  mechanism. 

BRIDGE  (Frederick  Albert).  English  org.,  vocalist,  lecturer,  and  writer,  B. 
London,  1841.  Choir-master  and  solo-bass  of  St.  Andrew's  Undershaft.  Org. 
of  St.  Martin's,  Ludgate,  1873-78.  Choir-master  S.  Martin- in-the-Field.^ 
1878-82.  Do.  S.  John's,  Lewisham.  Has  composed  some  music,  and  is 
author  of  a  "Brief  History  of  Mr.  Henry  Leslie's  Choir  from  its  formation 
to  its  dissolution."  London,  1880.  He  was  married  to  Miss  Elizabeth  Stir- 
ling, the  gilted  composer,  in  1862.  First  commenced  his  Musical  Monologue 
Lecture  Entertainment  in  1872. 

BRIDGE  (Mrs.  Frederick  A.)    See  Stirling  (Elizabeth). 

BRIDGE  (John  Frederick).  English  comp.,  org,,  and  writer,  B.  Oldbury,  Dec. 
5,  1844.      Educated  under  his  Father,  John  Bridge,  Lay  Clerk  of  Rochester 
Cath.     Org.  of  Trinity  Ch.,  Windsor,  1865.     Bac.  Mus.  Oxford,  1868.    Org. 
of  Manchester  Cath.,  1869.     Doc.  Mus.,  Oxford,  1874.     Org.  of  Westminster 
Abbey,  1875-81.     Prof,  of  Harmony  and  Comp.  at  Royal  Coll.  of  Music. 
Works. — Mount  Moriah,  oratorio,  1874;  Boadicea,  cantata,  1880;  Magnificat 
and  Nunc  Dimittis,  in  D.      Anthems:  Give  unto  the  Lord  the  glory;  Harvest 
Hymn  to  the  Creator  (motet) ;   It  is  a  good  thing  to  give  thanks  ;  The  Lord  hath 
chosen  Zion  ;  Seek  ye  the  Lord  ;  We  declare  unto  you  glad  tidings  ;  Hope  thou  in 
the  Lord  ;    Magnificat  and  Nunc  dimittis  in  G.      Part-songs  ■    Christmas  Bells ; 
Flowers  ;    Loose  the  sail,  rest  the  oar  ;    Peace,  a  Fable  ;    When  the  sun  sinks  to 
rest;  With  thee,  sweet  hope  ;  Hurrah  !  hurrah  !  for  England.     Songs:  Forget  me 
not;  Tears.    Counterpoint  (Music  Primer),  London,  Svo,  1880;  Double  Counter- 
point and  Canon  (do.),  London,  Svo,  1881,    The  Offertory  Sentences  as  «sed  in 

H6  BRl  —  BRI 

Westminster  Abbey,  1884.      Rock  of  Ages,  Latin  and  English  words,  for  barytone 
solo,  chorus,  and  orch.,  1885,  for  Birmingham  Festival. 

"Boadicea"  is  frequently  performed,  and,  no  doubt,  being  a  skilful  and  well- 
constructed  work,  deserves  all  success.  Dr.  Bridge's  theoretical  writings  are  use- 
ful elementary  works,  and  form  part  of  Novello's  Music  Primer  Series.  His  minor 
compositions  evince  much  of  that  scholarly  treatment  which  is  so  marked  in  his 
cantata  and  oratorio.  As  an  organist  Dr.  Bridge  is  widely  known  and  justly 

BBiIDGE  (Joseph  Cox).  English  comp.  and  org.,  brother  of  above,  B. 
Rochester,  Kent,  Aug.  16,  1853.  S.  at  Rochester  Cath.  Assistant  org.  in 
do.  Assistant  to  his  brother  at  Manchester  Cath.  Org.  of  Exeter  Coll., 
Oxford,  1871.  B.A.,  Oxford,  1875.  B.  Mus.,  Oxon.,  1876.  Org.  of  Chester 
Cath.,  1877.  M.A.,  Oxford,  1878.  F.C.O.,  1879.  Mus.  Doc,  Oxon,  1884. 
Works. — Service  for  voices  and  orchestra,  Chester   Festival,   1879.      String 

Quartet  in  G  minor,  1879 ;    Greek  War  Song,  for  male  voices,   with  accomp.  of 

brass  instruments  ;    Bouree  for  Pf.  ;    Sonata  for  violoncello  and  Pf.  ;    Part-songs  ; 

Songs,  etc.     Daniel,  oratorio,  Chester  Festival,  1885. 

BEIDGETOWER  (George  Augustus  Polgreen),    African  violinist,  B.  Bisla, 

Poland,  1780.  Played  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre  and  at  various  concerts  in  Lon- 
don, 1790.  S.  for  a  time  under  Attwood  and  Giornovichi.  Played  at  the 
Salomon  concerts.  Returned  to  Germany  and  travelled  as  a  concert-giver, 
1802.     D.  England  after  1840. 

Works. — ^Jubilee  Quintet  for  strings ;  String  duets,  trios,  and  quartets;  Songs,  etc. 
He  was  a  good  performer,  but  his  compositions  are  not  of  any  merit. 

BRIDGMAN  (Frederick  William).  English  pianist,  B.  London,  Jan.,  1833. 
Well  known  in  Scotland,  and  particularly  in  Edinburgh  and  Glasgow  as  a 
pianist  and  teacher. 

BBIDSON  (John).  English  barytone  singer.  B.  Liverpool.  Holds  a  fore- 
most place  among  living  vocalists.  He  sings  with  much  artistic  ability  and 
refinement,  and  displays  a  strong  degree  of  dramatic  feeling.  He  is  a  pupil 
of  Mr.  J.  B.  Welch,  and  has  sung  at  the  principal  provincial  Festivals  and 
London  concerts. 

BRIEGEL  (Wolfgang  Karl).  German  comp.  and  org.,  B.  1626.  Org.  at 
Stettin.  Music-director  to  Prince  Friedenstein,  Gotha.  Do.  to  the  Duke  of 
Saxe-Gotha,  1660.  Do.  to  the  Landgrave  of  Darmstadt,  1670.  D.  1710.  A 
very  voluminous  composer  of  concertos,  airs,  dance  music,  lieder,  sonatas, 
madrigals,  psalms,  etc.,  published  between  1652  and  1709. 

BRIGGS  (Thomas  F.)  American  writer,  author  of  "  Briggs'  Banjo  Instructor." 
(Ditson,  Boston,  n.  d. ) 

BRIND  (Richard).  English  org.  and  comp.  of  17th  century.  Educated  at  St. 
Paul's  Cath.  Org.  of  St.  Paul's  Cath.  Comp.  a  thanksgiving  anthem,  etc., 
but  is  best  known  as  the  teacher  of  Greene. 

BRINKERHOFF  (Clara),  nk  Rolph.  English  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Lon- 
don. Taken  to  the  United  States  about  1834-5  by  her  parents,  and  taught 
music  and  singing  by  her  mother  and  Herr  Derwort,  a  German  musician. 
She  S.  afterwards  under  Madame  Arnault.  Debut  at  a  concert  in  Apollo  Hall, 
Broadway,  New  York,  when  sixteen  years  of  age.  Married  to  Mr.  C.  E.  L. 
Brinkerhoff,  1848.  Appeared  at  the  principal  concerts  in  New  York,  Boston, 
and  in  many  of  the  States.  She  appeared  in  London  in  1861,  and  has  appeared 
in  Belgium,  France,  etc.  She  has  comp.  a  few  songs,  and  is  mistress  of  four 
or  five  languages. 

BRINSMEAD  &  SONS  (John).  English  firm  of  pianoforte  makers,  estab- 
lished by  John  Brinsmead  in  1836.  The  founder  was  born  at  Wear  Gifford  on 
the  Torridge,  North  Devon,  in  1814.  He  was  originally  a  cabinet-maker,  but 
becoming  a  workman  in  a  pianoforte  manufactory,  he  learned  there  the  practi- 
cal details  of  his  business.  Having  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  principles  of 
his  work,  Mr.  Brinsmead  early  made  endeavours  to  improve  upon  the  existing 

BRi  —  BRi  :i7 

•— — — — 1 — ■ II  nil 

mechanism  of  the  pianoforte,  and  in  1862  was  awarded  a  first-class  medal  at 
the  London  Exhibition  for  his  sostenente  instruments.  In  these  the  tone  was 
more  sustained  and  full  than  that  which  formerly  had  been  attained  by  manu- 
facturers. Other  medals  and  prizes  were  gained  at  Paris  in  1867  ;  Amsterdam, 
1869  ;  Paris,  1870  ;  Philadelphia,  1S76  ;  South  Africa,  1877  ;  and  again  at 
Paris  in  1878.  In  1868  Mr.  Brinsmead  took  out  a  patent  for  that  improvement 
which  has  so  widely  extended  the  firm's  name  :  we  refer  to  the  "  Perfect  Check 
Repeater  Action."  This  action  is  described  in  the  following  extract  from  the 
Engineer  : — 

"The  improvements  in  pianoforte  actions  invented  by  John  Brinsmead  &  Sons, 
of  18  Wigmore  Street,  Cavendish  Square,  possess  the  following  advantages  : — The 
hammer  being  held  firmly  by  the  check  after  it  has  struck  the  blow  on  the  string 
allows  the  string  to  vibrate  freely,  producing  a  perfectly  pure  and  sustained  tone, 
and  as  there  is  no  tremulous  recoil  of  the  hammer  (which  so  quickly  wears  out  the 
action  and  impedes  the  tone  by  touching  the  string  a  second  time),  greater  power. 
When  this  has  been  even  partially  attained  previously,  the  repetition  has  been  sacri- 
ficed, as  it  was  necessary  when  the  hammer  was  held  '  in  check '  to  raise  the  finger 
completely  off  the  key,  allowing  it  to  rise  to  a  level  with  the  others,  before  the 
action  was  completely  reinstated  and  ready  for  a  second  blow.  In  this  action,  how- 
ever, a  repetition  of  the  note  can  be  obtained  even  when  the  key  is  pressed  down 
to  within  an  eighth  of  an  inch  of  its  utmost  limit.  The  top  of  the  '  hopper '  being 
bevelled  allows  il  to  'escape'  freely,  and  assists  in  readjustment  of  the  action. 
This  also  obviates  the  necessity  of  having  a  space  between  the  hopper  and  hammer 
which,  through  striking  against  the  leather  on  the  butt  of  the  hammer,  in  a  very 
short  time  produces  that  'rattling'  which  is  so  disagreeable  to  pianoforte  players  ; 
this  action  having  no  space  between  the  hopper  and  hammer,  the  hopper  simply 
presses  against  the  butt,  and  having  no  sharp  corners  to  scrape  against  it,  the  friction 
is  reduced  to  a  minimum,  the  blow  is  rendered  direct  and  uniform,  and  inter- 
mediate percussion  between  the  finger  on  the  key  and  the  blow  of  the  hammer  on 
the  string  is  entirely  avoided,  whilst  the  almost  entire  absence  of  friction  of  working 
surfaces  ensures  good  wear  even  with  the  hardest  work.  The  spring  is  at  one  end 
fastened  into  the  bottom  of  the  hopper,  and  at  the  top  (the  hook  end)  is  held  by  a 
silk  loop  which  passes  through  a  slot  in  the  top  of  the  hopper,  where  it  is  attached 
to  the  under  part  of  the  hammer  butt ;  its  peculiar  position,  with  the  aid  of  the 
bevel,  causes  the  hammer  and  hopper  to  be  drawn  into  their  respective  positions, 
serving  all  the  purposes  that  three,  sometimes  four,  springs  are  often  used  for. 
This  renders  the  use  of  a  complication  of  pieces  and  centres  quite  unnecessary. 
The  stroke  of  the  hammer  on  the  string  is  so  direct  from  the  key,  and  the  escape- 
ment so  instantaneous,  that  a  far  more  powerful  blow  (and  consequently  greater 
volume  and  richness  of  tone)  is  produced  than  in  the  ordinary  piano.  It  is  impos- 
sible for  the  hammer  to  remain  against  the  string  and  stop  the  tone  after  the  blow 
has  been  struck  (termed  blocking),  as  the  button  against  which  the  arm  at  the  bot- 
tom  of  the  hopper  presses  forces  the  sticker  quite  clear  of  the  hammer  butt.  This 
is  an  important  improvement,  as  the  ordinary  action  has  many  hinges  and  coverings 
of  vellum,  cloth,  and  leather,  which  attract  moisture,  and  in  a  damp  room  soon 
become  so  stiff  and  swollen  as  to  render  it  quite  impossible  to  play  upon  the  piano, 
at  all  events  with  any  degree  of  pleasure." 

This  action  has  long  ago  been  highly  appreciated  by  the  leading  pianists,  and  is 
therefore  in  need  of  no  recommendation.  In  addition  to  this  invention,  the  firm 
must  also  be  credited  with  the  improvements  achieved  in  the  "Tone  sustaining 
pedal,"  and  the  "Upright  grand  construction,"  with  other  standard  inventions  too 
numerous  to  mention. 

The  other  prizes  gained  by  the  firm  are  two  gold  medals  from  the  Melbourne  Inter- 
national Exhibition  ;  a  first  prize  from  the  Queensland  Exhibition;  and  the  two 
first  prizes,  with  the  special  diploma  above  all  competitors,  at  the  Sydney  Exhibition 
of  1880  ;  two  first  class  medals  and  diplomas  of  honour,  Calcutta,  1884  ;  ^"°  ™= 
diploma  of  honour  and  gold  medal,  London  International  Exhibition,  1884.  Mr. 
Brinsmead  is  a  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honour  (1878),  and  is  assisted  in 
business  by  his  sons  Thomas  and  Edgar.  Mr.  Edgar  Brinsmead  (B.  London, 
March,  1848)  is  author  of  a  work  on  the  "  History  of  the  Pianoforte,  witli  an 
Account  of  Ancient  Music  and  Musical  Instruments,"  Lond.,  n.  d.  ;  another  ed., 
1879,  which  js  a  us?ful  and  well- written  wovk, 

Il8  BRI  — BRO 

BRION  D'ORGEVAL  (Edouard  Barthelemy).  French  comp.,  B.  Saint 
Etienne,  Loire,  May  13,  1833.  Writer  of  operas,  "Ivan  IV.,"  1876;  "Due 
et  Paysan,"  1877,  etc. 

BBISSON  (Francois).  French  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Angouleme,  Charente, 
Dec.  25,  1 82 1.  Teacher  in  Paris. 
Works. — Reverie  for  Pf.,  op.  17;  Arabesque,  op.  19;  Caprice-etude,  op.  25; 
L'Americaine,  Caprice-etude,  op.  30 ;  L'EspagnoI — Bolero,  op.  32 ;  Galop  de  Con- 
cert, op.  36 ;  Fantaisie  brilliante,  op.  40 ;  Hymne  triomphale,  op.  41 ;  Makouba, 
Danse  Arabe,  op.  42  ;  Caprice-Nocturne,  op.  44;  Reverie  fantastique  for  Pf.,  op. 
50;  Valse  de  Concert,  op.  59  >  Caprice-Elegante  for  Pf.,  op.  51;  Caprice 
Imitatif,  op.  55 ;  Three  Concert  Pieces,  op.  46.     Fantasias,  etc.,  from  operas. 

BRISTOW  (George   French).     American   comp.    and   pianist,    B.   Brooklyn, 

N.  Y.,  Dec.  19,  1825.     S.  under  his  father.     Alto  singer  at  Cincinnati,  U.S. 

Cond.  of  Mannerchor  Choral  Society.     Teacher  and  cond.  in  New  York. 

Works. — Rip  Van  Winkle,  opera,  1855  ;  Praise  to  God,  an  oratorio,  i860 ;  Two 

Symphonies;    Andante  et  Polonaise  for  Pf.,  op.   18;   Orchestral  overtures;  Pf 

music;  Songs  and  church  music  ;  Mass,   1884;  etc. 

Bristow  is  one  of  the  best  known  American  composers,  and  has  shown  himself 
one  of  the  most  ambitious.  His  father,  W.  R.  Bristow,  a  native  of  England,  was 
B.  in  1803.     D.  New  York,  1867.     He  was  a  well-known  conductor  in  New  York. 

BRITTON  (Thomas).      English  musician,   B.   Higham  Ferrers,  Northampton- 
shire, 1651.     Apprenticed  to  a  coal-dealer  in  London.     Commenced  business 
as  coal-dealer  in  Aylesbury  Street,   Clerkenwell.      S.  Music,   Chemistry,  and 
Bibliography.      Established   weekly  concerts  in  his   own  house,  and  formed 
musical  club.     D.  London,  Sept.  27,  1714. 
The  musical  club  was  formed  by  Britton  for  the  practice  of  Chamber  music,  and 
the  performers  consisted  of  Handel,  Pepusch,   Banister,   H.  Needier,  Hughes  (the 
poet),  P.  Hart,  H.  Symonds,  A,  Whichello,  Shuttleworth,  Woollaston  (the  painter), 
etc.     Matthew  Dubourg  when  a  child  played  his  first  solo  in  Britten's  house.     The 
origin  of  these  concerts  and  their  continuance  was  due  to  Britton's  personal  love  for 
music,  together,  it  is  believed,  with  the  mutual  love  for  bibliographical  and  other 
studies  held  by  many  members  of  his  audience.      The  admission  to  these  concerts 
was  originally  free,  but  afterwards  a  subscription  of  los.  per  annum  was  charged. 
How  much  these  concerts  can  be  said  to  have  influenced  the  public  taste,  it  is  diffi- 
cult now  to  say,  but  considering  that  his  audience  in  general  consisted  of  men  of 
rank  and  fortune,  it  is  right  to  suppose  that  beyond  the  circle  concerned  the  taste 
for  good  music  was  not  extended. 

BROADHOUSE  (John).  English  org.  and  writer.  Editor  of  the  Musical 
Standard,  1878-80 ;  and  of  London  Musical  Review.  Author  of  "Facts  about 
Fiddles,  Violins,  Old  and  New,"  Lond.,  n.  d.  ;  "Musical  Acoustics;  or,  the 
Phenomena  of  Sound  as  connected  with  Music,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1881;  "Henry 
Smart's  Compositions  for  the  Organ  Analysed,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1880,  with  por- 
trait;  A  Translation  of  A.  Thibaut's  "Purity  in  Music,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1883. 
A  trans,  of  Bulow's  "  Notes  on  Beethoven's  Sonatas,"  and  of  Schmidt's  "  Use 
of  the  Pedal  in  Pianoforte  playing." 

These  are  meritorious  works,  the  second  being  of  considerable  value  for  theoreti- 
cal instruction.  He  has  also  contributed  articles  on  technical  subjects  to  periodical 
literature,  and  founded  and  edited  for  a  time  English  Organ  Music. 

BROADWOOD  (John  and  Sons).  English  firm  of  Pianoforte  makers, 
founded  in  1773  by  John  Broadwood,  a  Scottish  mechanic  who  worked  with 
Tschudi,  the  former  head  of  the  firm.  Broadwood  was  born  at  Cockburnspath, 
Berwick,  in  1732,  and  became  apprenticed  to  Tschudi.  In  1770,  Broadwood, 
with  Backers,  a  Dutchman,  produced  the  first  grand  piano  in  Britain.  The 
original  powers  of  this  instrument  were  by  no  means  great,  though  an  advance 
on  previous  efforts,  but  the  various  improvements  suggested  and  applied  by  the 
elder  Broadwood  in  time  brought  the  expressive  powers  of  the  piano  to  much 
of  its  present  perfection.  The  characteristics  of  the  Broadwood  piano  are 
beautiful  workmanship,  full  and  powerful  tone,  and  an  admirable,  though  some- 

BRO  —  BRO  119 

what  heavy  mechanism.     Much  of  the  good  tone  quality  is  secured  by  what  is 
known  as  the  division  of  the  bridge  on  the  sound  board,  the  invention  of  John 
Broadwood.      The  mechanism  used  is  almost  substantially  that  invented  by 
Backers  and  improved  upon  by  Broadwood,  though  a  number  of  important 
improvements  and  modifications  have  been  introduced  by  successive  members 
of  the  firm.      The  reader  who  is  desirous  of  obtaining  full  and  accurate  infor- 
mation of  the  progress  and  inventions  of  this  firm  is  referred  to  the  works 
of  Rimbault,  and  Hipkins,  those  of  the  latter   being  contained  in  Grove's 
"Dictionary  of  Music."     John  Broadwood  died  in  1812,  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  sons,  two  of  whom,  Thomas  and  Henry  F.,  now  carry  on  the  business. 
The  importance  of  this  great  firm  is  acknowleged  by  the  whole  musical  profes- 
sion to  be  second  to  none,  no  less  on  account  of  the  general  excellence  of  their 
instruments  than  by  reason  of  a  traditional  connection  with  eminent  musicians, 
which  has  been  long  a  feature  in  the  business. 
It  was  this  Broadwood  who  presented  Beethoven  with  the  instrument  on  which 
was  composed  many  of  his  noblest  inspirations,  and  they  who  were  so  generously 
instrumental  in  aiding  Bennett  in  his  professional  career.     The  operations  of  the 
firm  extend  over  all  the  world,  and  their  instruments  are  to  be  found  in  every 
quarter  of  the  globe.     They  are  also  used  by  many  leading  pianists. 

BROADWOOD  (W.  S.)    See  Boehm  (Theobald). 

BROCELESBY  (Richard).  English  physician,  author  of  "Reflections  on 
Ancient  and  Modern  Music,  with  its  Application  to  the  Cure  of  Diseases," 
London,  1749. 

BRODBRIF  (Edmund).  English  org.  and  comp.,  flourished  in  beginning  of 
l8th  cent.  Was  org.  of  Wells  Cath.  about  1720.  Wrote  a  service,  anthems, 
and  glees. 

BRODERIP  (John).  English  comp.  and  org.,  flourished  at  the  end  of  the  18th 
and  beginning  of  the  19th  centuries.  Was  org.  of  Wells  Cath.,  1740.  Wrote 
various  sets  of  songs,  psalms,  and  "Six  Glees  for  3  Voices,"  London,  n.d., 
"The  Flower  Garden,  a  Collection  of  Songs,  Duets,  and  Cantatas;"  and 
joint-editor  with  Robert  of  ' '  Portions  of  Psalms,  in  one,  two,  three,  and  four 
parts,"  Bath,  1798;  also  "Psalms,  Hymns,  and  Spiritual  Songs  in  Score,"  fo. 
n.d.     Died  1785. 

BRODERIP  (Robert).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  about  middle  of  i8th  cent. 
Org.  of  S.  James,  Bristol.  D.  Bristol,  May  14,  1808.  Brother  or  son  ot  the 
preceding.  Compiled  "Vocal  Music,  a  Collection  of  Glees,"  "Organist's 
Journal,  selections  from  great  Masters,"  n.d.,  "  Cecilian  Harmony,"  London, 
n.d.  He  also  wrote  songs,  single  glees,  and  edited  a  book  of  Psalms  with 
his  brother.  Great  confusion  exists  in  connection  with  this  family  of  musicians, 
from  the  fact  that  in  catalogues  and  old  works  christian  names,  dates,  etc.,  are 

BRODERIP  (  ? )  English  publisher  and  comp.  Wrote  Pf.  music,  organ  music, 
glees,  etc.  Was  member  of  firm  of  Longman  and  Broderip.  "  Instructions 
for  the  Pianoforte,  with  Progressive  Lessons,"  op.  5.  "  Compleat  and 
Familiar  Introduction  to  the  Art  of  Playing  the  Pianoforte,  Harpsichord,  or 
Organ,"  n.d.  (with  Wilkinson). 

BROMLEY  (Robert  Anthony).  English  divine  and  author.  Bachelor  of 
Theology.  D.  London,  1806.  Wrote  "On  Opening  the  Church  and  Organ. 
Sermon  on  Psalm  cxxii,"  Lond.,  1771. 

BRONNBR  (Greorg).  Danish  comp.,  B.  in  Holstein,  1666.  D.  1724.  Writer  of 
operas,  choruses,  etc. 

BRONSART  (Hans  von).  German  comp.,  cond.,  and  pianist,  B.  Berlin, 
Feb.  II,  1830.  Educated  at  Dantzig  and  at  University  of  Berlin. 
S.  Harmony  under  Dehn,  and  Pianoforte  under  Kullak  and  Liszt,  1854-7. 
Travelled  in  Germany,  concert-giving.  Conducted  the  Euterpe  Concerts  at 
Leipzig,  i86o-02.     Married  to  Fra\jlein  Starck,  1862.    Pirector  of  th?  "G?s- 

120  BRO  —  BRO 

ellschaft  der  Musikfteund  "  at  Berlin,  1865.  Intendent  of  the  Court  Theatre 
at  Hanover,  1867. 

Works. — Der  Corsair,  opera ;  Christ-marlct,  cantata ;  Friihlings-fantasia,  for 
orch, ;  Pf.  concerto  in  F  sharp  minor  ;  Trio  for  Pf.  in  C  ;  Fantasia  for  Pf.  in  F 
sharp  minor,  op.  6  ;  Nachklange  aus  der  Jugendzeit,  for  Pf.,  op.  2  ;  Three 
Mazurkas  ior  Pf.,  op.  4  ;  Trio  in  G  minor  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello.  Miscellaneous 
chamber  music. 

Bronsart  is  a  composer  of  the  most  modern  school,  and  his  works  are  in  spirit  and 
purpose  conformable  to  its  principles  and  assumptions.  His  compositions  belong 
to  that  large  class  of  modern  growth  which  is  known  as  programme  music.  He  -is 
a  pianist  of  great  ability,  and  his  wife,  Ingeborg  Starck  (B.  S.  Petersburg,  1843, 
of  Swedish  parents),  has  composed  an  opera  "  King  Hiarne  "  ;  an  operetta,  "Jery 
und  Bately  "  ;  Songs,  Pf  Music,  and  other  works,  not  known  in  Britain. 

BKONSON  (Oliver),  or  Brownson.  American  comp.,  issued  "  Select  Tunes 
and  Anthems,"  1783.  This  contains  some  good  specimens  of  the  composer's 
melodious  style. 

BBiOOKBANCK  (Joseph).  English  writer,  flourished  during  17th  century. 
B.  1612.     D.  [?] 

Works. — The  Well-tuned  Organ ;  whether  or  no  instrumental  and  organical 
Musick  be  lawful  in  holy  pubhc  assemblies,  Lond.,  1660 ;  The  Organ's  Echo, 
Lond.,  1641  ;  The  Organ's  Funereal,  Lond.,  1642  ;  The  Holy  Harmony;  or  a  plea 
for  the  abolishing  of  Organs  and  other  Musick  in  Churches,  Lond.,  1643  ;  Gospel- 
Musick,  by  N.  H.,  Lond.,  1644;  A  Breviate  of  Lilly's  Grammar,  1660.  One  of 
the  original  writers  in  the  worm-eaten  cause  of  no  organs  in  public  worship. 

BBOOMFIELD  (William  Robert).  Scottish  writer  and  comp.,  B.  Aberdeen 
[c.  1815-20].  Was  an  arranger  and  amateur  musician  in  Aberdeen.  He  wrote 
"The  Principles  of  Ancient  and  Modern  Music,  deduced  from  the  Harmonical 
Numbers  of  Antiquity,  with  exemplifications,"  etc.,  Aberdeen,  8vo,  1863. 
He  also  published  in  parts  "National  Songs,"  arranged  for  choirs,  Glasgow 
[c.  1849-52]  ;  and  wrote  a  number  of  Psalms,  Songs,  etc. 

BROSCHI  (Carlo).    See  Farinelli. 

BROSIG  (Moritz).  Austrian  comp.,  B.  15  Oct.,  1815.  Writer  of  Masses, 
Organ  Music,  etc. 

BROSSARD  (Sebastien  de).     French  writer  and  priest,   B.   1660.     Chap.- 

master  in  Cath.   of  Strasburg,  1689-1698.     D.  Meaux,  Aug.  10,  1730.     He 

was  compiler  of  the  first  dictionary  of  musical  terms,  viz.  : — 

"  Dictionnaire  de  Musique.  contenant  une  explication  des  termes  grecs  et  latins, 

italiens  et  fran9ais  les  plus  usites  dans  la  Musique,"  etc.,  Paris,  1703.     A  full  and 

complete  work  for  the  period.     There  are  many  editions  of  this  work. 

BROUNCKER  (William,  Viscount).     English  writer,  B.  1620.    D.  1684. 

Translated  "  Descarte's  Musical  Compendium,"  4to,  1653.  Published 
anonymously  as  ' '  Excellent  Compendium  of  Musick  ;  with  necessary  and 
judicious  animadversions  thereupon.     By  a  Person  of  Honour." 

BROUSTET  (EdOUard).  French  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Toulouse,  April  29, 
1836.     Writer  of  symphonies,  concertos,  Pf  music,  songs,  cantatas,  etc. 

BROWN  (Abraham).  English  violinist  and  comp.  Was  one  of  the  principal 
performers  at  Ranelagh  Gardens  and  at  the  aristocratic  concerts  in  London 
about  the  middle  of  last  century.  His  tone  is  mentioned  as  having  been  clear, 
but  loud. 

BROWN  (Arthur  Henry).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Brentwood,  Essex, 
July  24,  1830.  Org.  of  Brentwood  Parish  Ch.,  1841.  Org.  of  S.  Edward's, 
Romford,  Essex,  1852-57.  Org.  at  Brentwood  from  1857  till  1885.  Org.  for 
six  months  at  S.  James's,  Tunbridge  Wells,  1875.  Mem.  of  the  Committee  of 
London  Gregorian  Choral  Association. 
Works. — A  Century  of  Hymn  Tunes,  1880  (2  edits.);  The  First  Miracle,  a 

drawing-room  oratorio ;  Missa  Seraphica,  the  Office  of  Holy  Communion,  in  C 

BRO  — BRO  121 

(S  editions) ;  Missa  Quinti  Toni,  the  Office  of  Holy  Communion,  Plain  Chant 
Service ;  Organ  Harmonies  for  the  Gregorian  Psalm  Tunes  (9  editions) ;  The 
Gregorian  Canticles  and  Psalter,  1874  (2  editions) ;  The  Anglican  Canticles  and 
Psalter,  1877  (5  editions)  ;  The  Canticles  of  Holy  Church,  Gregorian  (11  editions) ; 
The  Matin  and  Vesper  Canticles  of  Holy  Church,  Anglican  (9  editions) ;  Metrical 
Litanies  for  use  in  Church ;  The  Prayer  Book  Noted,  with  Plain  Chant  for  all  the 
Offices  of  the  Church,  1885 ;  The  Introits  ior  the  Sundays,  Festivals,  and  other 
Holy  Days  of  the  Year,  1885  ;  Select  Compositions  from  the  Great  Masters, 
arranged  for  the  Organ,  with  pedal  obbligato  (contains  compositions  by  Handel, 
Beethoven,  Andr^,  Weldon,  Mozart,  Wagner,  Spohr,  Bach,  Pleyel,  Weber, 
Schubert,  etc.) ;  Select  Overtures  from  the  Great  Masters  ;  Christmas  Carols  in 
various  collections ;  Hymn  Tunes  contributed  to  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern, 
Church  Hymns,  Chope's  Congregational  Hymn  and  Tune  Book,  Anglican  Hymn 
Book,  Bristol  Tune  Book,  and  about  20  others  ;  Harvest  Tide,  a  Service  of  Song 
for  Harvest  Thanksgivings  ;  A  Service  for  Children,  adapted  to  the  course  of  the 
Church  Year ;  Jacob's  Ladder,  A  Christmas  volume  of  Prose  and  Song,  by  Barbara 
Wordsworth,  music  by  A.  H.  Brown  ;  Te  Deum,  Magnificat,  Nunc  Dimittis, 
Anthems,  etc.  ;  The  Organ  Olio,  containing  Original  Pieces  for  Organ  and 
Harmonium;  Twenty-five  Original  Pieces  in  "Les  Organistes  Contemporains  " ; 
Here's  to  the  Cause  !  for  use  at  Choir  Suppers,  Church  Gatherings,  etc.  ;  Part 
Song — This  is  the  Birthday  of  my  Love.  Pianoforte  Music :  Sarabande  and  Gigue, 
in  G  (9  editions)  ;  AUemande,  Minuet,  and  Gigue,  in  A ;  Gavotte  and  Minuet,  in 
D  ;  Braule  de  Sabots ;  A  Trip  to  Fairyland  ;  Rigadoon  in  G  ;  Grand  Polonaise  in 
E  flat ;  etc.  Songs :  Across  the  Field  of  Barley ;  Somebody's  Darling  ;  Gather 
the  Rosebuds  while  ye  may.     New  Pianoforte  Tutor,  1883. 

BROWN  (A,  M.)  English  writer,  author  of  "Musical  Facts  Essential  to  Success 
in  Examination,"  Lond.,  i2mo,  1882. 

BROWN  (Bartholomew).  American  musician,  B.  Sterling,  Mass,  Sept.  8, 
1772.  D.  Boston,  April  14,  1854.  He  edited,  with  Judge  Mitchell,  the 
"  Bridgewater  Collection  of  Church  Music,"  etc.  He  composed  hymns, 
psalms,  and  songs. 

BROWN  (Colin).  Scottish  musician  and  theoretical  writer,  B.  1818.  Euing 
Lecturer  on  Music  in  Anderson's  College,  Glasgow,  from  i858. 

Works. — Music  in  Common  Things :  Analysis  of  a  Musical  Sound,  and 
the  Production  therefrom  of  the  Musical  Scale,  1874 ;  Part  2.  Mathematical  and 
Musical  Relations  of  the  Scale,  shewing  the  Principles,  Construction,  and  Tuning 
of  the  Natural  Fingerboard  with  Perfect  Intonation,  1876  ;  Part  4.  Music  in  Speech 
and  Speech  in  Music,  1870,  Glasgow,  8vo  [other  parts  in  preparation].  Songs  of 
Scotland  (with  J.  Pittman),  Lond.,  n.d.  The  Thistle,'  A  Miscellany  of  Scottish 
Song,  with  Notes,  Critical  and  Historical,  Instrumental  Accompaniments  and 
Harmonies  by  James  Merrylees,  Glasgow,  1884  [originally  issued  in  parts]. 

Mr.  Brown  has  constructed  an  instrument  called  the  Voice  Harmonium,  founded 
upon  the  Monopolytone,  to  which  the  principles  of  perfect  intonation  are  success- 
fully applied.  The  novel  character  of  the  keyboard,  fully  described  in  Music  in 
Common  1  kings,  pt.  2,  will  perhaps  act  as  an  obstruction  to  its  speedy  adoption, 
although  in  reality  it  is  very  simple,  having  only  eight  digitals  in  each  octave  to 
give  in  perfect  tune  every  tone  and  interval  of  the  diatonic,  chromatic,  and  enhar- 
monic scales  ;  the  fingering  being  identical  in  all  keys.  The  Monopolytone  above 
mentioned  js  a  small  instrument  for  striking  on  the  keyboard  of  a  Pf.,  producing 
one  grand  and  perfect  unison,  though  sounding  every  note  and  discord  of  the  scale. 
His  harmonium  was  awarded  the  -first '  place  at  an  exhibition  of  instruments 
illustrating  the  same  principle  held  in  London. 

BROWN  (Francis  H.)  American  writer,  has  written  a  few  didactic  works,  of 
which  "The  Pupils'  First  Primer"  (Ditson,  Boston,  n.d.),  in  catechism  form, 
has  gone  through  some  editions. 

BROWN  (John).  English  divine  and  writer,  B.  Rothbury,  Northumberland, 
1715.  Educated  at  Cambridge.  Vicar  of  Great  Horkesley,  Essex,  1754. 
Vicar  of  S.  Nicholas',  Newcastle,  1758.  Committed  suicide  while  insane, 
September  23,  1766, 

122  BRO  —  BRO 

Works. — Honour,  a  Poem  ;  Essay  on  Satire  ;  Sermons  ;  Essays  on  Shaftes- 
bury's Characteristics,  1751  ;  Dissertation  on  the  Rise,  Union,  and  Power,  the 
Progressions,  Separations,  and  Corruptions  of  Poetry  and  Music,  to  which  is 
prefixed  The  Cure  of  Saul,  a  sacred  ode,  Lend.,  1763  ;  Remarks  on  some  Observa- 
tions on  Dr.  Brown's  Dissertation  on  Poetry  and  Musick,  Lond.,  1764 ;  An 
Estimate  of  the  Manners  and  Principles  of  the  Times,    I7S7' 

An  Italian  edition  of  the  Dissertation  was  published  in  1772. 

BROWN  (John).  Scottish  artist  and  writer,  B.  Edinburgh,  1752.  Resided  in 
Italy,  1771  till  1781.  D.  in  Scotland,  1781.  Author  of  "Letters  upon  the 
Poetry  and  Music  of  the  Italian  Opera,  Edinburgh,  i2mo,  1789. 

BROWN  (Robert)  of  Rockhaven.  Scottish  writer  and  theorist.  B.  Glasgow. 
Author  of  "The  Elements  of  Musical  Science,  Lond.,  4to,  i860.  "  An  Intro- 
duction to  Musical  Arithmetic,  with  its  Application  to  Temperament,"  Lond., 
1865.  "Rudiments  of  Harmony  and  Counterpoint  on  a  New  Method..." 
London,  8vo,  1863.  Also  a  work  on  Scottish  Highland  Psalm  Tunes. 
In  the  first  work  Brown  advocates  the  adoption  of  a  uniform  clef,  and  illustrates 

this  in  the  course  of  his  book.    He  also  suggests  certain  modifications  in  the  method 

of  expressing  harmonical  combinations,  etc. 

BROWNE  (Lennox),  F.R.C.S.,  Edin.     English  surgeon  and  writer,  B.  Lond., 
1841.     Son  of  a  distinguished  Surgeon.     S.  at  Edinburgh  University,  and  St. 
George's  Hospital,  London,  and  qualified  for  practice  in  1863,  when  he  entered 
H  .M.  Emigration  Service,  and  made  two  voyages  to  Australia,  writing  a  book 
on  his  return  on  the  climate  of  that  country,  and  the  prospects  of  a  voyage  and 
residence  for  English  invalids.     He  commenced  practice  in  London  in  1865, 
and  at  once  took  up  the  specialty  of  treatment  of  diseases  of  the  throat,  ear, 
and  adjacent  parts  ;  was  attached  for  seven  years  to  the  Throat  Hospital,  and 
in  1874  was  mainly  instrumental  in  founding  the  Central  London  Throat  and 
Ear  Hospital,  the  foundation  stone  of  which  was  laid  by  Madame  Adelina 
Patti.    Of  this  Institution  he  is  the  Senior  Surgeon.    He  is  also  Surgeon  to  the 
Royal  Society  of  Musicians,  and  Consulting  Aural  Surgeon  to  several  other 
Hospitals.     Having  issued  in  pamphlet  form  practical  remarks  in  separate 
monographs,  he,  in  1878,  published  his  large  work  on  "The  Throat  and  its 
Diseases  "  (Bailliere)  illustrated  by  wood  engravings  and  coloured  drawings  on 
stone  of  his  own  design.     This  work  is  at  present  out  of  print  and  awaiting  a 
new  edition.     In  1876  he  issued  his  "Medical  Hints  on  the  Production  and 
Management  of  the  Singing  Voice  "  (Chappell)  which  has  attained  a  circulation 
of  over  ten  thousand.      He  has  further  translated   and  edited  Witkowski's 
"Mechanism  of  the  Voice,"  and  the   "Mechanism  of  Hearing,"  and  in  the 
latter  part  of  1883  collaborated  with  Mr.  Emil  Behnke  on  a  work  entitled 
"Voice,  Song,  and  Speech"  (Sampson  Low  &  Co.),  intended  as  a  complete 
manual  for  singers  and  speakers.     This  work  has  already  reached  a  third 
edition.     In   1885  he  published  "Voice  Use  and  Stimulants,"  Lond.,  l2mo  ; 
and  with  E.  Behnke,  "The  Child's  Voice  ;  its  Treatment  with  regard  to  after 
Development,"  Lond.,  i2mo. 
Mr.   Lennox  Browne  is  known  as  an  earnest  advocate  of  the  view,  that  a  very 
large  majority  of  the  throat  troubles  of  singers,  are  due  to  ignorance  or  neglect  of 
science  teaching  regarding  voice  production,  and  he  has  quite  recently,  1884,  pub- 
lished a  lecture  entitled  "  Science  and  Singing,"  urging  these  views  with  consider- 
able force,  and  pleading  for  preliminary  education  in  voice  production,  as  the  only 
sure  basis  of  pleasurable  and  enduring   speaking  or  singing   voice.      His  name 
and  works  are  well  known  in  America  and  on  the  Continent,  and  he  is  one  of  the 
editors  of  "La  Revue  Mensuelle  de  Laryngologie,"  etc. 

BROWNE  (Richard).  English  writer  and  physician,  flourished  during  i8th 
century.  Was  an  apothecary  in  Oakham. 
He  wrote  "  Medicina  Musica  :  or  a  Mechanical  Essay  on  the  Effects  of  Singing, 
Musick,  and  Dancing,  on  Human  Bodies,  etc.,"  Lond.,  l2mo,  1729.  This  is  a 
curious  work  on  the  medicinal  virtues  of  music,  a  subject  which  has  frequently 
taken  the  attention  of  medical  men  as  well  as  musicians, 

BRO — BRU  123 

BKOWN-BORTHWICK    (Rev.    Robert).       Scottish    divine    and  amateur 
musician,  B.  Aberdeen,  May  18,  1840.     Son  of  William  Brown,  Esq.,  of  H. 
M.  Civil  Service,  Aberdeen,  who  was  an  amateur  musician,  well-known  at  the 
concerts   of  that  city.      Ordained  deacon   in    1865.     Ordained  priest,    l865. 
Curate  of  Sudely  Manor,  Gloucestershire',  and  Chaplain  to  the  Winchcomb 
Union.      Curate  of  Evesham,  Worcestershire,  and  assistant  minister  of  Que- 
bec Chapel,  London.      Mr.  Brown-Borthwick  assumed  additional  surname  of 
Borthwick  on  his  marriage  in  1868  to  Grace  (D.  1884),  only  surviving  daughter 
of  the  late,   and  sister  of  the  present,  John  Borthwick,  Esq.,  of  Borthwick 
Castle,  and  Crookston,  Midlothian.     Incumbent  of  Holy  Trinity,  Grange-in- 
Borrowdale,  Cumberland,    1869-72.      Vicar  of  All  Saints,  Scarborough,  1872. 
Chaplain  for  a  few  years  to  the  Bishop  of  Aberdeen. 
Works. — The  Supplemental  Hymn  and  Tune  Book  (Novello),  containing  con- 
tributions by  Goss,  Sullivan,  Stainer,  E.  J.  Hopkins,  and  J.  B.  Calkin,  4  editions. 
12  Kyries.    Kyries  and  Sanctuses,  edited.    Blessed  are  the  dead,  anthem.   Words  of 
"Church  Hymns"  (with  the  Bishop  of  Bedford  (Dr.  W.  How),  Rev.  J.  Ellerton, 
Rev.  B.  Compton),  the  Hymn  Book  issued  by  the  S.  P.  C.  K.     Select  Hymns  for 
Church  and  Home,  Edin.,  1871.    The  History  of  the  Princes  de  Conde,  by  H.R.H. 
le  Due  d'Aumale,  translated,  Lond.,  8vo,   2  vols.      Life  and  Works  of  Stephen 
Heller,  by  H.   Barbedette,   translated,   London.     Hymns,  contributed  to  various 
collections.     Sermons  on  various  subjects,  as  "Art  in  Worship,"  "The  Praise  of 
God,"  etc.,  all  published. 

BBOWNSMITH  (John  Leman).  English  org.,  B.  Westminster,  1809.  Chor. 
at  Westminster  Abbey  under  Greatorex.  S.  org.  under  Greatorex.  Org.  of 
S.  John's  Ch.,  Waterloo  Road,  London,  1829.  Lay-Vicar  of  Westminster 
Abbey,  1838.  Org.  to  Sacred  Harmonic  Soc,  1848.  Org.  at  Handel  Festi- 
vals of  1857,  1859,  1862,  and  1865.  Org.  of  S.  Gabriel,  Fimlico.  D.  Sept. 
14,  1866. 


BRUCE  (James).  Scottish  traveller,  B.  1730,  D.  1794.  He  furnished  Bumey 
with  an  amount  of  information  touching  Eastern  music,  which  will  be  found  in 
his  History. 

BRUCE  (Thomas).  Scottish  writer.  Author  of  "The  Common  Tunes  of 
Scotland's  Church  Music  made  Plain,"  i2mo,  1726. 

BRUCH   (Max).      German  comp.,   B.   Cologne,   Jan.  6,   1838.      S.  at  Bonn. 

Gained  Scholarship  of  the  Mozart  Foundation  at  Frankfort-on-Maine,  1852. 

S.   under  Hiller,   Reinecke,  and   Breuning  at   Cologne.      Music  director  at 

Coblenz,  1865.    Do.  to  Prince  of  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen,  1867.    Director 

of  Liverpool  Philharmonic  Soc,  1880. 
Works. — Op.  i.  Scherz,  List,  undRache,  opera  in  two  acts  (Goethe) ;  Jubilate, 
Amen,  by  T.  Moore,  for  sop.  solo,  chorus,  and  orch.,  op.  3 ;  Three  duets  for  sop. 
and  alto,  with  Pf.,  op.  4  ;  Trio  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello,  in  C  min.  ;  Six  Songs  for 
voice  and  Pf.,  op.  7;  Die  Birken  und  die  Erlen,  for  sop.  solo,  chorus,  and  orch., 
op.  8  ;  Quartet  for  strings  in  C  min.,  op.  9;  Quartet  for  strings  in  E,  op.  10; 
Fantasie  for  2  Pf ,  op.  11  ;  Six  pieces  for  Pf.  solo,  op.  12 ;  Hymnus  Dem,  der  von 
Nachten,  for  voice  and  Pf.,  op.  13;  Four  lieder  for  voice  and  Pf,  op.  15  ;  Lore- 
ley,  a  Grand  Romantic  Opera,  in  4  acts  (Geibel)  op.  16 ;  Roemischer  Triumph- 
gesang,  for  male  chorus  and  orch.,  op.  19;  The  Flight  of  the  Holy  Family,  for 
chorus  and  orch.,  op.  20;  Frithjof,  Scenes  from  Esaias  Tegnfer's  "  Frithjof-Saga," 
for  solo  voices,  male  chorus,  and  orch.,  op.  23  ;  Schon  Ellen,  Ballad  for  solo  voices, 
chorus,  and  orch.,  op.  24,  1869  ;  Salamis,  Greek  song  of  Triumph,  for  male  chorus 
and  orch.,  op.  25;  First  Concerto  for  violin  and  orch.,  dedicated  to  Herr  Josef 
Joachim,  op.  26  ;  First  Symphony  for  full  orch.,  in  E  flat,  op.  28  ;  Kyrie,  Sanctus, 
Benedictus,  and  Agnus  Dei,  for  double  choir,  orchestra,  and  orch.,  op.  35  ;  Second 
Symphony  for  full  orch.,  in  F  min.,  op.  36;  Hermione,  opera  in  4  acts  (adapted 
from  Shakspere's  "Winter  Tale"),  op.  40,  Berlin,  1872;  Odysseus,  Scenes  from 
Homer's  Odyssey,  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orch.,  op.  41  ;  Romanze  for  violm 
and  orch.,  op.  42;  Arminius,  oratorio,  op.  43,  1875;  The  Lay  of  the  Bell,  a 
Secular  Cantata  (Schiller),  op.  4S.  1879 ;  Fantasia  on  Scotch  airs  for  violm  and 
orch.,  op.  47,  1880;  Kolnidreis,  for  violoncello  and  orch.,  op.  48.  Numerous 
l.ieaer,     Pianoforte  music,     Chamber  music,  etc, 

124  BRU  —  BUC 

Herr  Briich  may  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  foremost  among  living  composers  ot 
chamber  music,  while  his  large  works  "Odysseus,"  "Lay  of  the  Bell,"  etc., 
entitle  him  to  the  greatest  consideration  as  a  writer  of  choral  music.  His  treatment 
of  the  cantata  is  in  many  respects  original,  and  his  command  over  the  expressive 
elements  of  the  orchestra  is  great.  The  work  by  which  he  is  most  favourably 
known  in  Britain  is  "Odysseus,"  a  composition  of  great  power,  though  in  a 
technical  sense,  extremely  difficult. 

BBULL  (Ignaz).  German  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Prossnitz,  Nov.  7,  1847.  S.  at 
Leipzig  Cons. 

Works. — Operas:  Das  Goldene  Kreuz,  1875,  London,  1878;  Der  Landfriede, 
1877  ;  Bianca,  1879  ;  Konigin  Mariette,  1883.  Serenade  for  orch.,  in  F,  op.  29  ; 
First  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  F,  op.  10 ;  Concerto  for  violin  and  orch,,  op. 
41  ;  Three  pieces  for  the  Pf.,  op.  28;  Symphony  for  orch.,  in  E  minor,  op.  31. 
Lieder  and  Part  Songs.     Chamber  Music. 

The  opera  "Das  Goldene  Kreuz "  was,  on  its  production  in  London,  received 
with  but  limited  manifestations  of  favour,  from  which  it  may  fairly  be  inferred  that 
it  is  not  a  work  which  possesses  the  elements  of  novelty  or  success. 

BRUMEL  (Antoine).  Flemish  musician,  flourished  between  the  years  1480  and 
1 520.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Okenheim,  and  composed  Masses,  Motets,  Chansons, 
etc.     His  biography  is  unknown. 

BRUNETTI  (Gaetano).  Italian  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Pisa,  1753.  S.  under 
Nardini  at  Florence.  Court-Musician  to  Charles  IV.  of  Spain.  D.  in  Spain, 

Works. — Thirty-one  symphonies  for  orch.  ;  Thirty-two  quintets  for  strings ; 
Six  quintets  for  2  violins,  alto,  and  2  'cellos ;  Nvimerous  quartets  for  strings ; 
Twenty-two  trios  for  strings ;  Sonatas  for  violin  and  bass,  etc. 

BBYCE  (Rev.  ?  )  Irish  (?)  divine  and  writer  who  lived  in  Belfast.  Author  of 
"A  Rational  Introduction  to  Music,  being  an  attempt  to  simplify  the  first 
Principles  of  the  Science,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1845. 

BRYNE  (Albert).  English  comp.  who  flourished  in  the  17th  century.  Pupil 
of  John  Tomkins,  whom  he  succeeded  as  org.  of  S.  Paul's  Cath.  His  compo- 
sitions appear  in  Boyce,  Clifford,  and  some  are  in  MS.  in  the  British  Museum. 

BRYSON  (J.)  Scottish  musician,  who  flourished  during  latter  part  of  i8th  cent. 
Published  "A  Curious  Selection  of  Favourite  Tunes,  with  variations.  To 
which  are  added  upwards  of  fifty  favourite  Irish  airs  for  the  German  flute  or 
violin  ;  with  a  bass  for  the  Harpsichord  or  Violoncello,"  1791. 

BUCHANAN  (Thomas).  Scottish  surgeon,  author  of  "Physiological  Illustra- 
of  the  organ  of  hearing,  more  particularly  of  the  secretion  of  cerumen  and  its 
effects  in  rendering  auditory  perceptions  accurate  and  acute."     Lond.,  1828. 

BUCK  (Dudley).     American  comp.,  org.,  and  pianist,  B.  Hartford,  Connecticut, 
March  10,  1839.     S.  at  Trinity  Coll.,  Hartford.      S.  at  Leipzig  Cons,  along 
with  A.   Sulhvan,  J.   F.   Barnett,  S.  B.  Mills,  etc.,  1858,  under  Hauptmann, 
Richter,   Rietz,    Moscheles,   and    Plaidy.     S.   afterwards   at   Dresden   under 
Schneider   (organ)   and   Rietz   (harmony,   etc.)      Resided   in   Paris,    1861-2. 
Returned  to  United  States,   1862.     Choir-master  of  S.   Paul's  Ch.,   Boston. 
Org.   of  Music   Hall,   Boston,   1871.      Assistant  cond.   under   Mr.   Theodore 
Thomas  at  the  Central  Park  Garden,   New  York,   1875.     Org.   and  choir- 
master of  Ch.  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  Brooklyn,  1875.     Director  of  the  "Apollo 
Club,"  Brooklyn.     Resides  in  Brooklyn  as  teacher,  etc. 
'^OKK.%.— Cantatas :    Scenes  from   the  Golden   Legend,   by  Longfellow,    1880 
(this  work  gained  a  $i,ooo  prize  at  Cincinnati) ;  The  Legend  of  Don  Munio,  1874  ; 
"The  Centennial  Meditation  of  Columbia"  (for  the  opening  of  the  Exhibition  at 
Philadelphia),    1876,    written    by    Sidney   Lanier;    Easter   Morning,    for    mixed 
voices  ;  Hymn  to  Music,  for  chorus  of  mixed  voices.    Forty-sixth  Psalm  (God  is  our 
Refuge),  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orch.  ;  The  Nun  of  Nidaros,  chorus  for  male 
voices ;  King  OlofFs  Christmas,  chorus  for  male  voices,  with  solo.    Ch^rch  Music 

fiUC  —  BUL  12,1; 

Motette  Collection,  1867  ;  Second  Motctte  Collection;  Morning  Service  for  Epis- 
copal Ch.,  op.  25  ;  Evening  Service,  do.,  op.  31  ;  Christ  our  Passover,  anthem, 
op.  29  ;  There  were  Shepherds,  anthem  ;  Hark  !  what  mean  these  holy  voices  ? 
hymn,  op.  32  ;  Darkly  rose  the  guilty  Morning,  anthem,  op.  33  ;  Morning  Service, 
op.  45  ;  Evening  Service,  op.  47  ;  Easter  Anthem,  op.  46  ;  Christmas  Anthem, 
op.  48  ;  Special  Hymns  (in  Anthem  form)  for  Quartet  or  Chorus  Choir,  op.  43 
(8  numbers) ;  Three  Anthems,  op.  72 ;  Te  Deum  and  Jubilate  from  Schubert's 
Mass  in  B  flat ;  O  Saviour,  hear  me  !  offertory  from  Gluck  ;  A  Midnight  Service 
for  New  Year's  Eve.  Organ :  Illustrations  in  Choir  Accompaniment,  with  Hints 
in  Registration,  4to,  1877  ;  Grand  Sonata  in  E  flat,  op.  22  ;  Concert  Variations  on 
"The  Star  Spangled  Banner,"  op.  23;  Triumphal  March,  op.  26;  Impromptu 
Pastorale,  op.  27  ;  Eighteen  Pedal  Phrasing  Studies,  2  books,  op.  28  ;  Rondo 
Caprice,  op.  35  ;  Transcription,  Overture  to  "William  Tell,"  op.  37;  Trans,  from 
Beethoven's  "Sonata  op.  28,"  op.  38  ;  Transcription,  Overture  to  "  Stradella,"  op. 
39 ;  Trans,  from  Schumann's  Pictures  from  the  Orient,  op.  40 ;  Variations  on  a  Scotch 
Air,  op.  51  ;  At  Evening,  Idylle,  op.  52;  The  Last  Rose  of  Summer,  with  varia- 
tions, op.  59 ;  Second  Grand  Sonata,  in  G  minor,  op.  77  ;  The  Organist's  Reper- 
toire, edited  by  Buck  and  S.  P.  Warren,  etc.  Focal  Music :  The  Tempest, 
Dramatic  Poem,  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  Five  Songs  for  alto  or  baritone  voice  and  Pf., 
words  by  E.  C.  Stedman  ;  Three  Songs  for  mezzo-soprano  ;  Five  Songs  for  soprano 
or  tenor.  Symphonic  Overture,  "Marmion,"  for  full  orch.  "  Deseret,"  a  comic 
opera,  libretto  by  W.  A.  Croffut,  1880.  Pianoforte  Music.  Dictionary  of  Musical 
Terms,  Boston,  n.  d.     The  Influence  of  the  Organ  in  History,  1882. 

The  compositions  of  this  composer,  though  almost  entirely  confined  to  the 
United  States,  are  of  such  sterling  quality  as  to  merit  their  production  elsewhere. 
His  chief  works  are  the  cantatas,  which  have  attained  considerable  popularity  in 
the  United  States.  Apart  from  his  powers  as  a  composer,  Mr.  Buck  is  one  of  the 
greatest  organists  in  the  United  States.  His  church  music  is  remarkable  for  effec- 
tive treatment  without  vulgarity  or  undue  straining,  and  his  organ  music  is  good,  if 
somewhat  brilliant.  Buck  has  trained  many  good  musicians,  and  his  influence  in 
the  United  States  is  great. 

BUCK  (Zechariah.),  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1799.  D.  Newport,  Essex, 
Aug.  5,  1879.  Mus.  Doc.  Lambeth,  1853.  Dr.  Buck  was  a  highly  respected 
teacher  and  performer,  and  held  the  appointment  of  Organist  and  Choir-master 
at  Norwich  Cathedral  for  a  long  period, 

BUCKLEY    (James).      American   writer,   author  of   "Buckley's   New  Violin 
Method "  (Ditson,  Boston,  n.  d.)     "Buckley's  Banjo  Guide,"  (do.)   " Buckley's 
New  Banjo  Method"  (do.),  etc. 
Another  Buckley  (Frederick),  composed  a  number  of  melodies  of  the  same  stamp 

as  "I'd  choose  to  be  a  Daisy,"  and  founded  a  troupe  of  coloured  Minstrels  named 

after  himself.     He  D.  at  Boston  (U.S.),  1864. 

BUCKLEY  (Olivia  Dussek).  English  authoress,  wrote  a  work  entitled 
"Musical  Truths,"  Lond.,  i2mo,  1843. 

BUDD  (George  W.)  English  publisher  and  comp.,  B.  1806.  D.  Lond.,  Aug., 
1850.     He  was  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Calkin  &  Budd. 

BUDDICOM  (Rev.  Robert  Pedder).  English  divine,  and  incumbent  of  Ever- 
ton,  Liverpool,  B.  1770.  D.July,  1846.  Published  "One  Hundred  Psalm 
and  Hymn  Tunes  with  Chants,"  edited  by  C.  H.  Wilton,  4to,  1827.  Re- 
published as  "Devotional  Harmony,"  Liverpool,  1833. 

BUHL  (Joseph  David).  French  trumpeter  and  writer,  B.  near  Amboise,  1781. 
Prof  of  trumpet  at  cavalry  school  at  Versailles,  1805-11.  Cond.  of  band  of 
the  Garde  du  Corps,  1814.  Mem.  of  Legion  of  Honour,  D.  Versailles,  April, 
i860.  He  wrote  "A  Method  for  the  Trumpet,"  and  other  works,  practical 
and  theoretical. 

BUHLER  (Franz  G.)  Abbe.  German  org.  and  comp.,  B.  April  12,  1760.  D. 
Augsburg,  Feb.  4,  1824. 

BUINI  (Giuseppe  Maria).    Italian  comp.,  flourished  at  beginning  of  i8th  centi 

i26  BUL  —  BUL 

Wrote  over  thirty  operas,  produced  between  the  years  1718  and  1734.     He  was 
also  a  poet. 

BULL  (Ole  Borneman).     Norwegian  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Bergen,  Norway,  • 
Feb.  s,  1810.     Appeared  successively  in  all  the  principal  towns  of  Europe, 
Britain,  and  America.     D.  Bergen,  Aug.  19,  1880.      He  wrote  a  number  of 
trifling  works  for  violin  and  orchestra. 
Bull  enjoyed  a  great  notoriety  in  his  day,  and  was  regarded  by  many  as  a  per- 
former of  extraordinary  attainments.     His  talents  were  excessively  lauded  for  a 
time  by  careless  or  incompetent  writers,  but  he  was  regarded  by  well  informed 
musicians  as  little  better  than  a  charlatan      His  technical  skill  on  the  violin  was 
great,  and  if  it  had  been  used  in  a  legitimate  manner  might  have  secured  for  him  a 
high  place  among  instrumental  performers.     As  it  is  he  is  only  remembered  bythe 
vulgar  for  his  astonishing  tricks,  and  daring  and  original  methods  of  advertising. 
His  works  possess  no  value,  and  are  rarely  performed. 

BULL  (John).      English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Somersetshire  [1563].     S.  under 
William   Blitheman.     Org.   and  Master  of  the  Children  of  Hereford  Cath., 
1582.     Gent,  of  the  Chap.  Roy.,  Jan.,  1585.     Bac.  Mus.  Oxon.,  1586.     Doc. 
Mus.  Oxon.,  1592.     Org.  to  Chap.  Roy.,  1591.     Prof,  of  Music  at  Gresham 
Coll.,    1596.     Travelled  on  the  Continent,    1601-5.      Married  to  Elizabeth 
Walter,  1607.     Musician  to  Prince  Henry,  161 1.     Quitted  England  without 
leave  from  his  employer,  1613.     Org.  at  Notre  Dame  Cath.,  Antwerp  [1617]. 
Was  org.  in  service  of  the  Archduke  of  Austria."    D.  Hamburg,  LUbeck,  or 
Antwerp,  Mar.  13,  1628. 
The  productions  of  this  composer  are  mentioned  by  nearly  every  writer  as  having 
been  voluminous,  but  comparatively  few  of  them  appear  to  have  been  printed. 
Specimens  of  his  style  can  be  seen  in  Barnard's  Collection,   Boyce,  Leighton's 
"Teares,"  the  Fitzwilliam  Music,  "Parthenia,"  Queen  Elizabeth's  Virginal  Book, 
etc.     A  motet  for  5  voices  is  preserved  in   Burney's  Musical  Extracts,    British 
Museum.     E.  Pauer  gives  specimens  of  his  virginal  music  in   "Old  English  Com- 
posers."    The  extraordinary  celebrity  which  this  musician  obtained  during  his 
lifetime  must  have  been  grounded  on  some  uncommon  degree  of  merit  either  in  his 
compositions  or  performance.     A  list  of  his  works  is  contained  in  Ward's  "Lives 
of  the  Gresham  Professors,"  and  in  addition  he  wrote  a  great  number  of  pieces  of 
sacred  vocal  music.   ' '  The  strength  of  this  composer's  talents  lay  in  the  production  and 
execution  of  pieces  fully  harmonized,  and  comprising  fugues,  double-fugues,  and  the 
various  species  of  canon ;    and  fortunately,  for  himself,  he  lived  in  an  age  that 

listened  with  pleasure  to  music  of  that  description He  surmounted 

old  and  invented  new  difficulties ;  and  disdaining  to  be  embarrassed,  aimed,  in  the 
province  of  polyphonic  fabrication,  at  a  species  of  omnipotence. " — Busby. 

The  question  as  to  the  composition  of  the  English  national  anthem  remains  un- 
decided in  a  general  way,  though  Carey  appears  to  have  been  strongly  accredited 
with  the  composition.  See  writings  of  Chappell,  Cummings,  Clark,  etc.  In  con- 
nection with  Gresham  College,  Dr.  Bull  delivered  "The  Oration  of  Maister  John 
Bull,  Doctor  of  Musicke  and  one  of  the  Gentlemen  of  hir  Majesty's  Royal  Chappell, 
as  he  pronounced  the  same,  before  divers  worshipful  persons,  the  Aldermen  and 
Commoners  of  the  citie  of  London,  with  a  great  multitude  of  other  people,  the  6th 
day  of  October,  1597,  in  the  new  erected  Colledge  of  Sir  Thomas  Gresham,  Knt. 
deceased  :  made  in  the  commendation  of  the  founder,  and  the  excellent  science  of 
Musicke,"  London,  Este,  1597. 

BULOW  (Hans  GuidO  von).     German  pianist,  cond.,  and  comp.,  B.   Dresden, 

Jan.  8,  1830.     S.  under  Wieck  and  Eberwein.    S.  Jurisprudence  for  a  time  at 

Leipzig  University,   1848.     S.  under   Hauptmann ;    also  under  Liszt,   1851. 

Made  first  Concert  tour,  1853.     Prof,   of  Pianoforte  at  the  Stern  and  Marx 

Cons.,  Berlin,  1855-64.     Cond.  of  Royal  Opera  House  and  Director  of  the 

Cons.,  Munich,  1864.     Cond.  of  Hanover  Court  Music,  Jan.,  1878.     Cond. 

of  Glasgow  Musical  Festival,  1878.     Has  given  concerts  in  Europe,  Britain, 

and  America  (1876).     Orchestral  cond.  in  Germany. 

Works. — Arabesques,  Variations  on  Rigoletto,  op.  2  ;  Marche  Heroique,  op.  3  ; 

Innocence,  Albumblatt  for  Pf.  ;  Humoristic  Quadrille  (Berlioz),  for  Pf.  ;  Die  Ent- 

sagende  Liedercyclus,  for  voice  and  Pf.,  op,  8 ;   Music  to  Shakespeare's  Julius 

BUN  —  BUN  12? 

Csssar,  op.  ro  ;  Arrangements  from  same,  opp.  loa,  lob  ;  Ballade  for  Orchestra, 
op.  lO  ;  iSirwana,  Orchester-Fanlasie  in  Ouverturenform,  op.  20,  1881  ;  II  Car- 
naval  di  Milano  for  Pf.,  op.  21  ;  Two. Romances  for  Mezzo-soprano  voice  and  Pf., 
op.  26  ;  Classical  Pianoforte  Pieces  from  his  Concert  Programmes,  2  vols. ;  Editions 
of  Bach,  Beethoven,  etc.  ;  Contributions  to  Periodical  Literature,  various,  etc. 

BUlovf  is  one  of  the  most  gifted  pianists  and  conductors  of  the  present  time,  and 
while  equally  great  in  his  interpretations  of  all  masters,  is  exceptionally  great  in  his 
rendition  of  Beethoven.  His  performance  of  this  master's  works  is  indeed  extraor- 
dinary, and  invariably  creates  a  powerful  impression.  He  is  a  strong  supporter  of 
the  most  advanced  school  of  music,  and  strives  in  his  works  to  follow  the  style  of 
Wagner.  In  other  respects  Biilow  has  been  most  unfortunate,  especially  in  regard 
to  Britain  and  British  music.  His  peculiarities  of  temper  have  frequently  placed 
him  in  most  undignified  relations  to  his  art  and  position,  and  it  is  to  be  regretted 
that  so  sterling  an  artist  should  stoop  to  speak  disrespectfully  of  the  nation  which 
accords  him  the  most  substantial  support. 

BUNCE  (John  Thackray).  English  Journalist  and  writer.  Editor  of  the 
Birmingham  Daily  Post.  Author  of  "Birmingham  General  Hospital  and 
Triennial  Musical  Festivals,"  8vo  [1858];  and  "History  of  the  Birmingham 
General  Hospital  and  the  Musical  Festivals;  1868-73,"  8vo,  1873. 

BUNCH  (James).  English  musician,  editor  of  "  Ceciliana  :  a  Collection  of 
Favourite  Catches,  Canons,  Rondos,  and  Rounds,  by  eminent  authors, 
ancient  and  modern,  in  score,  with  Biographical  Notes."    Lond.  4to,  n.  d. 

BUNN  (Alfred).  English  operatic  manager  and  librettist,  B.  London,  1798  ; 
Stage  manager  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre  under  Elliston,  1823  ;  Manager  and 
Lessee  of  Drury  Lane  Theatre  from  1834.  D.  Boulogne,  Dec.  20,  i860. 
Bunn  adapted  a  great  number  of  pieces  for  the  English  stage,  and  produced 
the  following  among  other  operas  : — Maid  of  Artois  ;  Bohemian  Girl  ;  and 
Daughter  of  St.  Mark  (Balfe) ;  Brides  of  Venice  (Benedict)  ;  Maritana 
(Wallace),  etc.  He  also  wrote  a  work  entitled  ' '  The  St^e,  both  Before  and 
Behind  the  Curtain,  from  Observations  taken  on  the  Spot. "  3  vols.  Svo, 
London,  1840.  Poems,  Lond.,  1816.  For  a  severe  skit  on  Bunn,  see  A 
Word  with  Bunn,  after  Burns's  Address  to  the  Deil.  By  J.  R.  Adam, 
the  Cremorne  Poet,  Lond.  [1847]. 

BUNNETT  (Edward).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Shipdham,  Norfolk,  June 
26,  1834.  Chor.  in  Norwich  Cath. ,  1842.  S.  under  Dr.  Z.  Buck.  Assistant 
org.  at  Norwich  Cath.,  1855-77.  Bac.  Mus.  Cantab.,  Dec,  1856.  Doc. 
Mus.,  do.,  March,  1869.  Festival  (choral)  org.,  1872.  Org.  of  S.  Peter's 
Ch.,  1877.  Org.  to  Corporation  of  Norwich,  1880. 
Works. — Song  of  Praise  (Degree  exercise),  1869 ;  Rhineland,  Cantata  for 
soprano  solo,  chorus  and  orch.  comp.  for  Mdlle  T.  Titjiens,  and  produced  at  Nor- 
wich Festival,  1872  ;  Lora,  Cantat^  by  W.  W.  Turnbull,  comp.  for  the  Musical 
Union  Society  in  Norwich,  and  performed,  June,  1876 ;  Magnificat,  Nunc 
Dimittis,  Cantate  Domine,  and  Deus  Misereatus,  in  A,  i860 ;  Venite,  Exultemus 
Domino,  two  settings  in  chant  form ;  Te  Deum,  in  G ;  Te  Deum,  in  F ; 
Benedictus  and  Jubilate,  in  F ;  Out  of  the  deep  have  I  called  unto  Thee,  O  Lord, 
Psalm  130,  for  tenor  solo,  chorus  and  organ  ;  Ave  Maria,  for  six  voices  and  Pf.  or 
harmonium  accomp.  ;  Volume  of  Sacred  Harmony,  comprising  Chants,  Kyries, 
Anthems  and  Organ  Pieces,  selected  and  original,  1865  ;  Twenty-four  Original 
Hymn-tunes;  Office  of  the  Holy  Communion,  in  E  (1883).  Anthems:  If  we 
believe  that  Jesus  died  ;  O  how  amiable  are  thy  dwellings  ;  O  Give  Thanks  unto 
the  Lord. ;  O  Lord,  thou  art  my  God.  Eight  Organ  Pieces,  original  and  selected  ; 
Six  Original  Compositions  for  org.,  1884;  Ave  Maria  for  organ.  Now  Autumn 
Crowns  the  Year  with  Golden  Leaves,  part  song.  Songs:  There  be  none  of 
Beauty's  daughters  ;  Break,  break,  break  ;  There's  a  bower  of  roses  ;  A  Dreamer's 
Song  ;  Sing  joyous  bird  ;  Winter  ;  A  New  Year's  Burden  ;  The  Moss  Rose ;  The 
Message  of  the  Rose.  Pianoforte:  Adagio  and  Rondo  ;  Premiere  Valse ;  Polacca ; 
Three  Musical  Sketches ;  Das  Stille  Abendlaftchen.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  violin, 
1873  (MS.) ;  Trio  for  Pf.  violin  and  'cello,  1873  (MS.) ;  Adagio  and  Rondo  for 
Clarinet  and  Pf.  (MS.),  etc. 

128  BbN  —  BUR 

BUNTING    (Edward).      Irish   writer   and   editor,    B.    Armagh,    Feb.,    1773. 

Articled  assistant  to  Weir,  at  ch.   in  Belfast,   17S4.      Org.  of  S.  Stephen's 

chap.,   Belfast.     Married  to  Miss  Chapman,   1S19.      D.   Dublin,   Dec.  21, 


Works. — A  General  Collection  of   the  Ancient   Irish   Music  ;  containing  a 

variety  of  admired  airs  never  before  published,    and   also   the   compositions    of 

Conolan  and  Carolan,  Lond.,  1796.   A  General  Collection  of  the  Ancient  Music  of 

Ireland,   arranged  for  the  Pianoforte  ;    some  of  the  most  admired  Melodies  are 

adapted  for  the  Voice,  to  poetry  chiefly  translated  from  the  original  Irish  songs  by 

Thomas   Campbell,    Esq.,    and   other   eminent   poets ;  to   which   is   prefaced   an 

Historical  and  Critical  Dissertation  on  the  Egyptian,   British,  and   Irish  Harp, 

Lend.,  fo.    1809.    The  Ancient  Music  of  Ireland,  arranged  for  the  Pianoforte;  to 

which  is  prefixed  a  Dissertation  on  the  Irish  Harps  and  Harpers,  including  an 

account  of  the  Old  Melodies  of  Ireland.     Dublin,  1840. 

Bunting  was  the  Thomson  or  Chappell  of  Irish  music.  However  popular 
Moore  might  have  rendered  the  lovely  melodies  of  Ireland,  it  is  certain  that  to  the 
preservative  endeavours  of  Bunting  is  due  the  present  knowledge  of  Irish  music. 
He  was  an  organist  of  great  ability.  The  universal  credit  given  to  Moore  and 
Stevenson  as  the  preservers  of  Irish  music  is  not  really  due  them,  though  Moore, 
with  his  usual  self-complacency,  takes  considerable  honour  to  himself  for  his 
personal  endeavours.  The  blame  of  tampering  with  and  altering  the  melodies  was 
at  one  time  fixed  on  Stevenson,  by  Bunting,  among  others,  whereas  Moore  in  his 
diary  confesses  to  the  alterations  as  being  his  own  work.  An  interesting  article 
and  review  of  Bunting  and  his  works  are  contained  in  the  "Dublin  University 
Magazine,"  May,  1841,  and  Jan.,  1847. 

BUONOMO  (Alfonso).     Italian  operatic  comp.,  B.  Naples,  August  12,  1829. 

BUONONCINI  (Giovanni  Battista).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Modena,  1672.  8. 
under  his  Father  Giovanni  Maria.  Violoncellist  in  Band  of  the  Emperor 
Leopold  at  Vienna.  Came  to  England,  1708.  Musician  to  the  Duke  of 
Marlborough.     D.  1750. 

Works. — Of  etas:  Camilla,  1690  (London,  1706);  Tullio  Astilio,  1694; 
Endimione,  1706;  Mario  fugitive,  1708;  Tameride,  1708;  Abdalonimo,  1709; 
Muzio  Scevola  (with  Handel  and  Ariosti),  1710;  Astarto,  1720;  Crispo,  1722; 
Griselda,  1722 ;  Farnace,  1723 ;  Erminia,  1723 ;  Calfurnia,  1724 ;  Astianax, 
1727.  Cantate  e  Duetti,  dedicati  alia  sacra  Maesta  di  Giorgio  Re  della  Gran 
Britagna,  etc.,  Lond.,  1721  ;  Divertimenti  de  Camera  per  Violino  o  Flauto, 
dedicati  all'Eccellenza  del  Duca  di  Rutland,  Lond.,  1722;  Funereal  Anthem  for 
Duke  of  Marlborough  ;  Twelve  Sonatas  for  the  Chamber,  for  two  Violins  and  a 
Bass,  1732;  Other  Operas  and  miscellaneous  music. 

This  composer  is  now  onl}  famous  for  his  rivalry  of  Handel,  at  that  period  in 
British  history  when  sides  were  taken  on  every  matter.  Buononcini  was  the 
musician  of  the  Whigs,  and  for  a  time  held  his  own  fairly  well.  It  was  only  when 
such  a  close  comparison  as  that  afforded  by  the  setting  of  "Muzio  Scevola,"  in 
which  both  composed  an  act,  that  musicians  were  enabled  toaward  a  preeminent 
position  to  Handel.  Buononcini's  music  is  of  a  sweet  and  somewhat  unmeaning 
nature,  not  particularly  marked  by  any  original  feature.  He  was  said  to  have 
been  of  an  overbearing  disposition,  which  latterly  cost  him.  his  place  in  England. 

His  father,  Giovanni  Maria  (1670-17  ?),  wrote  a  work  on  theory  as  well  as  some 
chamber  music.  His  brother,  Antonio  (1690-1715),  composed  an  amount  of 
Secular  music. 

BURDITT  (B.  A.)  American  bandmaster  and  writer,  has  published  Preceptor 
for  the  Post-horn  (Ditson,  Boston,  n.  d.)  Preceptor  for  the  Saxhorn  (do.) 
Saxhorn  Scales  (do.)  Preceptor  for  the  Bugle  (do.)  Preceptor  for  the  Corno- 
pean (do.)  Army  Drum  and  Fife  Book,  with  Keach  and  Cassidy  (do.) 
Modern  School  for  the  Drum,  with  Keach  (do.)  "National  Orchestra,"  and 
other  collections  of  band  music. 

BURETTE  (Pierre  Jean).  French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Paris,  Nov.,  1665, 
D.  May,  1747. 

feUR  —  BUR  129 

BURGER  (Gottefried  August).  German  poet,  B.  Molmerswende,  1748. 
D.  June  8,  1794. 
Burger's  ballads  are  chiefly  remarkable  for  their  weird  characteristics,  and  gener- 
ally romantic  cast.  One  of  them,  "Lenore, "  has  inspired  the  composer  Raff  in  the 
production  of  a  symphony  of  considerable  power.  The  lyrical  productions  of 
Biirger  have  been  set  by  a  great  variety  of  composers,  from  Schubert  to  Macfarren. 

BURGH  (A.),  M.A.  English  writer  and  Prof,  at  Oxford.  Compiled  "  Anecdotes 
of  Music,  Historical  and  Biographical,  in  a  Series  of  Letters  from  a  Gentleman 
to  his  Daughter,"  3  vols.,  8vo,  Lond.,  1814. 

BURGHERSH  (Lord).     See  Westmoreland  (Earl  of). 

BURGMULLER  (Johann  Friedrich  Franz).  German  comp.,  B.  Ratisbon, 
1806.  D.  Beaulieu,  Seine-et-Oise,  Feb.  13,  1874.  Writer  of  Ballets,  Pot- 
pourries  on  motives  from  operas,  and  a  large  amount  of  brilliant  pianoforte 

BURGMULLER  (Norbert).  German  comp.,  B.  Diisseldorf,  Feb.  8,  1810.  S. 
under  his  Father,  Spohr,  and  Hauptmann.  D.  Aix-la-Chapelle,  May  7,  1836. 
Works. — Two  Symphonies  for  full  orch.  An  Overture  for  orch.  Songs,  with 
'P{.  accomp.,  op.  3  ;  Do.,  op.  6  ;  Do.,  op.  10.  Quartets  for  strings.  Concertos 
for  Pf.  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  F  min.,  op,  8.  Rhapsodic  for  Pf.,  op.  13.  And  a  large 
quantity  of  miscellaneous  music. 

BURGSTALLER  (Franz  Xaver)."  German  Zither  player  and  comp.,  B.  in 
Bavaria,  181 5.     Writer  of  Landler,  Valses,  etc. 

BURKHARDT  (Salomon).  German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  1803.  D.  1849. 
Writer  of  Salon  music  of  a  bright,  clever  and  graceful  character. 

BURMANN  (Gottlieb  Wilhelm).  German  comp.,  B.  Lauban,  1737.  D. 
1805.     Wrote  songs,  music  for  harpsichord,  etc. 

BURNET  (Alfred).     Mus.  Bac,  English  musician,  published  "  Instructions  for 
the  Spanish  Guitar,  founded  on  the  Systems  of  CaruUi,  Giuliani,  etc.,"  Lond,, 
BURNEY  (Charles).     English  writer,  ovg.,  and  comp.,  B.  Shrewsbury,  April 
12,  1726.     Educated  at  the  Free  School,  Shrewsbury,  and  at  Chester  Public 
School.     S.  music  under  Baker,  org.  of  Chester  Cath.  ;  and  in  London  under 
Dr.  Arne,  1744-47.     Org.  of  St.  Dionis  Back-Ch.,  Fenchurch  St.,  London., 
1749.     Harpsichord  player  at  the  Subscription  Concerts,  King's  Arms,  Corn- 
hill.      Org.   at  Lynn-Regis,   Norfolk,   1751-60.      Bac.  and  Doc.   of  Music, 
Oxford,    1769.      Travelled    in    Italy,    1770.      Returned  to  London,    1771. 
Travelled  in  Germany,  the  Netherlands,  etc.,  1772.     Elected  Fellow  of  Royal 
Soc,  1773.    First  vol.  of  the  History  published,  1776.    Org.  of  Chelsea  Coll., 
1789.     D.  Chelsea,  April  12,  1814. 
Works. — Translation  of  Signor  Tartini's  Letter  to  Signor  Lombardini,  published 
as  an  important  lesson  to  performers  on  the  Violin,  Lond.,  I77i.     The  Present 
State  of  Music  in  France  and  Italy,  or  the  Journal  of  a  tour  through  those  Countries, 
undertaken  to  collect  Materials  for  a  General  History  of  Music,  Lond.,  8vo,  1771. 
The  Present  State  of  Music  in  Germany,  the  Netherlands,  and  United  Provinces, 
or  the  Journal  of  a  tour  through  those  Countries,  undertaken  to  collect  Materials 
for  a  General  History  of  Music,  Lond.,  2  vols.,  8vo,  1773.     A  General  History  of 
Music,  from  the  Earliest  Ages  to  the  Present  Period,  to  which  is  prefixed  a  Disserta- 
tion on  the  Music  of  the  Ancients,  Lond.,  4  vols.,  4to,  1776-1789.     An  Account  of 
the  Musical   Performance^  in  Westminster  Abbey  and  the  Pantheon,  May  26th, 
27th,  29th,  and  June  the  3rd  and  Sth,  1784,  in  Commemoration  of  Handel,  Lond., 
4to,  1785;  Dublin  edition,  1785.     A  paper  on  Crotch,  the  infant  musician,  pre- 
sented to  the  Royal  Society,  Transactions,  1779.     Striking  Views  of  Lamia,  the 
celebrated  flute-player,  Massachussett's  Magazine,  1786.     Memoirs  of  the  Life  and 
Writings  of  the  Abbate  Metastasio,  in  which  are  incorporated  translations  of  his 
principal  letters,  Lond.,  3  vols.,  8vo,  1796.     A  Plan  for  a  Music  School,  Lond., 
1774.     An  Essay  towards  the  History  of  Comets,  Lond.,  1769.    Articles  on  Music 
in  Ree's  Encyclopaedia.      Sonata  for  2  violins  and  a  bass,  1765.     Six  Concert 


13°  BUR  —  BUR 

Pieces  with  introduction  and  fugue  for  the  organ.  Twelve  Canzonets  from  Metas- 
tasio.  Six  duets  for  the  German  Flute.  Six  concertos  for  the  violin  in  8  parts. 
Two  sonatas  for  Pf.,  violin,  and  'cello.  Six  Harpsichord  Lessons.  Two  Sonatas 
for  Harp  or  Pianoforte,  with  accomp.  for  violin  or  'cello.  Anthems,  glees,  instru- 
mental music,  etc. 

Burney  is  best  known  to  musicians  of  the  present  day  by  his  "  History  of 
Music;"  a  work  of  much  learning  and  ability.  It  is  written  in  a  pleasant 
style,  but  its  historical  value  is  somewhat  destroyed  by  a  vexatious  absence 
of  dates,  while  its  critical  defects  are  even  more  marked.  He  has  given 
too  much  space  to  the  glorification  of  forgotten  Italian  composers,  and  too 
little  to  the  more  interesting  musicians  of  British  nativity.  The  "History" 
is  less  valuable  than  that  of  Hawkins,  though  much  superior  in  a  literary  point  of 
view.  His  other  literary  productions  are  interesting.  His  musical  composions  are 
quite  out  of  date,  and  are  never  now  heard.  His  most  successful  musical  effort 
was  an  adaptation  of  Rousseau's  "Devin  du  Village,"  produced  under  the  title  of 
"The  Cunning  Man."  His  daughter  Frances  was  the  Madame  D'Arblay  of 
English  literary  renown.  It  may  further  be  said  that  Burney  was  one  of  the  most 
esteemed  organists  of  his  time. 

BURNS  (Daniel  Joseph).  Irish  org.  and  writer.  Org.  of  S.  Patrick's  Church, 
and  of  S.  Malachy's  Coll.,  Belfast.  Cond.  of  the  Philo-Celtic  Soc.  Author 
of  "Practical  Notes  on  Harmony  and  Counterpoint  for  Junior  Pupils."  Lond. 
[1S83].     "Exercises  in  Figured  Bass."     Lond.  n.d.,  etc. 

BURNS  (Georgina).  English  soprano  vocalist,  B.  London,  i860.  Grand- 
daughter of  a  celebrated  Nonconformist  minister.  First  appeared  at  the 
Westminster  Aquarium  Promenade  Concerts.  Sang  in  Carl  Rosa's  Opera 
Company  from  about  1877.  First  appeared  in  opera  at  Nottingham.  She  has 
appeared  with  much  success  in  "Faust,"  "Maritana,"  "Bohemian  Girl," 
"  Lurline,"  "  Esmeralda,"  and  other  works,  and  has  been  also  most  successful 
as  a  concert  vocalist.  She  is  married  to  Mr.  Leslie  Crotty,  an  Irish  bary- 
tone vocalist,  B.  in  Galway,  1851,  who  has  appeared  in  opera  in  connection 
with  the  Carl  Rosa  Opera  Company  with  much  success. 

BUENS  (Robert).     Scottish  poet  and  writer,  B.  near  Ayr,  January  25,  1759. 
Educated  chiefly  by  his  father.     Resided  successively  at  Mount  Oliphant,  1759- 
1777;  Lochlea,   1777-84;   Mossgiel,  1784-86;  Edinburgh,  Nov.,  1786,  Feb., 
1788;  EUisland,  June,  1788,  Dec,  1791  ;  Dumfries,  1791-96.     D.  Dumfries, 
July  21,  1796.     Married  to  Jean  Armour,  1788.      Became  exciseman,  March, 
1789.      Contributed    to  Johnson's  "Museum"   from  1787.      Contributed   to 
Thomson's  Collection,  1792-96.    Poems  first  published  by  Wilson,  Kilmarnock, 
in  1786. 
Burns  was  a  musician  of  considerable  talent,  as  may  be  readily  discovered  by 
observing  the  close  union  which  he  has  been  able  to  maintain  between  the  spirit, 
rhythm,  and  melody  of  his  poetry  and  its  musical  setting.    With  one  or  two  excep- 
tions it  must  be  said  that  he  has  uniformly  succeeded  in  catching  every  requisite 
feature  of  the  tune  which  he  set  to  words. 

It  is  due  to  the  memory  of  Burns  to  observe  that  the  music  of  Scotland  owes 
much,  if  not  all  of  its  present  popularity  to  his  endeavours.  The  further  help 
afiforded  by  Haydn,  Pleyel,  Kotzluch,  Beethoven,  and  Weber,  in  harmonizing 
Thomson's  collection  must  not  be  overlooked,  for  the  oftentimes  sympathetic  setting 
of  such  writers  as  Beethoven  and  Haydn  aided  greatly  in  extending  the  knowledge 
of  Scottish  melodies  among  cultivated  musicians.  As  regards  the  setting  of  Burns' 
lyrics  it  may  safely  be  affirmed  that  the  music  as  originally  given  is  by  far  the  most 
appropriate  and  characteristic.  It  is  almost  impossible  to  disassociate  such  songs 
as  "Gala  Water;"  "My  Nannie,  O;"  "To  Mary  in  Heaven;"  "Auld  Lang 
Syne;"  "John  Anderson,  my  Jo  ;"  "  My  Tocher's  the  Jewel;"  "She's  Fair  and 
Fause  ;"  and  ' '  Duncan  Gray, "  from  the  melodies  which  the  happy  fancy  of  Burns 
hit  upon  as  being  most  appropriate.  One  or  two  exceptions  only  occur  to  mind, 
one  being  the  lovely  melody  to  "  Afton  Water, "  by  Hume,  which  has  long  since 
supplanted  that  of  "The  Yellow  Hair'd  Laddie,"  to  which  it  was  originally  set. 
His  songs  have  been  set  by  Robert  Franz  among  others  with  some  degree  of  suc- 
cess, but  his  versions  are  altogether  for  the  concert-room  and  an  audience  of  culti- 
vated musicians.     Among  the  composers  who  have  found  in  Burns  a  sympathetic 

BtJR  —  BUS  l3t 

poet  may  be  mentioned  Sir  H.  R.  Bishop,  Howard  Glover,  Sir  Arthur 
Sullivan,  Mendelssohn,  Alex.  Hume,  Robert  Franz,  Samuel  Barr,  R.  A.  Smith,  F. 
Archer,  F.  E.  Bache,  Sir  W.  S.  Bennett,  Schumann,  etc. 

BITBB  (Willard.)      American  comp.  and  writer,   B.   Ravenna,  Ohio,  Jan.  7, 

1852.    A  graduate  of  Oberlin  Coll.  in  1876,  and  of  the  Oberlin  Cons,  of  Music 

in  1877.     Received  from  the  former  in  1879  the  degree  of  A.M.      S.  at  Berlin 

under  August  Haupt,  1879-1880.     Comp.  and  writer  in  Boston. 

Works. — Grand  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  violin;   Trios  for  Pf.,  violin,  and  'cello; 

String  Quartettes  ;  Sonatas  for  Pf. ;  Fugues,  etudes,  nocturnes,  fantasias,  etc.  ;  A 

set  of  7  Pf  pieces  entitled  "  From  Shore  to  Shore,"  op.  19  ;  7  sacred  vocal  comp., 

for  I,  2,  and  4  voices  ;  Anthems  and  songs.     Music  in  its  Relation  to  the  Masses. 

Musical  Art-Creation  in   America   and  the  Relation  of  Music  .Teachers  thereto. 

Papers  read  at  Eighth  Annual  Meeting  of  Music  Teachers'  National  Association  at 

Cleveland,  1884,  etc. 

BXTBBOWES  (John  Freckleton).  English  writer  and  comp.,  B.  London, 
April  23,  1787.  S.  under  W.  Horsley.  Mem.  of  Philharmonic  Soc.  Org.  of 
S.  James's  Ch.,  Piccadilly,  London.     D.  London,  March  31,  1852. 

Works. — Op.  i.  Six  English  Ballads,  for  voice  and  Pf. ;  Sonatas  for  Pf.  and 
flute,  and  for  Pf.  and  'cello  ;  Overture  for  full  orch.,  produced  by  Philharm.  Soc.  ; 
Six  Divertissements  for  Pf.  ;  Three  Sonatas  for  Pf.  and  violin  ;  Sonata  for  Pf ,  on 
Scotch  airs,  op.  9  ;  Select  Airs  from  Mozart's  Operas,  for  Pf.  and  flute,  18  numbers  ; 
Mozart's  Overtures  arranged  for  Pf.,  violin,  flute,  and  'cello ;  Duets  for  harp  and 
other  iustruments.  Collection  of  Psalm  Tunes,  with  Figured  Bass,  n.d.  Burrowes' 
Piano-Forte  Primer,  containing  the  Rudiments  of  Music,  in  Question  and  Answer, 
calculated  either  for  private  tuition  or  teaching  in  classes,  Lond.,  Clementi,  1822. 
The  Thorough-bass  Primer,  Lond.,  i2mo,  1818.  Companion  to  the  Thorough- 
bass Primer;  Lond.,  8vo,  1835.     Songs,  part  songs,  etc. 

Burrowes  was  an  excellent  pianist  and  capable  instructor,  though  his  music  is  now 
almost  ancient  in  style.  His  theoretical  works  attained  an  extraordinary  circulation 
considering  the  slender  claims  they  possessed  to  popularity.  Notwithstanding 
many  defects  they  are  extensively  used  at  the  present  day  in  America. 

BURTON  (Avery).  English  comp.,  who  flourished  during  the  l6th  century. 
His  compositions  are  preserved  in  the  Music  School  of  Oxford . 

BUBiTON  (John).  English  comp.  and  harpsichord  player,  B.  Yorkshire,  1730. 
S.  under  Keeble.     D.  1785. 

Works. — Ten  Sonatas  for  the  harpsichord,  organ,  or  Pianoforte,  fo.  n.d.  ;  Six 
Solos  for  the  harpsichord  ;  Six  Trios  for  the  harpsichord  and  violins ;  Songs  and 
glees,  organ  music,  etc. 

"The  compositions  of  this  master,  if  not  profound,  were  new  and  fanciful,  and 
derived  from  his  execution,  which  was  varied  and  fascinating,  an  interest  which, 
perhaps,  without  the  light  and  shade  imparted  by  his  hand  to  whatever  he  played, 
they  would  scarcely  have  been  thought  to  possess.  A  movement  in  one  of  this 
master's  lessons,  called  the  Courtship,  was,  for  many  years,  upon  the  harpsichord 
desk  of  every  practitioner  in  England." — Busby. 

BURTON  (Robert  Senior).  English  org.  and  cond.  of  present  time,  B.  1820. 
Well  known  in  the  Midlands  of  England  as  a  successful  teacher.  S.  under  C. 
Potter,  and  succeeded  Dr.  S.  S.  Wesley  as  org.  of  Leeds  Parish  Church,  1849, 

BUSBY    (Thomas).       English    comp.    and    writer,    B.    Westminster,     1755. 

Articled  to  Battishill,  1769-74.     Org.  of  S.  Mary's,  Newington,  Surrey.     Do. 

at  S.  Mary,  Woolnoth,  Lombard  Street,  1798.      Mus.  Doc.  Cantab.,   1800. 

LL.D.,  Cambridge.  D.  London,  May  28,  1838. 
Works. — The  Prophecy,  oratorio,  March,  1799  ;  Ode— British  Genius,  from 
Gray ;  Ode  to  St.  Cecilia's  Day,  Pope  ;  Comala,  a  Dramatic  Romance  from  Ossian, 
1800  ;  Thanksgiving  Ode  (Degree  exercise),  1800  ;  Music  to  Joanna,  drama  by  R. 
Cumberland,  1800;  Music  to  M.  G.  Lewis's  Rugantino,  1805  ;  Music  to  Holcroft's 
Tale  of  Mystery,  1802 ;  Music  to  Porter's  Fair  Fugitives.  Dictionary  of  Music,, 
with  Introduction  to  the  First  Principles  of  that  Science,  Lond.  8vo.,  1786.  A 
Grammar  of  Music  :  to  which  are  prefixed  Observations  explanatory  of  the  Proper- 

132  BUS  —  BUT 

ties  and  Powers  of  Music  as  a  Science,  and  of  the  general  scope  and  object  of 
the  work.  London,  i2mo,  1818.  A  General  History  of  Music,  from  the  Earliest 
Times  to  the  Present ;  comprising  the  Lives  of  Eminent  Composers  and  Musical 
Writers,  London,  2  vols.,  8vo,  1819  (Whittaker).  Concert  Room  and  Orchestra, 
Anecdotes  of  Music  and  Musicians,  Ancient  and  Modern,  3  vols.,  l2mo,  London, 
1825.  Musical  Manual,  or  Technical  Directory,  with  Descriptions  of  various 
Voices  and  Instruments,  London,  8vo,  1828.  The  Divine  Harmonist,  a  collection 
of  Anthems,  etc.,  1788;  Melodia  Britannica,  do.,  1790  (unfinished).  Sonatas  for 
the  Pf.  Anthem  for  the  Funeral  of  Battishill.  Miscellaneous  anthems,  glees,  songs, 
etc.  De  Lolme  proved  to  be  Junius,  1816.  Translation  of  Lucretius.  The  Age 
of  Genius,  a  Satire,  1785,  etc. 

Busby  was  one  of  the  most  respectable  musicians  of  the  early  part 
of  the  present  century.  His  attainments,  both  literary  and  musical,  entitle 
him  to  some  respect.  He  was  the  composer  of  •  the  first  melo-dramatic 
music  heard  in  Britain,  the  work  in  which  it  occurred  being  Lewis' 
"Rugantino."  His  musical  works  are  now  entirely  forgotten,  though 
his  literary  works  are  occasionally  used  in  connection  with  the  doings 
of  his  contemporaries.  His  "History  of  Music"  is  compiled  chiefly  from 
Bumey  and  Hawkins,  and  though  he  in  a  manner  repudiated  the  notion,  very  little 
comparison  will  serve  to  show  the  extent  to  which  he  is  indebted  to  those  writeis. 
He  is  a  much  more  liberal  historian  than  Bumey  in  his  original  chapters,  and  can 
lay  claim  to  some  good,  if  old-fashioned,  literary  points.  The  accounts  which  sur- 
vive as  to  his  ability  as  an  organist  are  generally  favourable.  His  theoretical  works 
are  good  specimens  of  what  constituted,  in  bygone  times,  books  of  instruction. 
His  "Grammar  of  Music"  reached  a  second  edition  in  1826. 

BUSNOIS  (Antoine  de).     Belgian  comp.,  B.  [1445].     D.  Oct.  26,  1480.     One 

of  the  most  famous  of  the  old  chanson  composers.      He  was  a  musician  in  the 
service  of  Charles,  Duke  of  Bargundy. 

BUTLEB  (Charles).       English   writer,    B.   Wycombe,    Bucks,    1559.      M.A., 

Oxford.     Master  of  the  Free  school  at  Basingstoke,  Hants.     Vicar  at  Wooton, 

St.  Lawrence,  Hants.     D.  March  29,  1647. 

Works. — The  Feminine  Monarchic;  or,  the  Historic  of  Bees... proving  that  in 

the  Bees'  Song  are  the  Grounds  of  Musicke.      Oxford,  8vo,  1609 ;  other  editions. 

The  Principles  of  Musick  in  Singing  and  Setting  :  with  the  twofold  Use  thereof, 

Ecclesiastical  and  Civil.      London,  410,  1636.      An  English  Grammar,  and  other 


BUTLEB  (Thomas  Hamly).      English  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  London,  1762. 

S.   under  Dr.  Nares  at  the  Chap.  Roy.      S.  comp.  under  Piccini  in  Italy. 

Comp.   to   Drurj    Lane  Theatre,   under  Sheridan.       Teacher  and  pianist  in 

Edinburgh.  D.  Edinburgh,  1823. 
Works. — The  Widow  of  Delphi  (R.  Cumberland),  musical  drama,  1780. 
Rondos  on  the  fcUowing  Scotch  airs  : — Duncan  Gray,  Flowers  of  Edinburgh,  I'll 
gang  nae  mair  to  yon  toun,  Lewie  Gordon,  Roy's  Wife,  There's  cauld  kail  in 
Aberdeen,  etc.  (Clementi).  A  Select  Collection  of  Original  Scottish  Airs,  arranged 
for  one  and  two  voices,  with  Introductory  and  Concluding  Symphonies  for  the 
Flute,  Violin,  and  Pianoforte,  1790.  Sonatas  for  the  Pf.  (various).  Songs,  part- 
songs,  single  pieces  for  Pf.,  etc.  The  first  work  is  a  curious  production  ;  the  second 
a  learned  treatise  on  theory  and  on  the  abuses  in  sacred  and  secular  music.  His 
works  were  printed  partly  in  characters  taken  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  alphabet, 
partly  in  others  of  his  own  invention  which  are  described  in  his  Grammar. 

This  musician  was  a  fine  performer  on  the  pianoforte,  and  with  Ross,  Nielson, 
etc. ,  arranged  a  great  number  of  Scotti-sh  and  other  national  airs  for  his  instrument, 
thus  popularising  them  among  a  class  who  might  otherwise  have  remained  in 
ignorance  of  their  numberless  beauties. 

BTJTTERFIELD  (J.  A.)  English  comp.,  B.  1837.  Comp.  of  Belshazzar, 
cantata,  1781  ;  Ruth,  the  Gleaner,  opera,  1875;  A  Race  for  a  Wife,  melo- 
drama, 1879.     Songs,  etc. 

BUTTSTETT  ( Johann  Heinrich).    A  celebrated  org.  and  pupil  of  Pachelbel, 

BUX  —  BYR  133 

B.  1666.     D.  early  in  18th  century.      Was  org.  at  Erfurt,  and  comp.  of  organ 
and  church  music. 

BUXTEHUDE  (Dietrich).      Danish  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Helsingor,  Denmark, 

1637.      S.  under  Thiel.      Org.  of  Marien-Kirche,  Lubeck  (Ch.  of  S.  Mary), 

1668.      Established  a  society  for  the  performance  of  sacred  m.usic  during  the 

evening,  1673.     D.  Ltibeck,  May,  9,  1707. 

Works. — Six  Suites  of  Lessons  for  the  Harpsichord  ;  Sonatas  a  Violino,  Viola 

da  gamba,  e  Cembalo  ;  Preludes,  fugues,  etc.,  for  the  organ  ;  Miscellaneous  church 


Buxtehude  was  one  of  the  most  famous  organists  of  his  period,  being  considered, 
with  Bach,  the  greatest  exponent  then  living.  Bach  is  said  to  have  travelled  to  Liibeck 
to  hear  him,  and  various  anecdotes  are  recorded  anent  his  dealings  and  acquaint- 
ance with  Handel.  The  first  work  in  the  above  list  is  intended  to  represent  the 
nature  and  course  of  the  planets,  an  early  manifestation  of  ambitious  programme 
writing  not  yet  overshadowed  so  far  as  magnitude  is  concerned. 

BYRD  (William).  English  comp.,  B.  [1538.]  Senior  chorister  at  S.  Paul's 
Cath.,  1554.  S.  under  Tallis.  Org.  of  Lincoln  Cath.,  1563-69.  Gent,  of 
Chap.  Royal,  1569.  Org.  of  Chap.  Royal  (with  Tallis),  1575.  D.  London, 
July,  4,  1623. 
Works. — Cantiones  quae  ab  argumento  sacras  vocantur  quinque  et  sex  partiura, 
1575.  Psalmes,  Sonets,  and  Songs  of  Sadnesand  Pietie,  made  into  musicke  of  five 
partes,  Lond.,  4to,  1588.  Songs  of  Sundrie  Natures,  some  of  Gravitie  and  others 
of  Myrth,  fit  for  all  Companies  and  Voyces,  lately  made  and  composed  into  Musicke 
of  3,  4>  Si  ^"<i  6  parts,  Lond.,  4to,  1589.  Liber  Primus  Sacrarum  Cantionum 
quartum  alise  ad  quinque,  alias  uno  ad  sex  voces  aedita  sunt,  Lond.,  4to,  1589; 
reprinted  by  Musical  Antiquarian  Soc. ,  edit,  by  W.  Horsley.  Liber  Secundus 
Sacrarum  Cantionum  quartum  aliee  ad  quinque,  alise  uno  ad  sex  voces  aedita  sunt, 
Lond.,  4to,  1591.  Gradualia,  ac  Cantiones  Sacrse  Liber  primus,  1607.  Gradualia, 
ac  Cantiones  Sacrse  Liber  secundus,  1610.  Psalmes,  Songs,  and  Sonnets,  some 
solemne,  others  joyfuU,  etc,  161 1.  Parthenia,  or  the  Maidenhead  of  the  first  Musick 
that  ever  was  printed  for  the  Virginals,  composed  by  the  three  famous  Masters, 
William  Byrd,  Dr.  John  Bull,  and  Orlando  Gibbons,  Gentlemen  of  Her  Majestie's 
Chappell,  London,  fc,  1655.  Service  in  D  minor  (Boyce);  Three  Anthems 
(Boyce)  ;  Mass  for  Five  Voices  (Mus.  Ant.  Soc,  Rimbault),  1841 ;  Compositions 
contained  in  the  Royal  Virginal  Book  ;  Compositions  contained  in  Lady  Nevill's 
Musick  Book,  1591;  Music  in  Leighton's  "Teares;"  Non  Nobis  Dominae,  in 
Hilton's  Catches,  1652.  Madrigals  in  various  collections ;  Two  other  masses ; 
anthems,  etc. 

Byrd  was  one  of  the  greatest  composers  of  the  i6th  century.  He  lived  at  a  period 
when  the  musical  glory  of  England  was  supreme.  Among  his  contemporaries  were 
such  men  as  Tallis,  Tye,  Farrant,  Dowland,  Bull,  Morley,  Hooper,  Gibbons, 
Wilbye,  Lawes,  Weelkes,  and  Parsons.  Byrd's  claims  to  recognition  rest  chiefly  on 
his  sacred  music,  which  is  both  dignified  and  grand  without  undue  elaboration, 
and  pleasing  and  inspiring  without  flippancy.  He  was  one  of  the  first  in  England 
to  make  use  of  the  madrigal  as  an  expressive  musical  form,  though  it  must 
be  admitted  that  his  treatment  of  works  of  this  class  is  not  generally  so  happy  as 
that  of  some  of  his  successors.  He  was  an  organist  of  much  ability.  His  composi- 
tions for  the  virginals  are  dry  and  excessively  elaborated  exercises  in  counterpoint, 
without  the  slightest  attempt  at  emotional  colouring.  Byrd  secured  with  Tallis,  in 
'S7S>  by  patent,  the  supreme  right  to  publish  music  in  England,  and  under  this 
patent  they  published  the  collection  of  sacred  music  first  named  in  the  foregoing 
list  of  Byrd's  compositions. 

BYBNE  (0.  S.)      Irish  compiler,  published  a  "Selection  of  Scottish  Melodies, 
with  words  by  George  Linley."    Lond.,  1827. 

BYRNE  (Patrick).      Irish  harpist  and  comp.,  B.  Farney,  about  end  of  i8th 
century.     D.  Dundalk,  1863. 

BYRON  (Lord  George  Gordon).      English  poet,  B.  London,  Jan.  22,   1788. 
D.  Missolonghi,  Italy,  April  19,  1S24. 
His  "  Manfred  "  inspired  Schumann  with  the  composition  of  a  fine  dramatic  can. 

134  CAB  —  CAE 

lata  bearing  that  name,  while  "Parisina"  is  the  work  on  which  Bennett  founded 
his  clever  overture.  Among  the  musicians  who  have  set  his  lyrical  pieces  may  be 
mentioned  Alex.  Lee,  Neukomm,  A.  J.  Sutton,  Macfarren,  Mendelssohn,  Kiall- 
mark,  Nathan,  Schumann,  Salaman,  and  a  grea.t.  number  of  other  composers, 
native  and  foreign. 


CABALLERO  (Manuel  Fernandez).  Spanish  comp.,  B.  Murciaj  March  14, 
1835.  S.  at  Madrid  Cons.  Has  written  church  music,  operettas,  El  Primer 
dia  Feliz,  1872;  La  Marsigliese,  1878,  etc.;  Songs,  and  other  works. 

CABEL  (Marie   Josephe),  nie   Dreulette.      Belgian  soprano  vocalist,   B. 
Liige,  Jan.  31,  1827.      Married  to  M.  Cabel,  a  music  teacher.     Appeared  in 
Paris  as  vocalist,  1847.     S.  for  a  period  at  Paris  Cons.     DSbut  at   "  Opera 
Comique,"  1849.      Sang  successively  in  Brussels  and  London,  July,   1860. 
Has  sang  in  St.  Petersburg,  Germany,  etc.     D.  Paris,  May  23,  1885. 
"The  incompleteness  of  Madame  Cabel  was  to  be  felt  throughout  in  '  La  Figlia 
del  Reggimento.'    The  uncertainties  of  her  voice  were  not  those  of  emotion,  as 
much  as  of  erroneous  production.      Her  execution,  however  dashing,  is  rarely  per- 
fect, the  shake  excepted    .     .     .     We  do  not  see  much  chance  of  settlement  for 
Madame  Cabel  on  the  Italian  stage." — Athmaum,  July  21,  i860. 

CABEZON  (Don  Felix  Antonio).  Spanish  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Madrid, 
Mar.  30,  1510.  D.  Madrid,  Mar.  26,  1566.  Wrote  theoretical  works,  and 
music  for  the  church. 

CABO  (Francesco  Javier).  Spanish  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Naguera,  Valencia, 
1768.     D.  1832.     Comp.  masses,  vespers,  psalms,  motets,  organ  music,  etc. 

CACCINI  (Giulio),  called  Romano.     Italian  comp.,  B.  Rome,  1588.     Pupil  of 

Scipione  Delia  Palla.      Resided  at  Florence  from  1578.     Singer  at  Court  of 

Francesco  di  Medicis.     D.  Florence,  1640. 

Works. — Combattimento  d'Apollino  col  Serpente,  monodrama,  1590.    Euridice 

(with  Peri),   1600.      II  Rapimento  di  Cefalo,  1600.     Le  Nuove  Musiche,  1601. 

Canzonets,  Sonnets,  etc. 

Caccini  was  associated  with  Bardi,  Galilei,  Rinuccini,  and  Peri  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  opera,  which,  originally  based  on  a  supposed  imitation  of  the  ancient 
Greek  drama,  became  what  it  now  is,  through  the  successive  efforts  of  Peri,  Monte- 
verde,  Scarlatti,  Lulli,  Rameau,  Handel,  Gluck,  M^hul,  Meyerbeer,  and  Wagner. 
The  canzonets  and  sonnets  by  various  eminent  contemporary  poets  which  Caccini 
set  were  claimed  by  Kircher  to  mark  a  new  development  of  music,  and  on  this 
statement  is  based  Caccini's  claim  to  be  the  inventor  of  recitative  in  opposition  to 
Peri.  He  was  one  of  the  greatest  teachers  of  vocalization  that  Italy  ever  produced, 
and  to  his  labours  was  no  doubt  due  the  firm  establishment  of  a  vocal  method  which 
at  one  time  placed  Italian  singers  before  all  others. 

CADAUX  (Justin).  French  operatic  comp.,  B.  Albi,  Tarn,  April  13,  1813. 
D.  Nov.  8,  1874.     Writer  of  songs,  operettas,  etc. 

CADY  (Calvin  B.)  American  pianist  and  teacher.  Director  of  the  Ann  Arbor 
School  of  Music  in  connection  with  Michigan  State  University.  Was  educated 
at  the  Leipzig  Cons,  of  Music.  A  charter  member  of  the  American  Coll.  of 
Musicians.  Read  a  paper  before  the  National  Music  Teachers'  Association  at 
Providence,  R.I.  in  1883  on  "Higher  Branches  of  Instrumental  Music  in  the 
Public  Schools, "  which  received  much  discussion  from  the  Association  and  the 

Has  been  active  in  promoting  a  taste  for  high  class  music  in  the  Western  part  of 

CAERWAEiDEN  (John).  English  comp.  and  teacher  of  the  violin,  who 
flourished  during  the  17th  cent.  Was  member  of  private  band  of  Charles  I. 
Hawkins  mentions  him  as  having  been  a"  noted  teacher  but  a  harsh  composer. 

C^.  S  —  CAL  135 

C^SAB  (Julius).  English  physician  and  comp. ,  lived  in  Rochester  during  part 
of  the  17th  and  i8th  centuries.  He  was  an  amateur  composer  only,  but 
Hawkins  speaks  of  two  of  his  catches  appearing  in  the  "Pleasant  Musical 
Companion,"  1726,  as  being  "inferior  to  none  in  that  collection." 

CfflSAR  (William),  see  Smegergill. 

CAFFABELLI  (Gaetano),  Majorano.  Italian  vocalist,  B.  Bari,  near  Naples, 
April  16,  1703.  S.  under  Porpora.  Dibut  at  Rome,  1724.  Appeared  at 
various  towns  throughout  Italy,  1724-28.  Appeared  in  London  in  Handel's 
"Feramondo,"  Jan.,  1738.  Sang  in  Italy  at  Milan,  Florence,  Venice,  Turin, 
Genoa,  Naples,  etc.  Sang  at  Paris  in  1750.  Purchased  a  Dukedom  and 
retired.  "  D.  Naples,  1783. 
Caffarelli  figured  largely  in  his  day  as  the  rival  of  Farinelli,  and  seems  from  all 

accounts  to  have  possessed  great  qualifications  as  a  vocal  performer.     Numerous 

anecdotes  are  told  regarding  him,   some  of  the  best  appearing  in    Hogarth's 

"Memoirs  of  the  Musical  Drama." 

CAFFAEO   (Pasquale).      Italian   comp.,   B.   Lecce,    Naples,    Feb.   8,   1708. 

S.   under  Leo  at  Naples.     Master  of  Chap.   Roy.  at  Naples.     Director  of 

Naples  Cons.     D.  Naples,  Oct.  28,  1787. 

Works. — Operas:  Ipermnestra,  1751;  La  Disfatta  di  Dario,  1756;  Antigono, 

1754;    L'  Incendia  di  Troia,    1757;   Arianna  e  Teseo,    1766;   II  Creso,  1768; 

Giustizia  Placata,  1769;   L'  Olimpiade,   1769;   L'  Antigono  (new  music),  1770; 

Betulia  liberata ;   II  Figliuolo  prodigo  ravveduto.     Cantatas:   1764,  1766,  1769. 

II  Trionfo  di  Davidde,  oratorio.     Masses,   Litanies,  Motets,  Psalms,  and  other 

Church  Music. 

OAFFRO  (Giuseppe).  Italian  oboe  and  cor-anglais  player,  B.  Naples,  1766. 
D.  about  beginning  of  present  century.     He  wrote  much  for  his  instruments. 

OAGNONI  (Antonio).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Godiasco,  Voghera,  1828.  S.  at 
Milan  Cons.,  1842- 1 847.  Professor  and  Teacher. 
Works. — Opetas:  Rosalia,  1845;  I  due  Savojardi,  184.6;  Don  Bucefalo,  1847; 
II  Testamento  di  Figaro,  1848 ;  Amori  e  Trappole,  1850 ;  La  Valle  d'Andorra, 
1851  ;  Giralda,  1852 ;  La  Fioraia,  1855 !  La  Figlia  di  don  Liborio,  1856 ;  II 
Vecchio  della  Montagna,  1863;  Michele  Perrin,  1864;  Claudia,  1866;  La  Tom- 
bola, 1869;  Un  Capriccio  di  Donna,  1870;  Papk  Martin,  1871  ;  II  Duca  di 
Tapigliano,  1874;  Francesca  da  Rimini,  1878.     Songs,  etc. 

CAHEN  (Ernest).  French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Paris,  Aug.  18,  182S.  S.  at 
Paris  Cons.     Writer  of  operetta,  "  Le  Bois,"  violin  music,  etc. 

CAHUSAC  (Louis  de).  French  dramatist,  B.  Montauban.  D.  Paris,  1759. 
Author  of  the  librettos  of  a  number  of  Rameau's  operas.  He  wrote  also  a 
number  of  comic  and  tragic  dramas,  none  of  which  were  possessed  of  great 

CAIMO  (Giuseppe).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Milan,  1540.  D.  [1585].  Wrote 
madrigals  and  church  music. 

CALAH  (John).  English  org.  and  comp  B.  1758.  D.  August  4,  1798.  Was 
Org.  of  Peterborough  Cathedral  at  end  of  i8th  century.  Wrote  music  for  the 
English  church  service. 

CALDARA  (Antonio).     Italian  comp.,  B.  Venice,  1678.     S.  under  Legrenzi. 

Singer  in  St.  Marks,  Venice.      Chap. -Master  at  Mantua,   17 14.     Vice-chap. - 

master  to  Emperor  Charles  VI.,  Vienna.      Resided  at  Venice  from  1738.     D. 

Venice,  1763  (1768). 

Works. — Operas,  etc. :   Argene,  Venice,  1689  ;   Tirsi,   1696  ;    Farnace,   1703  ; 

Partenope,   1708;  Sofonisbe,   1708;  L'Inimico  Generoso,  1709;  Atenaide,  1711  ; 

Tito  e  Berenice,    1714 ;   Caio   Mario,    1717;  Coriolano,    1717;    Astarte,    1718; 

Ifigenia  in  Aulide,  1718;  Sisara,   1719 ;  Nitocri,   1722;   Gianguir,   1724;   Gioaz, 

1726;  Semiramide,   1725;    Imeneo,  1727;  Mitridate,   1728;   Nabot,   1729;   De- 

metrio,  1731  ;  Demofoonte,  1733 ;  Adriano  in  Siria,  1735 ;  La  Clemenza  di  Tito, 

1734;  Enone,   1735;  L'Ingratitudine  castigata,  1737.     Oratorios:  Tobia,   1719; 

t36  CAL  —  CAL 

Naaman,  1721  ;  Giuseppe,  1722;  David,  1724;  Daniello,  1731.     Motets,  masses, 
and  cantatas  ;  sonatas  for  2  violins  and  violoncello,  etc. 

Caldara  has  been  very  highly  esteemed  by  successive  generations  of  writers  on 
music,  hovifever  much  the  soundness  of  his  claims  may  be  open  to  question.  His 
music  vifas  certainly  not  superior  in  merit  to  that  of  his  contemporaries,  Leo,  A. 
Scarlatti,  or  Durante,  and  is  chiefly  remarkable  for  a  languid  sentimental  style. 
His  music  is  persuasive  rather  than  commanding,  though  there  is  also  much  in  it 
that  is  noble  and  inspired. 

CALDICOTT  (Alfred  James).    English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Worcester,  1842. 
Chor.  in  Worcester  Cath.,  1851.     Articled  to  Done,  org.   of  do.,  1856.     S. 
Leipzig  Cons,  under  Moscheles,   Hauptmann,  Plaidy,  and  Richter.     Settled 
at  Worcester,   1864.      Org.  of  St.   Stephen's  Ch.,  and  to  the  Corporation. 
Conductor  of  the    "Musical"    and   "Instrumental"   societies  of  Worcester. 
Mus.  Bac,  Cantab.,   1878.     Gained  Special  Glee  Prize  offered  by  the  Man- 
chester   Gentleman's  Glee  Soc,  1878.      Gained  first  prize  for  serious  glee, 
Huddersfield,  1879.      Prof,  at  Royal  Coll.  of  Music,  London,  1882.     Org. 
and  Cond.  at  Albert  Palace,  London.     Editor  of  Morley's  Part  Song  Journal. 
Works. — The  Widowr  of  Nain,  a  sacred  cantata,  Worcester  Festival,  Sept.,  1881 ; 
A  Rhine  Legend,   cantata  for  Ladies'  voices,   1883  ;  Queen  of  the  May,  cantata  ; 
Treasure  Trove,  operetta  by  A.  Law,  June,  1883  ;  A  Moss-Rose-Rent,  operetta  by 
A.  Law,  1883  ;  A  Fishy  Case,  children's  operetta  by  F.  Weatherly,  1883 ;  Old 
Knockles  operetta,  German  Reed,  1884."  Dickens'  Series  of  Songs.    Winter  Days, 
prize  serious  glee,  1879;  Humpty  Dumpty,  prize  humorous  glee,  1878;  Jack  and 
Jill,  glee  ;  Jack  Horner,  glee ;  House  that  Jack  Built,  glee  ;  Yule,  glee  ;  Out  on 
the  Waters,  glee;  The  Haymakers,  glee.     Songs:    Red  Letter  Days;  For  a  day, 
for  aye ;  The  New  Curate ;    Lost  Love ;  Woman's  Faith ;   Parted  ;  The  Butter- 
fly's Kiss  ;   Returning  Sails  ;  Unless  ;   Unbidden  ;   Two  Spoons  ;  Three  Men  of 
Plymouth  Town ;  Question  and  Answer ;  When  all  the  world  was  young  ;  MS. 
works,  etc. 

This  composer,  who  doubtless  inherited  his  musical  proclivities  from  his  father, 
an  original  member  of  the  Worcester  Madrigal  and  Harmonic  Societies — has  given 
decided  evidence  of  the  possession  of  more  than  ordinary  ability  as  a  writer  of  con- 
certed vocal  music  of  a  humorous  character.  His  comical  glees  are  gems  in  their 
way,  and  are  not  spoiled  by  the  vulgarity  which  usually  accompanies  such  attempts. 
His  more  ambitious  works  are  marked  by  much  ability,  and  are  evidently  of  a  pro- 
gressive degree  of  merit. 

CALEGABI  (Antonio).  Italian  operatic  comp.  B.  Padua,  Oct.  18,  1758. 
D.  July,  22,  1828.  Wrote  L'Amor  Soldato,  1786 ;  II  Matrimonio  Scoperto, 
1789;  Le  Sorelle  Rivali,  1784,  etc. 

CALKIN  (James).  English  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  London,  1786.  S.  under 
Thomas  Lyon.  Associate  of  the  Philharmonic  Soc,  1823.  Wrote  Symphony 
for  orch.,  Pf.  music,  string  quartets,  etc.     D.  I^ondon,  1862. 

CALKIN  (John  Baptiste).      English  comp.,  pianist,   and  org.,  B.   London, 
Mar.  16,  1827.     S.  under  his  father,  etc.    Org.,  precentor,  and  choir-master  at 
S.  Columba's  Coll.,   Ireland,  1846-1853.     Org.   and  choir-master  at  Woburn 
Chap.,  1853-7.     Org.  and  choir  master,  Camden  Road  Chap.,  1863-8.     Org. 
and  choir-master  of  S.  Thomas'  Church,  Elm  Road,  Camden  Town,  1870-84. 
Mem.   of  the  Philharmonic   Soc.      F.C.O.      Mem.   C.   Trin.   Coll.   London. 
Prof,  at  Guildhall  school  of  music. 
Works. — Services  in  B  flat  op.  40  ;  G  op.  96  ;  and  in  D,  for  Parish  choirs  ; 
Morning  and  Evening  Service,  in  G,   1883;  Communion  Service  in  C,  op.  104; 
Te  Deum  in  D.     Anthems :  I  will  magnify  Thee  ;  Behold,  now  praise  ye  the  Lord  ; 
I  will  alway  give  thanks;   Let  your  light  so  shine  ;    O  God,  have  mercy  ;  Out  of 
the  deep  have  I  cried  unto  Thee  ;  Rejoice  in  the  Lord  ;  Thou  wilt  keep  him  in  per- 
fect peace  ;  The  righteous  shall  flourish;  Four  Introits  ;  Thou  visitest  the  earth; 
Rend  your  heart ;  Unto  Thee  will  I  cry  ;  Whoso  hath  this  world's  goods  ;  Hymns. 
Glees  and  Part-songs :  Breathe  soft,  ye  winds;  Come,  fill  my  boys  ;   Echoes;  My 
Lady  is  so  wondrous  fair  ;  Night  win,ds  that  so  gently  flow  ;  The  Chivalry  of  La- 
bour; To  the  Redbreast;  Up,  brothers,  up!.     Songs:  Coining   Light;  Sleep  on 
my  heart;  Every  joy  that  earth  can  give;  Oh  !  lovely  night ;  No  jewelled  beauty 

CAL  —  CAL  137 

is  my  love  ;  Oh  !  turn  not  away  ;  Oh  !  wake,  dearest,  wake  ;  The  Maiden's  reply  ; 
The  rippling  brook  ;  The  two  locks  of  hair.  Organ :  Andante ;  Seventeen 
Original  Compositions  in  ten  numbers ;  Transcriptions,  Marches,  Minuets,  etc. 
Pianoforte :  Arcadia  Waltzes ;  Rondo  Grazioso,  op.  93 ;  Les  Arp^ges,  op. 
94 ;  Two  Sketches,  op.  79  ;  A  Moonlit  Lake,  op.  84  ;  The  Pixie's  Revel,  op.  95  ; 
Les  trois  graces  (sonata) ;  Concert  study  in  double  notes  ;  Bourees,  studies,  transcrip- 
tions, minuets,  etc.  ;  Album  Leaves,  op.  88 ;  Marches  and  Dances,  various. 
Quartet  for  strings  ;  Quintet  for  strings  ;  Trio  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  'cello  ;  Sonata  for 
Pf.  and  'cello,  etc. 

Mr.  Calkin  shows  in  his  works  the  possession  of  an  extremely  graceful  and  pleas- 
ing musical  faculty.  His  works  for  the  pianoforte  and  organ  are  brilliant  and 
fanciful  in  style.  It  is  on  his  vocal  and  strictly  church  music  that  Mr.  Calkin's 
reputation  will  hereafter  rest.  His  glees  and  part-songs  are  among  the  worthiest 
productions  of  modern  England ;  and  "  My  Lady  is  so  wondrous  fair  "  is  one 
which  can  be  safely  placed  alongside  of  the  best  examples  of  the  class.  His  anthems 
and  services  have  been  recognised  among  the  foremost  churches  and  cathedrals  as 
being  worthy  of  frequent  performance,  and  this  is  sufficient  evidence  as  to  their 
general  high  quality. 

CALKIN  (Joseph).  English  violonist,  B.  London,  1781.  S.  under  Thomas 
Lyon  and  Spagnoletti.  Violinist  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  1798- 1808.  Married 
to  widow  of  Mr.  Budd,  bookseller.  Bookseller  to  the  King  under  firm  of 
Calkin  &  Budd.     Member  of  King's  band,  182 1.     D.  (?) 

CALL  (Leonaxd  de).  German  comp.,  B.  Germany,  1779.  D.  Vienna,  1815. 
Writer  of  a  number  of  fine  part-songs,  songs,  etc, 

CALLCOTT  (John  George).  Englishcomp.  and  pianist,  B.  July,  1821.  Son  of 
J.  W.  Callcott.  Org.  at  Teddington,  and  accompanist  to  Henry  Leslie's  choir. 
Has  composed  a  number  of  cantatas  and  minor  works,  of  which  the  following 
are  the  most  important : — Hallowe'en,  cantata  for  solo  voices,  chorus  and  orch. ; 
The  Golden  Harvest,  cantata  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orch.  ;  Old  Clock 
on  the  Stairs,  part-song  ;  Tell  me  where  is  fancy  bred,  trio  ;  The  light  summer 
winds,  part-song  ;  Songs,  various;  Pianoforte  music  consisting  of  transcriptions, 
dances,  etc. 

CALLCOTT  (John  Wall).      English  comp.  and  writer,  B.  London,  Nov.  20, 
1766.      Self-taught  in  music.      Deputy  org.  to  Reinhold  of  S.  George  the 
Martyr's,   Bloomsbury,  I783-S'      Member  of  orch.  of  Academy  of  Ancient 
Music.     Unsuccessiful  competitor  for  prize  offered  by  the  Catch  Club,  1784 
(his  first  trial).     Gained  three  prizes  (medals)  out  of  the  four  oflfered  by  the 
Catch  Club,  1785.     Mus.  Bac.  Oxon.,  July,  1785.    Gained  two  medals.  Catch 
Club,   1786;    and  two  prizes  in   1787  (he  sent  in  about  100  compositions). 
Founded,  with  others,  the  "Glee  Club,"  1787.     Gained  all  the  prizes  offered 
by  the  Catch  Club,  1789.     Joint  org.  (with  C.  S.  Evans)  of  S.  Paul's,  Covent 
Garden.     S.  under  Haydn,  1790.     Org.  of  Asylum  for  Female  Orphans,  1792- 
1802.     Gained  nine  medals  for  his  glees  during  1790-93.     Mus.  Doc.  Oxon., 
1800.     Lecturer  at  the  Royal  Institution  in  succession  to  Crotch,  1806.     D. 
London,  May  15,  1821. 
Works. — Grammar  of  Music,  Lond.,  1806  (other  editions) ;  Glees,  Catches,  and 
Canons,  op.  4  (Clementi),    n.    d. ;    Explanations   of  the   Notes,  Marks,    Words, 
etc.  used  in  Music  (Clementi),  n.  d.  ;  Select  Collection  of  Catches,  Canons,  and 
Glees,   3  books  (D'Almaine),  n.  d.   (edited) ;  Five  Glees  for  2  Trebles  and  Bass 
in  Score  ;  Five  Glees,  chiefly  for  Treble  voices,  op.  12  ;  Six  Glees  in  Score;  Col- 
lection of  Glees,  Canons,  and  Catches,  including  some  pieces  never  before  pub- 
lished, with   Memoir  by  W.  Horsley  (the   editor),   2  vols.,  folio,    Lond.,   1824. 
Church  Psalmody  (selection) ;   Services,  Anthems,    Odes.     Titles  of  some  of  his 
p-incifal  Glees  and  Catches :  MeWa ;  Are  the  white  hours ;   As  I   was   going   to 
Derby ;  Blow,  Warder,  blow ;  Desolate  is  the  dwelling  of  Morna  ;  Dull  repining 
sons  of  care ;   Drink  to  me  only ;   Father  of  Heroes ;   Forgive  blest  shade  ;  Erl 
King ;  Farewell  to  Lochaber ;  Friend  of  fancy ;  Fervid  on  the  glittering  flood  ; 
The  Friar ;  Go  idle  boy  ;  If  happily  we  wish  to  live  ;  In  the  lonely  vale  of  streams  ; 
Lo  !  where  incumbent  o'er  the  shade  ;  Lovely  seems  the  morn's  fair  lustre  ;  Lordly 
gallant?  ;   The   May-fly ;    My  flocks  feed  not ;   New  Mariners ;  Mark  the  merry 

138  CAL  —  CAM 

elves  ;  Oh  share  my  cottage  ;  Once  upon  my  cheek  ;  O,  snatch  me  swift ;  O  thou 
where'er  ;  O  fancy,  friend  of  nature ;  Peace  to  the  souls  of  the  heroes  ;  Queen  of 
the  valley  ;  Red  Cross  Knights  ;  Soft  and  safe  ;  See  with  ivy  chaplet ;  Thou  art 
beautiful ;  Thyrsis,  when  he  lelt  me  ;  Tho'  from  thy  bank  ;  To  all  you  Ladies  now 
on  land ;  Thalaba  ;  Thou  pride  of  the  forest ;  Triumphant  love ;  Whann  battayle  ; 
When  Arthur  first ;  When  time  was  entwining  ;  Who  comes  so  dark  ;  With  sighs, 
sweet  rose  ;  Ye  Gentlemen  of  England.     Songs,  etc. 

Among  the  many  eminent  glee  composers  of  England,  none  perhaps  can  be  said 
to  be  so  popular  as  Callcott.  He  sinned  in  too  profusely  expending  his  genius  on 
pieces  which  at  best  were  mere  mechanical  exercises,  but  the  larger  portion  of  his 
glees  are  beautiful  and  fresh  creations.  With  Horsley,  Webbe,  Cooke,  Clarke, 
and  Beale  he  aided  in  greatly  improving  the  quality  of  the  glee  as  an  independent 
vocal  form.  His  glees  on  words  from  Ossian  are  artistic  and  genuine  examples  of 
pure  glee- writing,  though  they  are  not  treasured  as  such  in  so  great  a  degree  as 
their  merits  demand.  His  "Grammar  of  Music"  was,  and  is  one  of  the  best 
rudimentary  treatises  in  the  English  language,  and  it  is  sufficient  to  say  that  its 
merits  are  recognised  alike  in  America  and  Britain.  His  church  music  has  not 
been  published  in  a  collected  form.  His  daughter  Sophie  was  a  pianist  of  much 

CALLCOTT   (William  HutchingS).      English  comp.  and  pianist,  son  of  the 

above,  B.  Kensington,  1807.      D.  there,  Aug.  5,  1882.     Was  an  organist  and 

teacher  in  London  for  a  considerable  period.    Among  his  various  compositions 

may  be  named  the  following. 

Works  . — Pianoforte :  Elegant  Extracts  from  Mendelssohn  ;  Favourite  Marches, 

Minuets,  and   Movements  by  Handel ;    Readings  from  the  great  Masters  of  all 

Nations ;    Transcriptions  from   Schubert,   Gounod,   Haydn,  Offenbach,    Rossini, 

Meyerbeer,  Mozart,  Beethoven,  Verdi,  Mendelssohn,  etc. ;  Melodies  of  all  Nations ; 

British  Isles,  duet ;    Fairy  Duet ;    Oriental  Duet ;   Arrangements  from  Wallace's 

Amber  Witch;  Recollections  of  the  Philharmonic;  Arrangements  (with  violin,  etc.) 

of  Orfeo  (Gluck),  King  Arthur  (Purcell),  Macbeth  (Locke),  Tempest  (Purcell), 

Comus  (Arne  and  Handel),  etc.  ;  Beauties  of  Schumann  ;  Morning  Mist,  Rainbow, 

Waterfall  for  Pf.  ;  dementi's  Golden  Pianoforte  Exercises    .    .    .    with  Occasional 

Remarks  (Cocks)  ;  The  Holy  Family,  Selections  of  Sacred  Music.     A  Selection  of 

Glees  for  three  voices,  arranged  expressly  for  amateurs  and  private  performance. 

Songs,  Part-Songs,  etc.     A  Few  Facts  in  the  Life  of  Handel,  Lond.,  1859. 

CALLCOTT  (Maria  HutcMns).  English  authoress,  has  published  among 
other  works  "  The  Singer's  Alphabet ;  or.  Hints  on  the  English  Vowels,  etc," 
Lond.,  1849. 

CALVISIUS   (Sethus),   Seth   Kalwitz.      German  Astrologer,   writer,    and 

musician,  B.  Sachsenberg,  Thuringia,  Feb.  21,  1556.     D.  Leipzig,  Nov.  23, 


Works. — Melopoia,  seu  melodias  condendoe  rationem,  quam  vulgo  Musicam 

poeticam  vocant,  Erfurt,  1595;  Opuscula  Musica,  161 1  ;  Compendium  Musicum, 

1612  ;  MusicEe  Artis  Praecepta  nova  et  facillima  (2nd  edit.),  i6l2;  Exercitationes 

Musices  ;  The  iSoth  Psalm  in  12  parts  for  3  choirs;   Chronological  Works  and 

General  Writings. 

CALZABIGI.  Italian  poet,  chiefly  known  for  his  connection  with  Gluck  in  the 
capacity  of  librettist.  He  wrote  the  book  of  "  Orfeo,"  the  first  reformed  opera 
composed  by  Gluck.  He  also  wrote  "Alceste,"  "Armida,"  and  some  poems 
of  considerable  merit.     Flourished  during  latter  portion  of  the  i8th  century. 

CALZOLABrI  (Enrico).  Italian  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Parma,  Feb.  22,  1823. 
S.  under  Burckhardt.  Debut  at  Milan,  1845.  Has  appeared  in  operas  by 
Bellini,  Donizetti,  Rossini,  and  Verdi. 

CAMARGrO  (Miguel  Gomez).  Spanish  comp.,  flourished  in  latter  half  of  i6th 
century.     Wrote  music  for  the  church,  etc. 

CAMAUER  (Godfroid).  Dutch  comp.,  B.  Berg-op-Zoom,  May  31,  1821. 
Has  composed  operas,  masses,  overtures,  choruses,  chamber  music,  etc.  D. 
Huy,  Belgium,  1884. 

CAM  —  CAM  139 

CAMBEBT  (Robert),  or  Lambert.  French  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Paris, 
1628.  S.  under  Chambonni^res.  Org.  of  Ch.  of  S.  Honor4.  Musical 
Director  to  Anne  of  Austria,  1666.  Lost  position  at  French  court  (through 
intrigues  of  Lulli),  and  settled  in  England.  Master  of  Music  to  Charles  II.  D. 
England  [London],  1677. 
Works. — Operas,  etc. :    La  Pastorale,  premiere  comedie  Irangaise  en  misique, 

April,   1659;  Adonis,    1662;  Ariane,   1667;  Pomona,  a  Pastoral  (Perrin),   1671  ; 

Les  Pienes  et  les  Plaisers  de  1'  Amour,  etc. 
Cambert  was  the  first  Frenchman,  in  imitation  of  Peri  and  Caccini  to  write 

operas  in  the  French  vernacular.      He  was  regarded  as  the  best  French  composer 

till  the  intrigues  of  Lulli  destroyed  his  position.     His  residence  in  England  was  not 

happy  for  himself,  as  the  failure  of  his  works  in  London  affected  him  greatly,  and  is 

supposed  by  some  historians  to  have  hastened  his  death. 

CAMBINI  (Giovanni  Giuseppe).     Italian  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Leghorn, 

Feb.    13,    1746.       S.   under   Martini,    1763-66.       Captured  by   pirates   while 

returning  to  Leghorn.      Ransomed  by  a  Venetian  merchant  after  having  been 

a  slave  for  a  time.     Went  to  Paris,  1770.    Cond.  at  the  Theatre  des  Beaujolais, 

1788-1791.     Cond.  at  the  Theatre  Louvois,  1791-94.     D.  Bic^tre,  1825. 

Works. — Le  Sacrifice  d' Abraham,  oratorio,  1774.     Operas:  Rose  d'Amour  et 

Carloman,   1779  ;    La  Croisee,  1785  ;    Les  Fourberies  de  Mathurin,  1786  ;    Cora  ; 

Le  Deux  Fr^res  ;   Ad^le  et  Edwin;    Nantilde  et  Dagobert,  1791  ;   Trois  Gascons, 

■793  j   Alcmeon  ;   Alcide  ;    Les  Romans,  ballet,  1776.     Symphonies  (50  to  60  in 

number) ;    String  quartets  (144)  ;  Music  for  the  org.  and  Pf.  ;  Flute  music  and  a 

method  for  the  flute  ;  Concertos,  songs,  etc. 

CAMIDGE  (John).      English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  about  1735.      Org.  of  York 
Cath.,  1756-1803.     D.  York,  1803. 
Works. — Six  Easy  Lessons  for  the  Harpsichord,  York,  n.d.  ;    Glees  ;  Miscel- 
laneous works  for  the  Harpsichord ;  Church  music  and  songs,  etc. 

CAMIDGE  (Matthew).      English  comp.  and  org,,  son  of  the  above,  B.  York, 
1764.     S.  under  Dr.  Nares  at  the  Chap.  Royal.      Org.  of  York  Cath.,  1803- 
1844.     D.  York,  Oct.  23,  1844. 
Works. — A  Collection  ol  Tunes  adapted  to  Sandy's  version  of  the  Psalms,  1789  ; 

A  Method  of  Instruction  in  Music  by  Questions  and  Answers,  n.d.  ;  Twenty-four 

Original  Psalm  and  Hymn  Tunes,  8vo,  n.d.  ;    Cathedral  Music,  fo.  n.d.  ;  Sonatas 

for  the  Pf.  ;  Marches  for  the  Pf.  ;  Glees  and  songs. 

CAMIDGE  (John).     English  comp.  and  org.,  son  of  the  above,  B.  York,  1790. 

S.  under  his  father.      [Bac.  Mus.  Cambridge,  1812  (?).      Doc.  Mus.  Camb., 

1819  (?)].     Doc.  Mus.  Lambeth,  1855.      Org.  of  York  Cath.,  1844-1859.     D. 

York,  Sept.  21,  1859. 

Works. — Cathedral  Music,  consisting  of  a  Service... Anthems  and  50  Double 

Chants.,  n.d.  ;  Six  Glees  for  3  and  4  voices,  n.d.,  etc. 

CAMFAGNOLI  (Bartolomeo).  Italian  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Cento,  near 
Bologna,  Sept.  19,  1751.  S.  under  Nardini.  Violinist  in  the  "Pergola"  at 
Florence.  Leader  at  Rome,  Florence,  etc.  Chap.-master  to  the  Bishop  of 
Freysing,  1776.  Violinist  to  Duke  of  Courland,  Dresden,  1778.  Travelled  in 
Europe  as  violinist,  visiting  among  other  towns  Stockholm,  Copenhagen,  Ham- 
burg, Potsdam,  Munich,  Salzburg,  Ratisbon,  etc.  Cond.  and  violinist  at 
Leipzig,  1797-1818.  Resided  for  a  time  at  Paris.  D.  Neustrelitz,  Nov.  6, 
Works.— Op.  I.  Eighteen  duets  for  flute  and  violin  ;  op.  2.  Do.  ;  op.  3.  Three 

concertos  for  flute  and  orch.  ;    op.  4.  Eighteen  duets  for  flute  and  vn.  ;   op.  6.  Six 

Solos  or  Sonatas  for  violin  and  'cello  ;  op.  7.  Three  themes,  varied,  for  2  vns ;  op. 

8.  Do.  ;    op.  9.  Three  duets  for  2  vns.  ;    op.   10.    Six  fugues  for  violin  ;  op.   12. 

Thirty  Preludes  for  the  violin  ;  op.  13.   Six  Polonaises  for  the  violin  ;  op.  14.   Six 

easy  duets  for  2  violins  ;    op.   15.   Concerto  for  violin  and  orch.  in  B  ;    op.   16. 

L'lllusion  de  la  Viole  d'Amour,   Sonate  notturne  pour  le  Violon,  in  D  minor  ;  op. 

17.  L'Art  d'inventer  a  I'improviste  des  Fantaisies  et  Cadences  pour  le  Violon  (coll. 

of  246  pieces)  ;  op.  18.  Seven  Divertissements  for  violin  ;  op.  19.  Three  duets  for 

140  CAM  —  CAM 

2  violins  ;  op.  20.  Recueil  de  loi  Pieces  faciles  et  progressives  pour  Violon  ;  op. 
21.  Nouvelle  M^thode  de  la  Mecanique  Progressive,  etc.,  pour  2  violins — trans, 
into  English  as  New  and  Progressive  Method  on  the  Mechanism  of  Violin  Playing, 
by  John  Bishop,  Lond.,  fo.,  n.d.  ;  Forty-one  caprices  for  "  rAlto-Viola,"etc. 

The  exercises  numbered  20,  21,  and  22,  and  those  numbered  10,  12,  and  17,  are 
among  the  best  studies  that  can  be  given  the  young  violinist  who  has  achieved  a 
moderate  mastery  over  his  instrument.  They  are  widely  in  use  among  professors. 
Campagnoli  was  a  violinist  of  the  same  school  as  Pugnani  and  Giardini,  and 
aided  in  forming  the  more  modern  one  of  Viotti,  Kreutzer,  and  Spohr. 

CAMPAJOLA  (Francesco).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  May  8,  1825.  Prof,  at 
Naples  Cons.     Has  written  various  operas  and  romances,  etc. 

CAMP  ANA  (Fabio).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Bologna,  1815.  S.  at  Bologna  Cons. 
Settled  in  London  about  1850  as  teacher  of  singing.    D.  London,  Feb.  2,  1882. 

Works. — Operas:  Caterina  di  Guisa,  1838;  Giulio  d'Este,  1841  ;  Vannina 
d'Ornano,  1842;  Luisa  di  Francia,  1844;  Almina,  London,  i860;  Esmeralda, 
Lond.,  1878.  Songs:  Eyes;  Goodbye;  Morn  that  shinest ;  One  smile  of  thine; 
The  little  Gipsy  ;  The  twilight  hour  ;  Aika  ;  Elvira  mia  ;  Fin  dalla  prima  etade  ; 
-Non  Lasciarmi ;  The  winds  are  hushed  to  rest ;  T'Adoro  ;  Non  m'ascolta  !  ;  Non 
lo  so  ;  Come  back,  my  only  love  ;  Cradle  song  ;  Evening  bringeth  my  heart  back 
to  thee  ;  The  Scout;  Part-songs,  etc. 

CAMPANELLA  (Francesco).  Italian  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Naples,  Sept. 
30,  1827.    S.  at  Naples  Cons.    Writer  of  operas,  cantatas,  songs,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

CAMPANINI  (Italo).      Italian  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Parma,  June  29,  1846.     S. 

at  Parma  Cons.      Sang  in  Russia,  and  Madrid.     S.  under  Lamperti  at  Milan. 

Appeared  at  Bologna  and  Rome  with  success,  1870.     Sang  at  Drury  Lane  and 

H.M.    Theatre   London,    1872.      Appeared  m  America,   1873.      Has  since 

appeared  in  various  towns  and  countries  throughout  the  world.     Was  knighted 

by  the  King  of  Italy. 

"  Nature  endowed  Campanini  with  a  strong,  even,  and  sympathetic  voice,  and 

art  has  enabled  him  to  greatly  increase  its  compass,  while  imparting  flexibility  and 

brilliancy  throughout  its  range.     An  ardent,   painstaking  student,  he  is  to-day  a 

living  proof  that  good  vocalism  is  worth  all  the  time  and  labour  it  takes  to  acquire, 

for  without  it  no  voice  could  have  borne  the  strain  to  which  his  has  been  subjected 

.     .     .     His  acting  is  nearly  as  good  as  his  singing,  and  the  poorest  singer  in  the 

cast  feels  his  magnetic  influence.     But  not  only  as  an   artist  is  he  enviable  :  his 

genial,  manly  character  has  won  him  hosts  of  friends,  who  love  the  man  as  much  as 

they  admire  the  singer." — Frederick  Nast  in  Harpers  Magazine,  1881. 

He  is  said  to  be  conversant  with  the  tenor  roles  of  nearly  100  operas. 

CAMPBELL  (Rev.  A.,  M.A.)  Scottish  writer,  author  of  "Two  Papers  on 
Church  Music,  read  before  (the  Liverpool  Ecclesiastical  Musical  Society,' 
Liverpool,  1854. 

CAMPBELL  (Alexander).     Scottish  writer  and  musician,  B.  Tombea  on  Loch 

Lubnaig,   Callander,    Feb.    22,    1764.       S.    at   Callander   Grammar   School. 

S.  music  at  Edinburgh  under  Tenducci.     Teacher  of  Pf.  in  Edinburgh.     Org. 

in  the  non-juring  chapel,  Nicolson  Street,  Edinburgh.     Was  Musical  Instructor 

of  Sir  Walter  Scott.     D.  Edinburgh,  May  15,  1824. 

Works. — An  Introduction  to  the  History  of  Poetry  in  Scotland 

Edinburgh,  4to,  1798.  Sangs  of  the  Lowlands  of  Scotland,  carefully  compared 
with  the  original  editions,  and  embellished  with  characteristic  designs  composed 
and  engraved  by  the  late  David  Allen,  Esq.,  Historical  Painter,  Edinburgh, 
4to,  1799.  A  Tour  from  Edinburgh  through  parts  of  North  Britain,  Lond., 
2  vols.,  4to,  1802.  Another  edit.,  2  vols.,  l8ii.  The  Grampians  Desolate, 
a  Poem,  1804.  Albyn's  Anthology,  or  a  Select  collection  of  the  melo- 
dies and  vocal  poetry  peculiar  to  Scotland  and  the  Isles,  hitherto  unpublished, 
collected  and  arranged  by  Alex.  Campbell,  the  modern  Scottish  and  English 
verses  adapted  to  the  Highland,  Hebridean,  and  Lowland  melodies,  written  by 
Walter  Scott,  Esq.,  etc.,  Edinburgh,  Oliver  &  Boyd,  2  vols.,  folio,  1816-1818. 
Collections  of  Scottish  Songs,  with  violin,  L-^nd.,  1792.  A  .Second  Collection 
arranged  for  Harp  ic)nvl,  n,  d.,  etc. 

CAM  —  CAJl  i4i 

The  works  by  which  Campbell  will  hereafter  be  known  are  "  Albyn's  Anthology," 
and  the  "  History  of  Poetry.  He  collected  the  melodies  of  Albyn's  Anthology  for 
the  Highland  Society,  and  prefixed  to  the  first  volume  a  few  notes  on  the  national 
music  of  Scotland.  His  collection  is  chiefly  valuable  for  its  preservation,  of  a 
number  of  old  Gaelic  airs,  some  of  them  extremely  beautiful.  Wilson,  Hogg,  Mrs. 
Grant,  and  Boswell  wrote  poetry  for  the  airs.  His  claim  to  the  composition  of  the 
melody  now  sung  to  "Gloomy  Winter's  noo  awa"  has  not  been  substantiated. 
The  two  works  first  named  are  usually  issued  together  as  one  vol. 

CAMPBELL  (Donald).      Scottish  writer  and  collector,  author  of  "A  Treatise 

on  the  Language,  Poetry,  and  Music  of  the  Highland  clans,  with  illustrative 

Traditions  and  Anecdotes,  and  numerous  ancient  Highland  airs, "  Edinburgh, 

large  8vo,  1862. 

This  is  a  good  but  rather  opinionative  work.     It  contains  a  number  of  ancient 

Highland  melodies  badly  set  to  inferior  basses.     He  describes  himself  as   "late 

Lieut,  of  the  57th  Regiment,"  and  appears  to  have  been  a  resident  in  Port-Glasgow 

on  the  Clyde.     He  was  a  claimant  to  the  Breadalbane  Peerage. 

CAMPBELL  (Francis  Joseph),  LL.D.    American  musician  and  educator  of  the 
blind,  B.  Franklin,  Co.,  Tenn.,  Oct.  9,  1834.     Lost  sight  when  three-and-a- 
half  years  old.      Educated  at  a  School  for  the  Blind,  Nashville,  at  which  he 
afterwards  became  music  teacher.    Teacher  of  Music  in  the  Perkins  Institution 
for  the  Blind,  Boston.     Went  to  Europe  in  1869,  and  S.  in  Leipzig  and  Ber- 
lin, with  Tausig  and  Kullak.     Established  in  conjunction  with  Dr.  Armitage 
the  Royal  Normal  College,  for  the  Blind,  London,  1872. 
This  institution  has  now  grown  into  the  most  important  School  for  the  Blind  in 
the  world,  and  the  fame  of  its  educational  success  is  known  everywhere.     The 
number  of  musical  pupils  educated  in  it  is  large,  and  not  a  few  among  those  who 
have  studied  in  the  college,  are  now  musicians  of  acknowledged  competence.     Dr. 
^  Campbell  has  attained  marvellous  results  by  his  industry  and  self-reliance,  and  has 
placed  within  the  reach  of  poor  blind  persons  facilities  for  becoming  quite  indepen- 
dent of  their  serious  disadvantage.     It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  artists  educated 
in  this  College  take  their  stand  with  those  of  the  same  age  among  the  seeing,  and  the 
performances  of  the  College  Choir  are  unsurpassed  by  the  best  choirs  in  the  country. 

CAMPBELL  (John).  Scottish  comp.  and  editor,  B.  Paisley,  about  end  of  i8th 
century.  D.Glasgow,  i860.  Edited  "  Campbell's  Selection  of  Anthems  and 
Doxologies,  with  a  separate  piano  accompaniment,"  Glasgow,  1848  ;  and  wrote 
a  few  original  psalms  and  anthems  of  mediocre  quality. 

CAMPBELL  (Joshua).  Scottish  collector,  published  about  the  end  of  last 
century  "A  Collection  of  New  Reels  and  Highland  Strathspeys,  with  a  bass 
for  the  violoncello  and  harpsichord,"  n.  d.  "  Collection  of  Favourite  Tunes," 
with  variations,  etc.,  n.  d. 

CAMPBELL  (Thomas).     Scottish  poet  and  general  writer,  B.  Glasgow,  July 
27,  1777-     t*.  Boulogne,  June  15,  1844. 
One  of  the  most  chaste  of  modern  poets.     He  wrote  words  to  the  music  in 

Bunting's  Irish  Airs,  and  wrote  many  lyrical  pieces  which  have  been  set  by  many 

good  composers.      His  words  have  been  adapted  to  Scottish  melodies  in  many  of 

the  more  modern  collections.      Among  composers  who  have  set  his  verses  may  be 

mentioned  Bishop,  Attwood,  Callcott,   Pierson,  J.  W.  Elliot,  Neukomm,   Sala- 

man,  etc. 

CAMPBELL  (William).  Scottish  collector,  published  about  1 790,  ' '  Campbell's 
First  Book  of  New  and  Favourite  Country  Dances  and  Strathspey  Reels,  for 
the  harpsichord  or  violin. " 

CAMPENHOUT  (Francois  van).  Belgian  comp.,  B.  Brussels,  1780.  _  D. 
Brussels,  1848.  Best  remembered  as  the  comp.  of  "La  Braban(;onne,  the 
well-known  Belgian  national  air,  composed  during  1830.  Also  comp.  the 
operas  Grotius,  r8o8;  I'Heureux  Mensonge,  1819;  Le  Passe-Partout,  1814,  etc 

CAMPION  (Thomas).    English  poet,  dramatist,  comp.  and  physician,  flourished, 
in  first  part  of  17th  century.     D.  Feb.,  1619. 
Works.— Observations  on  the  Art  of  English  Poesie,  1602  ;  The  first,  second, 

t42  CAM  —  cAN 

third,  and  fourth  booke  of  Ayres,  containing  divine  and  niorall  songs  :  to  be  sung 
to  the  Lute  and  Viols,  in  two,  three,  and  foure  Parts  :  or  by  one  Voyce  to  an 
Instrument,  Lond.,  i6lo-l6l2;  Songs  of  Mourning  bewailing  the  untimely  death 
of  Prince  Henry,  1613.  A  New  Way  of  Making  Foure  parts  in  Counter-point,  by 
a  most  familiar  and  infallible  rule,  1618  (and  1655  in  Playford's  "  Introduction  to 
the  Skill  of  Musick  ") ;  Ayres  for  the  Mask  of  Flowers,  1613. 

CAMPORESE  (Violante).  Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Rome,  1785.  Sang  at 
Paris,  Milan,  etc.  Debut  at  King's  Theatre,  London,  Jan.  II,  1817. 
Appeared  at  Ancient  Concerts,  etc.,  1824-5.  Returned  to  Italy,  1825.  D. 
after  i860  [1839?] 

CAMPEA  (Andre).  French  comp.,  B.  Aix  (Provence),  1660.  Chor.  in  Cath. 
of  Aix.  Musical  director  at  the  Jesuit's  Ch.  at  Paris.  Master  of  Chap.  Royal, 
Paris.     D.  Versailles,  July,  1744. 

Works. — Operas,  etc. :  Hesione  (by  Danchet),  1700  ;  Tancrede  (Danchet),  Nov., 
1702;  Les  Muses,  ballet,  Oct.,  1703;  Hippodamie  (by  Roy),  1708;  Idomenee, 
1712  ;  T61ephe,  Nov.,  1713  ;  Les  Devins  de  la  place  Saint  Marc,  ballet,  1710  ;  Les 
Festes  Venitiennea,  ballet,  1710;  Camille,  1717  ;  Alcide.  Motets  a  I.  II.  et  III. 
voix,  avec  la  basse- continue,  Ballard,  Paris,  1703  ;  Motets  a  I,  2.  et  3  voix  avec  la 
basse  continue,  Livre  premier,  Ballard,  1710  ;  Cantatas  Franfoises,  melees  de 
symphonies,  Livre  premier,  1721  ;  2nd,  1714;  etc. 

Hawkins  says  in  reference  to  this  composer  :  "  The  grace  and  vivacity  of  his  airs, 
the  sweetness  of  his  melody,  and,  above  all,  his  strict  attention  to  the  sense  of  the 
words,  render  his  compositions  truly  estimable. 

CAMPS  Y  SOLER  (Oscar).  Spanish  pianist,  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Alexandria, 
Egypt,  Nov.  21,  1837.  Writer  of  theoretical  works,  cantatas,  etc.  Has 
travelled  in  France,  Scotland,  Spain,  etc. 

CAMUS  (J.  P.  le),  French  musician,  was  a  teacher  in  London.  Published 
"The  Art  of  Singing,  a  Method  in  Three  Parts,  on  an  entirely  new  Plan  of 
Vocalization,"  Lond.,  fo.,  1833. 

CAMUS  (Paul  Hippolyte).      French  comp.   and  flute  player,  B.   Paris,  Jan. 

26,  1796.     S.  at  Paris  Cons.     Plate  flute  in  various  Parisian  theatres.      D.  [?] 

Works.— Op.  i.  24  Serenades  composees  d'airs  nalionaux  varies  pour  la  Flflte. 

Livre  i,  2  ;   op.  2.  Duets  for  2  flutes ;    3.  Fantasias,  duets,  solos,  concertos,  etc., 

for  flute. 

CANDEILLE  (Pierre  Joseph).  French  operatic  comp.,  B.  Dec.  8,  1744.  D. 
April  24,  1827. 

CANDLISH  (Kev.  Robert  Scott).  Scottish  divine,  B.  Edinburgh,  1807.  D. 
1873.  He  wrote  "The  Organ  Question  :  Statements  by  Dr.  Ritchie  and  Dr. 
Porteous  for  and  against  the  Use  of  the  Organ  in  Public  Worship... with  an 
introductory  notice."     Edin.,  8vo,  1856. 

CANIS  (Cornelius).  German  comp.  of  i6th  century.  Supposed  to  have  died 
about  IJS^'  H^  wrote  chansons  and  canons  of  an  elaborate  and  learned 
nature,  many  of  which  occur  in  contemporary  collections. 

CANNABICH  (Christian).     German  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  Mannheim,  1731. 

S.  under  his  father  and  Stamitz.      Sent  by  the  Elector  to  Italy,  where  he 

studied  under  Jommelli.      Leader  of  Mannheim  orch.,   1765.      Cond.  of  do., 

1775.     Cond.  at  Munich,  1778.     D.  Frankfort,  1798. 

Works. — Op.  i.  Six  quartets  for  strings  ;   op.  2.  Three  symphonies  for  orch.  ; 

op.  3.  Six  trios  for  strings  ;  op.  4.   Six  duets  for  flute  and  violin,  1767  ;  op.  5.  Six 

quartets  for  strings  ;  op.  6.  Three  concertos  for  violin,  with  string  quartet  accomp.  ; 

op.  7.    Six  Symphonies  (concertante)  for  flutes,  with  quartet  accomp.  ;  Azacaja, 

opera,  1778  ;  Ballets,  etc. 

Cannabich  was  the  friend  of  Mozart,  one  of  the  foremost  conductors  of  his  day, 

and  a  good  composer.      His  son  Carl  (B.  Mannheim,   1769;  D.  Munich,  1806) 

inherited  the  paternal  musical  capacity,  and  followed  his  steps  as  a  conductor  and 

composer.     His  works  are  chiefly  vocal. 

CAN  —  CAR  t43 

CANJIETI  (Francesco).  Italian  comp,,  B.  Vicenza,  1809.  Writer  on  counter- 
point, and  composer  of  operas,  masses,  romances,  etc.  D.  Vicenza,  August, 
1 084. 

CANOGIA  (Jose  Avelino).  Spanish  clarinet-player  and  comp.,  B.  Oeiras, 
Lisbon,  Nov.  10,  1784.  D.  Lisbon,  1842.  Has  played  at  Paris,  London, 
etc.,  and  has  written  concertos,  fantasias,  and  variations  for  his  instrument. 

CAPECELATRO  (Vincenzo).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  1815.  S.  at  Naples 
Cons.     D.  Florence,  Oct  7,  1874.     Writer  of  operas,  songs,  etc. 

CAPES  (Rev.  John  Moore).  English  comp.  and  writer,  was  B.A.,  Oxford, 
1836;  M.A.,  1846.  He  composed  "The  Druid,"  a  Tragic  opera,  produced 
at  St.  George's  Hall,  Liverpool,  Feb.  22,  1879.  This  work  attained  not 
more  than  local  renown.  Capes  has  also  written  "An  Essay  on  the  Growth 
of  the  Musical  Scale  and  of  Modern  Harmony,"  London,  1879. 

CAPILXJPI  (Geminiano).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Modena,  1560.  Pupil  of  Orazio 
Vecchi.  D.  Modena,  Aug.  31,  1616.  Writer  of  madrigals,  canzonets,  and 

CAPOTABTI  (Luigi).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Nolfetta,  1767.  S.  at  Naples  Cons. 
D.  1842.     Writer  of  operas,  etc. 

OAPOUL  (Joseph  Amedee  Victor).  French  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Toulouse, 
Feb.  27,  1839.  S.  at  Paris  Cons,  from  1859.  Has  sang  in  U.  S.  A.,  Lon- 
don, Paris,  etc.,  with  distinguished  success. 

CAPUA  (Einaldo  di).    See  Rinaldo  di  Capua. 

CAPXTZZI  (Giuseppe  Antonio).  Italian  violinist,  B.  Brescia,  1740.  Appeared 
in  London,  1796.  D.  Bergamo,  March  26,  1818.  Writer  of  operas,  violin 
music,  etc. 

CAEACCIOLO  (Luigi).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Andria,  Bari,  Aug.  10,  1849.  S. 
at  Naples  Cons.     Writer  of  operas,  cantatas,  and  vocal  music. 

CABADOBI-ALLAN  (Maria  Caterina  Eosalbina),  nie  De  Munck. 

French  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Milan,  1800.  S.  music  under  her  mother.  S. 
for  the  Stage.  Appeared  in  London  as  "Cherubino,"  Jan.  12,  1822.  Sang 
in  London  till  1826.  Returned  to  Continent,  where  she  continued  till  1834. 
Re-appeared  in  London,  1834.     D.  Surbiton,  Surrey,  Oct.  15,  1865. 

CABAFA  (Michele  Henri  Francois  Aloys  Vincent  Paul  de  C).    Italian 

comp.  and   teacher,  B.   Naples,  Nov.  17,  1787  [1785].      S.  under  Cherubini, 
Fazzi,  etc.     Entered  army  and   became  an  officer.     Settled  in  Paris,   1827. 
Prof,  of  Comp.  at  the  Cons.,  1828.      Mem.  of  the  Institute,  1837.     Chev.  of 
Legion  of  Honour.     Director  of  the  Military  Music  School,  etc.     D.  Paris, 
July  26,  1872. 
Works. — Operas:  II  Fantasma,  1802;  Vascello  I'Occidente,  i8n  ;  La  Gelosia 
corretta,   1815;    Gabriella  di  Vergy,   1816;   Ifigenia  in  Tauride,  1817  ;  Adele  di 
Lusignano,   1817;  Berenice  in  Siria,  1818;   Elisabetta  in  Derbyshire,    1818 ;  II 
Sacrifizio  d'  Epito,  1819  ;  I  due  Figaro,  1820 ;  La  Capricciosa  ed  il  Soldato,  1823  ; 
Eufemia  di  Messina,   1823  ;   Abufar,   1823 ;    II  Sonnambulo,  1824  ;    Aristodemo, 
1823 ;   Jeanne  d'  Arc,  1821  ;  Le  Solitaire,  1822  ;  Gl'  Italici  e  gl'  Indiani,  1823 ; 
Le  Valet  de   Chambre,    1823 ;    I'Auberge  supposee,     1824 ;    La  Belle   au  bois 
dormant,  1825  ;  Sangarido,  1827 ;  Masaniello,   1827  ;   La  Violette,   1828  ;  Jenny, 
1829  ;  Le  Nozze  di  Lamermoor,  1829;  L'  Anberge  d'  Auray  (with  Herold),  1830  ; 
Le  Livre  de  I'Ermite,   1831  ;    Nathalie  (vidth  Gyrowetz),  ballet,   1832 ;    L'Orgie 
(ballet),  1831 ;  La  Prison  d'  Edimbourg,  1833  ;  Une  Journee  de  la  Fronde,  1833  ; 
La  Grande  Duchesse,  1835 ;  Therise,  1838.     Masses  and  Stabat  Mater.     Orches- 
tral and  Pf.  music,  and  miscellaneous  single  pieces. 

His  music  is  ear-catching  if  shallow,  and  clever  if  not  learned,  and  with  those 
attributes  he  easily  earned  what  he  most  sought — contemporary  fame.  His  operas 
are  nearly  always  pleasing  if  sometimes  trivial,  and  his  comic  faculty  was  humorous 
rather  than  flippant. 

t44  CAR  —  CAR 

CARBONELLI  (Stefano),  Italian  violinist,  B.  Italy,  beginning  of  l8th  century. 
S.  violin  under  Corelli.  Musician  to  Duke  of  Rutland,  in  England,  1720. 
Leader  of  the  opera  band,  London.  Leader  at  the  Haymarket,  1721.  Leader 
at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  1725.  Married  to  Miss  Warren.  Latterly  became 
wine  merchant  to  the  king.  D,  London,  1772. 
He  published  twelve  solos  for  a  violin  and  bass,  but  was  chieflyfamous  as  a  violinist. 

CARCASSI  (Matteo).     Italian  guitar-player,  B.  1792.     D.  Paris,  1853. 

His  works  consist  chiefly  of  arrangements  of  airs  from  popular  operas  for  the 
guitar.  He  also  wrote  a  standard  method  for  his  instrument,  and  was  one  of  the 
finest  performers  on  the  guitar. 

CARDON  (Louis).  French  comp.  and  harp-player,  B.  Paris,  1747.  D.  Russia, 
1805.  Known  by  his  method  for  the  harp  and  a  few  compositions  for 
the  same. 

CARESTINI  (Giovanni).  Italian  contralto  vocalist,  B.  Ancona,  1705.  Dibut 
at  Rome  in  Buononcinl's  "Grisilda,"  1721.  Appeared  in  London,  Dec,  1733. 
Returned  to  Italy,  and  sang  with  much  success  there  and  in  other  parts  of 
Europe.     D.  [1758-60]. 

CAREW  (Miss  ?  ).  English  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Oct.  16,  1799.  S.  under 
Welsh,  and  her  parents.  Played  small  parts  in  Covent  Garden  Theatre.  Dibut 
as  operatic  vocalist,  Covent  Garden,  July,  1815.  Sang  at  the  English  Opera 
House,  1818,  etc.     D.  [?] 

She  was  an  excellent  ballad  singer,  being  especially  successful  in  sentimental 

CAREY  (Henry).     English  comp.  and  minor  poet,  natural  son  of  George  Saville, 

Marquis  of  Halifax,  B.  1692  [1685].     Received  some  instruction  in  music  from 

Roseingrave  and  Geminiani.     Otherwise  self-taught.     Was  for  a  time  a  teacher 

of  music.     Life  spent  chiefly  in  writing  music  for  the  theatres,  and  engaging  in 

convivial  enjoyments.     D.  (?  by  suicide)  London,  Oct.  4,  1743. 

Works. — Musical  Dramas,  etc:   The  Contrivances,  1715  ;   The  Honest  York- 

shireman,  1736;  Amelia,  1732;  Teraminta,   1732;  Chrononhotonthologos,   1734; 

The  Dragon  of  Wantley  (words  only),   1737  ;  The  Dragoness  (otherwise  known 

as  Marjery,   or  a  worse  Plague  than  the  Dragon),   1738.     Betty,   1739  ;  Nancy, 

1739.     Poems,   1720 ;    Cantatas,    1732.      The  Musical    Century,   in   100  English 

Ballads  on  various  Subjects  and  Occasions,  etc.,  Lbnd.,  2  v.,  1737-1740  ;  Dramatic 

Works  (Collected),  1743.     Interludes:  Thomas  and  Sally,  etc.     Melody  of  "  God 

Save  the  Queen  "  (?) 

Carey  is  now  remembered  chiefly  on  account  of  his  ballad  "  Sally  in  our  Alley;" 
his  attacks  on  the  Italian  opera  ;  and  his  unfortunate  career.  His  ballad  is  a  very 
fine  specimen  of  its  class,  though  it  is  by  no  means  a  very  refined  or  genuine 
example  of  the  domestic  ballad,  being  rather  mock -sentimental  than  natural.  His 
attack  oh  the  Italian  opera,  in  "  The  Dragon  of  Wantly  "  and  its  sequel,  is  one  of 
the  first  endeavours  of  our  native  musicians  to  regain  their  natural  position  in  their 
own  country.  Although  the  sparkling  music  is  by  Lampe  (a  German)  it  is  none 
the  less  true  that  all  the  point  and  half  of  the  success  of  the  piece  was  due  to  Carey's 
clever  satire.  The  independence  shown  at  that  period  of  English  music  could  be 
well  imitated  at  the  present  time,  when  a  mystical  Teuton  is  as  highly  prized  as  a 
piece  of  Etruscan  pottery.  His  claim  to  be  regarded  as  the  composer  of  "  God 
save  the  Queen  "  is  one  of  the  knotty  points  in  musical  controversy,  and  has  not  yet 
been  decided  with  any  degree  of  authority. 

CAREY  (George  Saville).  English  poet  and  dramatist,  son  of  above,  B.  1743. 
Wrote  a  number  of  farces  and  dramatic  pieces  of  varying  merit.  Collection  of 
Songs  ;  Poems,  1787,  etc.     D.  1807. 

CARISSIMI  (Giacomo).     Italian  comp.,  B.  Marino,  near  Rome,  1604  [1580]. 

Chap. -master  at  Assisi,  and  of  Church  of  S.   Apollinare,  Rome.     D.  Rome, 

1674  [1670].     Biography  obscure. 

Works. — Concerti  Sacri,  a  2,  3,  4,  e  S  voci,  1675  ;  Missse  5  et  9  vocum,  1663 

1666.     Oratorios:  Balthazar;    David  and- Jonathan ;  Abraham  and  Isaac;   The 

CAR  —  CAk  14s 

Last  Judgment ;  Jonah  ;  Solomon  ;  Job  ;  Hezekiah,     Motets,  and  a  great  amount 
of  music  in  manuscript. 

Carissimi  is  one  of  the  large  number  of  musicians  who  are  reckoned  more 
influential  in  an  educational  than  in  an  artistic  sense.  His  development  of  the 
recitative  and  the  innovations  vi'hich  he  introduced  into  sacred  music  place, him 
among  the  number  of  great  reformers.  He  educated  and  influenced  a  number  of 
eminent  composers,  among  them  being  A.  Scarletti,  Buononcini,  Cesti,  etc.  He 
was  one  of  the  first  to  introduce  the  string  orchestra  into  the  service  of  the  church, 
and  was  likewise  a  great  reformer  of  melody  and  rhythm.  His  cantatas,  or  rather 
oratorios,  are  remarkable  works  for  the  period  which  produced  them,  and  must  be 
regarded  as  the  forerunners  of  the  more  magnificent  effusions  of  Handel.  He  is 
not  known  to  have  written  for  the  stage,  else  his  influence  on  dramatic  music  might 
have  anticipated  the  labours  of  Monteverde.  His  works,  or  some  of  them,  have 
been  reprinted  in  England  ;  and  "Jonah,"  under  the  editorship  of  Henry  Leslie, 
will  be  found  a  most  interesting  work.  His  other  works  are  not  so  popular,  though 
some  of  them  have  been  adapted  to  the  words  of  English  anthems. 

CARLBEBG  (Gotthold).  German  comp.,  cond.,  and  editor,  B.  1837.  Resides 
in  New  York  as  teacher  and  editor  of  a  Musical  Journal.  Has  written  can- 
tatas, songs,  etc. 

CARLETON  (Hugh).  English  writer,  author  of  "The  Genesis  of  Harmony  : 
An  Inquiry  into  the  Laws  which  govern  Musical  Composition,"  Lond.,  1882. 

CABLEZ  (Jules  Alexis).  French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Caen,  Feb.  10,  1836, 
Comp.  Pf.,  org.,  and  church  music.     Director  of  Caen  Cons.,  1882. 

CARLTON  (Rev.  Richard).  English  divine  and  comp.,  flourished  during  end 
of  1 6th  and  beginning  of  17th  centuries.  He  wrote  "Twenty-one  Madrigals 
for  five  voyces,"  Lond.,  1601  ;  and  contributed  "Calm  was  the  Air,"  a  madri- 
gal for  S  voices,  to  the  "  Triumphs  of  Oriana."     His  biography  is  unknown. 

CARMICHAEL  (Peter).  Scottish  writer,  author  of  the  "Science  of  Music 
Simplified,"  Glasgow,  8vo,  i86o. 

CARMICHAEL  (S.)  Scottish  writer,  author  of  "Dictionary  of  Musical  Terms 
and  Elementary  Rules,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1878. 

CARNABY  (William).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  London,  1772.     S.  under 

Nares  and  Ayrton  as  Chor.  in  Chap.  Royal.     Org.  at  Eye,  Suffolk.     Org.  at 

Huntingdon.     Bac.  Mus.,  Cantab.,  1803.     Doc.  Mas.,  Cantab.,  1808.     Org. 

at  Hanover  Chap.,  Regent  St.,  London,  1823.     D.  London,  Nov.  13,  1839. 

Works. — Twelve  Collects  for  4  voices,  in  score,  with  organ  accomp. ;  Sanctus 

for  S  voices  ;  Six  Canzonets  for  voice  and  Pf.  ;  Six  Songs  lor  voice  and  Pf.    Glees, 

various.    Anthems.    MS.  Works.    The  Singing  Primer,  or  Rudiments  of  Solfeggi, 

with  Exercises  in  the  principal  Major  and  Minor  Keys,  Lond.,  1827. 

CARNICER  (Ramon).  Spanish  operatic  comp.  and  teacher,  B.  Lerida,  Oct., 
1789.     Prof,  at  Madrid  Cons.     D.  Madrid,  Mar.,  1855. 

CARNIE  (William).      Scottish  writer  and  editor,  B.  Aberdeen  towards  the 
close  of  1824.     Was  originally  a  letter  engraver.     Became  a  student  of  litera- 
ture and  music.    Precentor  of  Established  Ch.,  Banchory- Devenick,  Aberdeen, 
1845.     Inspector  of  Poor  for  same  parish,  1847.     Sub-Editor  of  the  ^ferafew 
Herald,  1852.     Precentor  of  the  West,  or  High  Ch.,  Aberdeen,  1854.     Clerk 
and  Treasurer  to  the  Managers  of  Aberdeen  Royal  Infirmary  and  the  Lunatic 
Asylum,  1861.     Was  local  correspondent  for  a  time  to  the  Times  and  the 
Works.— Psalmody  in  Scotland,  a  Lecture,  Aberdeen,  8vo,   1854  ;  Northern 
Psalter,  containing  402  Psalm  and  Hymn  Tunes  ;  Anthem  Appendix  to  do.  ;   Pre- 
centor's Companion  and  Teacher's  Indicator;  Contributions  to  periodical  litera- 
ture, etc. 

Mr.  Carnie's  labours  have  done  everything  to  promote  good  psalmody  in  the 
North  of  Scotland.  In  1854,  at  the  request  of  the  local  Young  Men's  Christian 
Association,  he  delivered  a  lecture  on  Psalmody  to  an  audience  numbering  over 
2000  persons.     This  lecture  (one  of  the  first  on  the  subject  ever  given,  so  far  as  we 


146  CAR  —  Car 

know,  in  Scotland)  was  illustrated  by  the  Harmonic  Choir  in  a  style  which 
awakened  great  local  interest  in  regard  to  the  "  Service  of  Sacred  Song."  Indeed, 
to  this  meeting  may  be  ascribed  the  great  desire  for  psalmody  improvement  which 
arose  over  the  whole  of  the  north-eastern  districts  of  Scotland.  Continuing  his 
efforts  to  raise  the  standard  of  congregational  singing,  Mr.  Carnie's  name  became 
widely  known.  His  "Northern  Psalter"  (1870)  obtained  immediate  popularity 
over  all  Scotland,  and  amongst  all  Presbyterian  denominations,  and  at  the  present 
time  upwards  of  5o,ooo  copies  of  his  psalmodic  works  have  been  circulated. 

CABOLAN.    See  O'Carolan. 

CAKON  (Firmain).  Dutch  comp.  of  the  l6th  century.  Writer  of  church  music, 
madrigals,  and  other  works. 

CARFANI  (Giuseppe).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Jan.  28,  1752,  in  Lombardy.  S.  at 
Milan.  D.  Vienna,  Jan.  22,  1825.  Comp.  oratorios  and  church  music,  etc. 
Author  of  "  Le  Haydine,  ovvero  lettere  su  la  vita  e  le  opere  del  celebre  maes- 
tro Giuseppe  Haydn,"  Milan,  8vo,  1812.  Trans,  into  French  by  Mondo, 
Paris,  1837.     "Le  Rossiniane,  ossia  lettere  musico-teatrali,"  8vo,  1824. 

CABFENTEB  (Joseph  Edward).      English  lyrical  writer.      D.  May,   1885. 

Has  published   Lays   for   Light   Hearts,    1835  '>    Songs  and  Ballads,    1844 ; 

Poems  and  Lyrics,   1845;    Border  Ballads,  1846;  Lays  and  Legends  of  Fairy 

Land,  1849. 
Mr.  Carpenter  belongs  to  that  school  of  poets  founded  by  T.  Haynes  Bayly,  and 
to  which  belong  Messrs  Oxenford,  Guernsey,  Enoch,  Bellamy,  etc.  He  has  written 
a  great  number  of  lyrics  whioh  have  been,  with  their  musical  settings,  highly  suc- 
cessful. Among  the  composers  who  have  availed  themselves  of  Mr.  Carpenter's 
prolific  talent  may  be  named  J.  L.  Hatton,  C.  W.  Glover,  L.  Phillips,  T.  Distin, 
S.  Glover,  F.  N.  Crouch,  J.  P.  Knight,  J.  W.  Cherry,  Tom  Cooke,  and  numerous 

CABBi  (?)  American  pianist,  comp.,  and  writer.  Author  of  Analytical 
Instructor  for  the  Pianoforte  (Ditson,  Boston),  n.  d.  Preludes  for  the 
Pianoforte  (do.)  Chant  Mass  in  D.  Mass  in  C  minor.  Songs  and  Piano- 
forte Music. 

CABBENO  (Theresa).  Italian  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Caraca,  Venezuela,  Dec. 
22,  1853.  Has  played  in  the  U.  S.  A.,  France,  etc.  Married  to  M.  Emile 
Sauret  the  violinist. 

CABBETTI  (Giuseppe  Maria).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Bologna,  Oct.  10,  1690. 
D.  Bologna,  July  8,  1774.     Writer  of  motets,  masses,  and  other  sacred  music. 

CABBODUS  (John  Tiplady).     English  violinist,  B.  Keighley,  Yorks,  Jan.  20, 
1836.      S.   under  Molique  at   Stuttgart  and    London.      Violinist  at   Covent 
Garden  Theatre.     Debut  as  soloist,  April  22,  1863.     Leader  at  Covent  Gar- 
den Theatre.     Leader  at  principal  Provincial  Musical  Festivals,  etc. 
Mr.  Carrodus  is  the  leading  English  violinist  at  the  present  time,  and  he  performs 

in  a  powerful  and  skilful,  yet  withal  unpretending  manner,  the  works  of  the  great 

composers  for  the  violin.     His  tone  is  firm  and  good  in  quality,  while  his  executive 

abilities  are  of  the  first  order. 

CABTEB  (George).     English  org.  and   comp.,  B.  London,  Jan.  26,  1835.     S. 

under  Sir  John  Goss.     First  appointed  an  org.,  1847.     Org.  successively  at  S. 

Thomas',  Stamford  Hill,  1848;  Christ  Ch.,  Camberwell,  1850 ;  Trinity  Ch., 

Upper  Chelsea,  1853  ;  S.  Luke's,  Chelsea,  i860  ;  Montreal  Cath.,  1861-70. 

Works. — Sinfonia-cantata,  Psalm  n6,  "I  love  the  Lord,"  Royal  Albert  Hall, 

1872  ;  Evangeline,  cantata  (Longfellow),  R.  A.  Hall,  1873,  and  at  Crystal  Palace ; 

Tema  con  variazione  in  E  flat,  for  organ  ;   Grand  festival  march  in  D,  for  organ  ; 

Opera:  "  Fair  Rosamond  "  (MS.);  Italian  opera :   "  Nerone"  (MS.) ;  Operetta: 

Golden  Dream,  for  S  voices  ;  Songs  and  miscellaneous  works. 

Mr.  Carter  is  a  good  organist,  and  has  performed  at  New  York,  Boston  (1865- 
67),  Leipzig,  Berlin,  Dresden  (1871),  and  London  (1871-73).  His  compositions 
liavg  been  performed  with  success  in  many  different  towns. 

CAR  —  CAR  147 

CAKTER  (Henry).  English  org.  and  comp.,  brother  of  above,  13.  March  5, 
1837.  Was  org.  at  Quebec  Cath.  Resides  in  New  York  as  org.  and  teacher. 
Has  composed  songs,  quartets,  organ  music,  etc. 

CABTER  (Thomas).      Irish  comp.,  B.  Ireland,  1735  [1758,  1768,  also  given]. 

S.  probably  in  Ireland  under  his  father.     Org.  of  S.  Werburgh's  Ch.,  Dublin, 

1751-69.     Travelled  in  Italy  for  a  time  [1770-1].     Cond.  of  theatre  in  Bengal 

[1771-2].     Settled  in  Loudon  as  teacher  and  comp.  to  the  theatres,  1773.     D. 

London,  Oct.  12,  1804.*     (Date  1800  incorrect.) 

Works.— Musical  Dramas:  The  Rival  Candidates,  1775;  The  Milesians,  1777; 

The  Fair  American,   1782  ;  The  Birthday ;   The  Constant  Maid ;   Just  in  Time. 

Lessons  for  the  Guitar  ;    Concerto  for  bassoon  and  Pf.  ;    Six  Sonatas  for  the  Pf. 

Songs,  detached  and  in  collections,  etc. 

Carter,  as  composer  of  "  O  Nannie,  wilt  thou  gang  wi'  me  ?"  has  been  accorded 
a  larger  degree  of  fame  in  connection  with  it  than  any  other  musical  composer  who 
has  produced  a  single  celebrated  piece.  The  merits  of  the  song  are  well  known, 
and  its  imitation  of  the  Scottish  style  is  probably  the  secret  of  its  success.  Like 
other  celebrated  efforts  the  authorship  has  been  doubted,  but  proofs  in  abundance 
are  existing  to  firmly  estabhsh  Carter's  claim.  A  letter  in  the  "Gentleman's 
Magazine,"  claiming  the  song  for  a  Mr.  Williams,  cannot  be  accepted  as  affording 
a  more  powerful  claim  than  is  already  advanced  on  behalf  of  Carter.  Apart  from 
this  song  his  merits  as  a  composer  are  not  great. 

CARTER  (William).     English  org.,  comp.,  and  cond.,  brother  of  George  and 
Henry,  B.  London,  Dec.  7,  1838.  S.  under  his  father  and  E.  Pauer.  Chor.  in  S. 
Giles',  Camberwell,  1845;  at  Chap.  Royal,  Whitehall;  and  at  King's  Coll. ,  Lon- 
don. Org.  o(  Christ  Ch.,  Rotherhithe,  1848;  Little  Stanmore,  Whitchurch,  1S50; 
S.  Mary,  Newington,  Surrey,  1854 ;  S.  Helen's,  Bishopagate,  1856.     Org.  in 
exchange  with  his  brother  Henry,  of  Quebec  Cath.,   1859.     Cond.  largest 
Handel  Festival  ever  given  in  Canada,  at  Quebec,  April  13,  1859.     Org.  of 
S.  Stephen's,  Westbourne  Park,   Lend.,   i860;  St.  Paul's,   Onslow  Square, 
1868.     Established  Bayswater  Musical  Soc,   i860.     Cond.  of  Lond.  Choral 
Union,  1861.     Established  choir  of  1000  voices  on  opening  of  the  Royal  Albert 
Hall,  1871. 
Works. — Placida,  the  Christian  Martyr,  cantata,  5  Dec,  187 1  ;  Thanksgiving 
anthem  for  recovery  of  H. R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales,  1872,  "Let  the  people  praise 
Thee  "  ;  Repent  you  for  the  kingdom  of  Heaven,  anthem  ;  St.  George  and  Merrie 
England,  part  song  ;  Arrangements  of  national  airs  for  choir  ;  Songs :  The  Vision  ; 
Beautiful  Clouds  ;   My  soul  doth  magnify  ;    Holy  Christmas  morn  ;  Not  for  ever  ; 
Brave  and  Fair,  etc. 

Mr.  W.  Carter  and  his  choir  are  among  the  most  familiar  features  of  musical  Lon- 
don. He  has  established  at  the  Royal  Albert  Hall  an  annual  series  of  concerts,  at 
which  good  works  are  continually  being  produced.  In  the  past  he  has  brought 
forward  works  by  Handel,  Haydn,  Mendelssohn,  Mozart,  Gounod,  Randegger,  J. 
F.  Barnett,  Bexfield,  Dearie,  etc.;  not  to  speak  of  a  great  number  of  popular 
arrangements  of  national  airs.  His  ability  as  an  organist  is  great,  while  he  excels 
as  a  conductor. 

CARTIER  (Jean  Baptiste).  French  violinist,  B.  Avignon,  May  28,  1765. 
D.  Paris,  1841.     Comp.  of  music  for  violin. 

CARTWRIGHT  (Thomas).  Puritan  divine  (1535-1603)  who  wrote  against  the 
use  of  music  in  public  worship.  Full  particulars  of  what  views  he  held  will  be 
found  in  Hawkins'  "  History  of  Music." 

CARULLI  (Ferdinando),     Italian  comp.  and  guitar-player,  B.  Naples,  Feb. 

10,  1770.     S.  at  Naples.     Went  to  Paris,  1808  ;  teacher  and  composer  there. 

D.  Paris,  Feb.,  1841. 
Carulli  wrote  a  great  number  of  transcriptions,  variations,  and  original  airs  for 
the  guitar,  on  which  he  was  one  of  the  greatest  performers.      His  studies  and 
method  for  the  guitar  are  useful.     Plis  son  Gustave  (1797-1877)  wrote  vocal  music. 

''  Gentleman's  Maguitie,  1804. 

J  48  CAfe  —  CAS 

CARUSO  (Luigi).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  Sept.  25,  1754.  D.  Perouse, 
1822.     Wrote  a  number  of  operas  of  transitory  merit. 

CABVALHO  (Joao  de  Sousa).  Portuguese  comp.  who  flourished  during 
middle  of  eighteenth  century.  He  studied  in  Italy,  and  produced  operas, 
pastorals,  and  cantatas. 

CARVALHO-MIOLAN  (Marie  Caroline).  French  soprano  vocalist,  B. 
Marseilles,  Dec.  31,  1827.  S.  under  Duprez  at  Paris  Cons.,  1843-47.  Gained 
first  prize  for  singing,  do.  Debut  at  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  1849,  and  ap- 
peared in  operas  ot  Herold,  etc.,  till  1854.  Married  to  Lten  Carvalho,  or 
Carvaille,  1853.  Appeared  in  London,  at  Italian  Opera,  i860.  Separated 
from  her  husband,  1862.  Has  appeared  chiefly  in  Paris,  in  operas  by  Meyer- 
beer, Gounod,  Thomas,  Auber,  etc.  Madame  Carvalho  has  a  powerful  voice 
of  great  compass,  over  which  she  has  perfect  command.  She  retired  from  the 
stage  in  1882. 

CARY  {Annie  Louise).  American  contralto  vocalist,  B.  Maine,  U.S.A.,  1846. 
She  studied  in  America,  and  has  sung  in  oratorio  and  in  concert  music  with 
the  greatest  success.  Her  voice  is  pleasing  and  her  manner  refined.  She  is 
probably  the  leading  American  contralto  ol  the  present  day,  and  is  accorded  a 
very  high  place  in  popular  estimation.  Her  personal  appearance  is  good,  and 
her  technical  training  has  been  of  the  highest  order.  She  has  sung  principally 
in  America,  in  nearly  every  important  town  of  which  she  has  appeared  with 
success.     Married  to  C.  M.  Raymond,  a  New  York  broker,  1882. 

CASALI  (Giovanni  Battista).  Italian  comp.  and  org.,  B.  1730.  Flourished 
at  Rome  during  middle  of  l8th  century.  He  composed  masses,  oratorios, 
and  operas,  all  of  which  are  now  defunct.  He  is  chiefly  remembered  as  the 
master  ot  Gretry.  He  was  a  chapel-master  at  Rome  about  1760.  D.  Rome, 

CASAMORATA  (Luigi  Ferdinando).  Italian  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Wurtz- 
burg,  May  15,  1807.  Writer  of  masses,  psalms,  motets,  hymns,  theoretical 
works,  etc.     D.  Florence,  Sept.  24,  1881. 

CASE  (George).  English  writer,  author  of  "Instructions  for  the  Concertina, 
from  the  first  Rudiments  to  the  most  difiicuU  style  of  Performance,"  fo.,  u.  d. 
"Tutor  for  the  Violin,"  etc. 

CASE  (John).     English  physician  and  writer,   B.   Woodstock  about  middle  of 

l6th  century.     Chor.  at  New  Coll.  and  Christ  Coll.,  Oxford.     Fellow  of  St. 

John's  Coll.,  Oxford.     Lecturer  at  Oxford.     D.  Jan.,  1600. 

Works. — The  Praise  of  Musicke,  wherein  its  Antiquity,  Dignity,  Delectation, 

and  Use,  are  discussed,  Oxford,  8vo,  1586.     Apologia  Musices,  tem  vocalis  quam 

instrumentalis  et  mixtee,  Oxford,  i2rao,  1588.     Philosophical  works,  etc. 

The  "  Praise  of  Musicke  "  is  an  exceedingly  quaint  work,  and  at  the  present  date 
of  great  rarity.     The  writer  was  an  enthusiast  of  the  highest  order. 

CASORTI  (Alexander).  German  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Coburg,  Nov.  27, 
1830.  S.  at  Brussels  Cons.  D.  Sept.  28,  1S67.  Comp.  of  "Marie,"  opera, 
violin  music,  and  songs. 

GASPERS  (Louis  Henri  Jean).  German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Paris,  Oct.  2, 
1825.  S.  at  Paris  Cons.  D.  Dec.  19,  1861.  Composed  operas,  cantatas, 
Pf.  music,  songs. 

CASSON  (Miss  ?).  English  vocalist  and  comp.  towards  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century.  She  wrote  a  number  of  vocal  pieces  of  varying  merit,  among 
which  may  be  named  the  songs  :  The  Cuckoo  ;  Attend,  ye  nymphs  ;  Snow- 
drop ;  God  save  the  Queen  ;  etc.     Her  biography  has  not  been  preserved. 

CASSON  (Thomas).     English  org.  and  writer,  of  Denbigh.     Author  of  "The 
Modern  Organ,  a  Consideration  of  the  prevalent  Theoretical  and  Practical 
Defects  in  its  Construction,  with  Plans  and  Suggestions  for  their  Removal." 
Lond.,  8vo  [c.  1883]. 

CASTALDI.    See  Gastoldi, 

CAS  —  CAT  149 

CASTIL-BLAZE.    See  Blaze. 

CASTILLON  DE  SAINT  VICTOR  (Alexis,  Vicomte  de).  French 
amateur  comp.,  B.  1829.  D.  Paris,  Mar.  5,  1873.  Wrote  symphonies, 
quartets,  Pf.  music,  and  songs. 

CASTRUCCI  (Pietro).     Italian  violinist,  B.  Rome,  1689.     Came  to  England, 
1715.     Leader  at  Italian  opera,  supplanting  Corbet.     Performed  at  principal 
London  concerts.     Supplanted  at  the  Italian  opera  house  by  Festing.     D. 
Rome,  1769. 
This  violinist  held  a  respectable  position  as  a  violinist  in  his  day,  and  composed 
a  few  unimportant  pieces.     He  was  deemed  a  lunatic  by  his  contemporaries — pro- 
bably on  just  grounds. 

CATALANI  (Angelica).  Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Sinigaglia,  Ancona, 
Oct.,  1779.  S.  in  Convent  at  Gubbio.  Dibut  at  Venice  in  Mayer's 
"Lodoiska,"  1795.  Sang  successively  in  Rome,  Milan,  Florence,  Naples, 
and  other  Italian  towns.  Sang  in  Italian  opera  at  Lisbon  and  in  Spain. 
Married  to  M.  Valabregue,  a  French  officer.  Appeared  at  London,  Dec.  15, 
l8o6  (King's  Theatre).  Sang  in  Paris,  where  she  undertook  the  management 
of  the  Italian  opera.  Travelled  in  Europe.  Re-appeared  in  London,  1824. 
D.  Paris,  June  12,  1849. 

"  Madame  Catalani's  style  is  still  purely  dramatic.  By  this  epithet,  we  mean  to 
convey  the  vivid  conception  that  exalts  passion  to  the  utmost  pitch  of  expressiveness ; 
the  brilliancy  of  colouring  that  invests  every  object  upon  which  the  imagination 
falls  with  the  richest  clothing,  that  gives  the  broadest  lights  and  the  deepest 
shadows." — Quarterly  Musical  Review,  1821. 

Catalani  acquired  a  great  fortune  on  the  stage,  and  devoted  a  portion  of  it  to  the 
rearing  of  young  Italian  girls  for  the  musical  profession.  She  retired  to  an  estate 
in  Tuscany  and  was  herself  one  of  the  teachers  in  connection  with  the  school 
which  she  had  endowed. 

CATEL  (Charles  Simon).      French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  L'Aigle  (Orne),  June, 

1773.      S.   at  Paris  Royal  School  of  Music,   under  Gossec,    Sacchini,  etc. 

Assistant  Prof,  at  Paris  School  of  Music,  1787.     Attached  to  the  Opera  at 

Paris,  1790.     Chief  (with  Gossec)  of  the  Garde  National.     Prof,  of  Harmony 

at  Paris  Cons.  ;  Inspector  of  do.,  1810-14.     Mem.  of  the  Institute  of  France, 

1817.     Chev.  of  Legion  of  Honour,  1824.     D.  Paris,  Nov.  29,  1830. 

Works. — Operas:  Semiramis,  1802;  L'Auberge  de  Bagnferes,  1807;  Les  Artistes 

par  occasion,  1807;  Alexandre  ches  Apelles,  ballet,  1808;  Des  Bayaderes,  1810 ; 

Des  Aubergistes  de  qualite,  1812  ;  Premier  en  date,  1814  ;  Liege  de  Mezieres  (with 

Isouard  and  Cherubini) ;  Wallace,  ou  le  Menestrel  ecossais,  3  acts,  Paris,  1817  ; 

Zirphile  et  Fleur  de  Myrte,  1818  ;  L'Officier  enleve,  1819.     Quartets  for  string  and 

wind  instruments.     Symphony  in  F.     Overtures.     Hymn  of  Victory,  1794-     L)e 

Profundis,  1792.     Traite  d'Harmonie,  Paris,  1802.     Translated  by  Lowell  Mason, 

Boston,  U.S.,  1832;  and  by  Speranza  and  T.  Westrop,  Lond.,  1875. 

Though  now  known  only  as  the  writer  of  a  first-rate  book  on  harmony,  Catel 
was  nevertheless  one  of  the  most  refined  and  learned  composers  ever  produced  by 
France.  His  operas  are  few  in  number,  but  their  quality  is  of  the  highest  order, 
and  "  Wallace  "  was  for  long  regarded  as  his  finest  work.  His  treatise, on  harmony 
was  the  text-book  used  in  Paris  Conservatoire,  and  has  not  been  supplanted  alto- 
gether in  France  or  elsewhere. 

CATLEY  (Ann).  English  soprano  vocalist,  B.  London,  1745.  Articled  to 
Bates,  the  comp.,  1760.  Appeared  at  Vauxhall  Gardens,  1762.  Sang  at 
Covent  Garden  Theatre,  Oct.  8,  1762.  Invclved  in  a  scandalous  criminal 
case,  1763.  Sang  in  Ireland,  1763-1770.  Sang  again  at  Covent  Garden 
Theatre,  1771.  Made  last  appearance  in  Public,  1784.  Supposed  to  have 
been  latterly  married  to  General  Lascelles,  with  whom  she  lived  previous  to 
her  death.  D.  near  Brentford,  Oct.  14,  1789. 
The  criminal  case  above  alluded  to  in  this  singer's  life  was  an  action  raised  at  the 

instance  of  her  father  against  Bates,  Sir  Francis  Delavel,  and  an  attorney  named 

Fraine  for  conspiring  to  prostitute  her,  by  agreement,  to  the  person  named  Delavel. 

Her  father  gained  his  case.     She  was  a  great  favovirite  in  London  and  in  Ireland, 


and  was  one  of  the  few  successful  vocalists  who  at  that  time  made  use  of  the 
Staccato  style.  Her  biography  is  given  in  "The  Life  and  Memoirs  of  Miss  Ann 
Catley,"  by  Miss  Ambross,  Lend.,  n.  d. 

CATJRROY  (Francois  Eustache  du).      French  comp.   and  org.,   B.   1549. 

Successively  Chap.-mnster  to   Charles  IX.,   Henry  III.,   and  Henry  IV.   of 

France.      Canon  of  the   Holy  Chapel  of  Paris.      Prior  of  St.   Aioul.      D. 

Paris,  1609. 

Works. — Missa  pro  defunctis  quinque  vocum,  Paris.      Preces  ecclesiasticse,  2 

books,   1609  ;  Melanges  de  Musique,  contenant  des  chansons,   des  psaumes,  des 

noels,  Paris,  1610;  Fantaisies  k  trois,  quatre,  cinq  et  six  parties,  etc.,  Paris,  1610. 

Caurroy  was  at  one  time  regarded  as  the  leading  composer  of  France,  but  his 

reputation  was  almost  local,  and  has  not  been  lasting. 

CAUSTON  (Thomas).  English  comp.  and  org.,  flourished  during  i6th  century. 
Was  Gent,  of  Chap.  Roy.  during  reigns  of  Edward  VI.,  Mary,  and  Elizabeth. 
D.  Oct.  28,  1569.  Contributed  to  Day's  "Certain  Notes  set  forth  in  four  and 
three  parts,  to  be  sung  at  the  Morning,  Communion,  and  Evening  Prayer. " 
His  compositions  appear  also  in  Day's  "  Psalms,"  Lond.,  1563. 

OAVACOIA  (Giovanni).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Bergamo  [1556].  Chap.-master 
Bergamo  Cath.  ;  do.,  St.  Maria  Maggiore,  Rome.  D.  Rome,  1626.  Comp. 
madrigals  and  church  music. 

CAVAILLE.  A  Firm  of  French  Organ-Builders  of  long  standing,  presently 
represented  by  M.  Cavaille-CoU  of  Paris.  They  have  erected  some  of  the 
best  continental  organs,  and  are  widely  known  for  the  fine  quality  of  their 

CAVALIEBI  (Emilio  del).    Italian  comp.  of  noble  birth,  B.  1550.    Associated 

with  Caccini,  Bardi,  Peri,  etc.  in  founding  Italian  opera.     D.  about  end  of 

i6th  century  [1598]. 

He  set  to  music  the  first  known  oratorio,  which  was  given  at  Rome  in  1600. 

The  title  of  this  piece  isj"La  Rappresentazione  di  Anima  e  di  Corpo."    The 

details  in  connection  with  this  representation  are  curious,  and  will  be  found  in 

Burney's  History. 

CAVALIEBI  (Katharina).  Italian  soprano  vocalist,  B.  near  Vienna,  1761. 
D.  June,  1801. 

CAVALLI   (Pietro  Francesco),  or  Caletto.     Italian  comp.  and  org.,  B. 
Crema,  Venice,  1610  [1599].      Singer  in  choir  of  St.  Mark's,  Venice,  under 
Monteverde,  1617.      Second  org.  at  St.  Mark's,  1640.      Went  to  Paris  on  in- 
vitation of  Cardinal  Mazarine,  1660.      Returned  to  Venice,  1665.      First  org. 
at  St.  Mark's,  1665.      Chap.-master  of  St.  Mark's,  Nov.,  1668.      D.  Venice, 
Jan.  14,  1676. 
Works. — Operas:  Le  Nozze  di  Teti  e  di  Peleo,  1639;  Gli  amori  d' Apollo  e 
Dafne,    1640 ;  La  Didone,   1641  ;  Amore  innamorato,   1642;   La  virtu  de'  strali 
d'amore,  1642;  Narciso  ed  Eco  immortalati,  1642;  L'Egisto,  1643;  La  Deidamia, 
1644 ;  II  Titone,  1644 ;  II  Romolo  ed  il  Remo,  1644 ;  La  prosperity  infelice  de 
Giulio  Cesare  dittatore,  1646;  La  Torilda,  1648;  Giasone,  1649;  L'Euripo,  1649; 
La  Bradamante,  1650;  L'Orimonte,   1650;  L'Aristeo,  1651  ;  Alessandro  vincitor 
di  se   Stesso,   165 1  ;  L'Armidero,   1651  ;   La  Rosinda,   1651  ;    La  Calista,   165 1 ; 
L'Eritrea,  1652  ;  Veremonda,  1652 ;  L'Amazone  d'Aragona,  1652  ;  L'Elena  rapita 
da  Teseo,  1653;  Xerse,   1654;  La  Statira,  1655;  L'Erismena,  1655;  Artemisia, 
1656 ;  Antioco,   1658  ;  Elena,    1659 ;   Scipione  Africano,    1664 ;   Muzio  Scevola, 
1665  ;  Ciro,  1665  ;  Pompeo  Magno,  1666  ;  Egisto,  1667  ;  Coriolano,  1660.     Sacred 
and  other  music."    Cavalli  was  a  celebrated  vocalist,  and  one  of  the  first  to  employ 
airs  and  recitatives  in  his  operas  in  a  dramatic  manner.       He  is  also  mentioned  as 
the  first  to  have  used  modulations  to  express  changes  of  feeling  or  sentiment  in  his 
dramatic  music,  and  was  noted  for  his  careful  regard  to  correct  and  appropriate 

CAVALLINI  (Ernesto).  Italian  clarionet-player,  B.  Milan,  Aug.  30,  1807. 
p.  Milan,  Jan.  7,  1874.    Composer  of  concertos,  variations,  airs,  caprices,  and 

CAV  — CEL  151 

other  pieces  for  his  instrument.      He  was  a  celebrated  performer  on  the 
clarionet,  but  a  somewhat  mediocre  composer. 

CAVE-ASHTON  (Gertrude)  nie  Holman  Andrews,  English  soprano  voca- 
list, B.  London,  April  17,  1855.  S.  under  her  mother  and  Thorpe  Pede. 
i)/4«^  at  the  Alexandra  (Park)  Theatre,  1873.  Married  to  Mr.  Cave,  1875. 
Sang  in  Provinces  with  Mr.  Sims  Reeves,  etc.  ;  and  during  1877  with  the 
Hersee  Opera  Company.  Has  since  appeared  at  many  important  concerts  in 
London  and  the  Provinces. 

CAVENDISH  (Michael).  English  comp.,  flourished  during  latter  portion  of 
sixteenth  century.  He  composed  "Ayresfor  Four  Voyces,"  IS99;  and  con- 
tributed the  five-part  madrigal  "  Come,  gentle  swains  "  to  the  "Triumphs  of 
Oriana,"  1601.  He  also  aided  in  harmonising  "The  Whole  Booke of  Psalmes," 
1592.     His  biography  has  not  been  preserved. 

CAVOS  (Catterino).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Venice,  1775.  D.  April  28,  1840. 
Wrote  operas,  songs,  etc. 

CAZALET  (Rev.  William  Wahab,  M.A.)  English  divine  and  writer,  B. 
about  commencement  of  present  century. 
Works. — The  History  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  compiled  from  Authentic 
Sources,  Lond.,  8vo,  1854 ;  On  the  right  Management  of  the  Voice  in  Speaking 
and  Reading,  with  some  remarks  on  Phrasing  and  Accentuation,  Lond,,  8vo,  1855 
(third  edit.,  8vo,  i860) ;  The  Voice,  or  the  Art  of  Singing,  Lond.,  8vo,  1861  ;  On 
the  Reading  of  the  Church  Liturgy,  8vo,  1862;  Exhibition  Lecture,  On  the  Musical 
Department  of  the  late  Exhibition,  Lond.,  1852. 

CAZOT  (Francois  Felix).  French  comp.,  B.  Orleans,  April  6,  1790.  S.  at 
Paris  Cons.     D.  1858.     Composed  operas  and  pf.  music. 

CAZZATI  (Maurizio).  Italian  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Mantua,  1620.  D.  [1677  ]. 
Chap. -master  at  Bologna.  Wrote  masses,  motets,  psalms,  and  canzonets, 
published  between  1645-85. 

CECCHEBINI  (Ferdinando).  Italian  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Florence,  1792. 
Prof,  of  singing  at  Florence.  D.  there,  Jan.  12,  1858.  He  wrote  songs  and 
teaching  pieces. 

CECELIA  (Saint).  The  patron  saint  of  music,  B.  Rome  about  200  A.D. 
Martyred  230  A.D.  Her  connection  with  music  is  doubtful,  and  the  accounts 
of  her  miraculous  escapes  from  death  are  unauthenticated  or  mythical.  Odes 
for  her  day,  which  is  celebrated  by  Roman  Catholics  on  Nov.  22,  were  written 
by  Dryden  and  Pope,  etc.,  and  have  been  set  by  a  large  number  of  the  older 
composers.  Paintings  in  connection  with  her  martyrdom  and  otherwise  have 
been  executed  by  Raphael  and  Domenichino. 

CECIL  (Rev.  Richard).     English  divine  and  musician,  B.  London,  Nov.  8, 

1748.     S.  at  Oxford,   1773.     Deacon,   1775.     Priest,   1777.     Minister  of  S. 

John's  Chap.,  Bedford  Row,  London,  1780.     Rector  of  Cobham  and  Birley, 

Surrey,  1800.     D.  Hampstead,  Aug,  15,  1810. 

Works.— Selection  of  Psalms  and  Hymns  for  the  Public  Worship  of  the  Church 

of  England,  Lond.,  n.d.  ;  32nd  edition  issued,  1840;  Sermons,  lectures,  etc.    Best 

known  by  his  anthem,   "I  will  arise,   and  go  to  my  Father."      His  daughter 

Theophania  (B.  1782),  org.  of  S.  John's  Chap.,  edited  "The  Psalm  and  Hymn 

Tunes,  used  at  St.  John's  Chapel,   Bedford  Row;   .\rranged  for  Four  Voices." 

Lond.,  1814.     She  D.  London,  Nov.  15,  1879. 

CELESTINO  (Eligio).  Italian  violinist,  B.  Rome,  1739.  D.  Ludwigslust,  Jan. 
24,  1812.  Resided  for  a  time  in  London  as  teacher.  Composed  for  his  instru- 

CELLARIER  (Hilarion).  French  comp.,  B.  Florensac  (Herault),  March  12, 
1818.     Wrote  operas  and  Pf.  music. 

CELLI  (Filippo).  Italian  comp.  of  operas,  etc.,  B.  Rome,  1782.  D.  London, 
Aug.  21,  1856. 

IS2  CEL  —  CHA 

CELLIEB  (Alfred).  English  comp.  and  cond.,  [B.  London.]  Has  comp.  a 
number  of  melodious  works,  among  the  most  important  of  which  may  be 
named  "  The  Sultan  of  Mocha,"  an  opera  ;  "  The  Spectre  Knight,"  opera  by 
J.  Albery,  1878;  "After  All,"  vaudeville  by  F.  Desprez,  1878;  "In  the 
Sulks,"  operetta,  1880  ;  Gray's  Elegy,  Leeds  Festival,  1883;  Part-songs,  songs, 
and  other  music. 

CELLINI  (Francesco).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Fermo,  May  5,  1813.  D.  Aug.  19, 
1873.     Comp.  chiefly  for  the  church. 

CEBTOIT  (Pierre).  French  comp.  and  org.,  flourished  during  l6th  century. 
Master  of  children  of  the  Holy  Chapel  at  Paris.  Comp.  31  Psalms,  4  Masses, 
a  Requiem,  and  numerous  motets. 

CERViETTO  (Giacomo  Bassevi),  Italian  violoncello  player,  B.  1682.  D. 
London,  Jan.,  1783.  Was  a  celebrated  performer,  and  became  latterly 
manager  of  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  London. 

CESTI  (Padre,  Marco  Antonio).    Italian  comp.,  B.  Arezzo,  1620  4.    S.  under 
Carissirai.     Chap.-master  at  Florence,  1646.     Resided  at  Rome,  1658.    Tenor 
singer  in  the  Vatican  chap.,   1660.     Chap.-master  to  the  Emperor  Leopold, 
1661-67.     D.  Rome,  1675  [1681]. 
Works. — Operas:    Orontea,    1649;    Cesare  Amante,    1651;    La  Dari,    0  lo 
Schiavo  regio,  1663  ;  Tito,  1666  ;  La  Schiava  fortunata  (with  Ziani)  ;  Argene, 
1668  ;  Genserico,  1669  ;  Argia,  1669 ;   II  Pomo  d'  oro  ;  cantatas  and  miscell- 
aneous mueic. 
Cesti  is  best  known  by  his  cantatas,  of  which  he  composed  a  vast  number,  many 
being  in  the  Music  School  of  Oxford,  the  British  Museum,   and  in  Continental 
libraries.     He  was,  with  Carissimi,  one  of  the  improvers  of  melody,  and  the  sup- 
posed inventor  of  the  cantata. 

CEDPPENS  (Victor).  Belgian  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Brussels,  July  28,  1835.  S.. 
under  Fetis,  Boisselet,  Lemmens,  etc.     Comp.  masses,  org.  music,  songs,  etc. 

CHADWICK  (George  W.).  American  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Lowell,  Mass., 
Nov.  13,  1854.  S.  under  E.  Thayer.  Engaged  in  Olivet  Coll.,  Mich.,  1876. 
S.  in  Leipzig,  Germany,  under  Jadassohn  and  Reinecke.  S.  at  Munich  under 
Rheinberger,  1879.  Returned  to  America,  1880.  Org.  Park  St.  Ch.,  Boston. 
Prof,  of  harmony,  comp.,  etc.,  in  New  England  Cons,  of  Music,  Boston. 
Works. — Trio  in  C  minor,  1877  ;  Quartet  in  G  minor,  1878  ;  Quartet  in  C, 

1879  ;  Overture  :  Rip  Van  Winkle,  1879  (prize)  ;  Symphony  for  orch.  in  C,  1882  ; 

Pianoforte  music;   Songs  and  other  vocal  music;   Ballad:  "The  Viking's  Last 

Voyage,"  male  chorus  and  orch.;  Overture  :  Thalia,  etc. 

CHALLEN  &  SONS.  English  firm  of  Pianoforte  Manufacturers,  established  in 
London  in  1804.  Awarded  prize  medals  at  Exhibitions  of  London  (1862). 
S.  Africa  (i877),_  Paris  (1878),  Melbourne  (i88i),  etc.,  for  the  general  excel- 
lence and  durability  of  their  instruments.  They  have  been  foremost  amongst 
English  makers  in  the  development  of  the  Iron  Frame  system  of  construction. 
Their  pianettes  and  upright  Iron  Pianos  enjoy  a  wide  popularity,  and  their 
merits  have  been  attested  by  many  eminent  authorities. 

CHALLONEB  (Neville  Butler).     English  harpist  and  violinist,  B.  London, 
1784.     S.  in  London.     Dibut  as  violinist,  1793.     Violinist  at  Covent  Garden 
Theatre,  1796.     Leader  at  Richmond  Theatre,  1799.     Leader  at  Birmingham, 
Sadler's  Wells,  etc.     Harpist  at  Italian  Opera,  London.     Tenor  player  at  the 
Philharmonic  Society.     Latterly  a  music  seller.     D.  (?) 
Works.— Method  for  the  Violin,  Lond.,  n.  d.     New  Guida  di  Musica,  or  In- 
structions for  Beginners  on  the  Pianoforte,  fo.,  n.  d.     Method  for  Guitar,  n.  d.  ; 
Method  for  Flute,  n.  d.  ;  Method  for  the  Harp,  n.  d.     Romance  and  Polacca  for 
Harp,  op.  14;  Two  Duets  on  Scotch  Airs,  op.  10;  Three  Duets  (Trans.),  op.  15  ; 
Duet   Concertante  for  Harp,   op.   22.      Miscellaneous  works  for    Harp  and   Pf. 
Harmonia  Sacra,  4  books,   Lond.,  fo.,  n.  d.     Lays  of  Harmony,  or  the  Musical 
Scrap  Book,  1830.     National  Airs  [1830],  etq. 

CHA  —  CHA  153 

CHALLONER  (Robert).  American  musician,  author  of  "History  of  the 
Science  and  Art  of  Music,  its  Origin,  Development  and  Progress...,"  Cin- 
cinnati, 8vo,  1880. 

CHAMBONNIERES  (Jacques  Champion  de).  French  org.  and  comp.  who 
flourished  during  17th  cent.  D.  1670.  His  compositions  consist  of  pieces  for 
the  organ  and  clavichord,  and  are  remarkably  pretty  in  style  as  well  as  very 

CHAMFEIN  (Stanislas).  French  comp.,  B.  Marseilles,  Nov.  jg,  1753.  S.  at 
Paris.     D.  Sept.  19,  1830.     Wrote  operas,  songs,  etc. 

CHAMPNESS  (Samuel).  English  bass  singer,  B.  [1730].  He  sang  in  concert 
and  dramatic  music  at  the  end  of  the  i8th  century.  Busby  speaks  favourably 
of  his  voice,  saying  that  it  was  rich  and  round-toned  and  universally  admired. 
His  biography  does  not  appear  to  have  been  very  fully  recorded.  He  D. 
Sept.,  1803. 

CHANOT  (Georges).  French  violin-maker.  B.  Mirecourt,  March  26,  1801. 
D.  Conrcelles,  near  Paris,  Jan.  10,  1885.  In  company  with  his  sons  he 
•  made  copies  of  Stradivarius  and  Guernerius  of  some  merit,  and  is  held  in 
much  repute  as  a  maker.  Another  Chanot  (Fran9ois),  made  violins  on  a  new 
principle  which,  though  submitted  to  the  French  Academy,  have  never  gained 
great  favour.     He  was  B.  1787.     D.  1823. 

CHAPPELL  (William).     English  writer  and  antiquary,  B.  London,  Nov.  20, 
1809.     Brought  up  in  music  publishing  business  with  his  Father.    Engaged  in 
musical  antiquarian  studies.     Founded  (with  others)  the  Percy  Society,  1840. 
Fojinded  the  Musical  Antiquarian  Society,  1840.     F.S.A.,  1840.     Partner  in 
the  firm  of  Cramer  &  Co.,  1843.     Treasurer  of  the  Camden  Society,  etc.     Is 
connected  with  a  number  of  Learned  and  Antiquarian  Societies. 
Works. — A  Collection  of  National  English  Airs,  consisting  of  Ancient  Song, 
Ballad,  and  Dance  Tunes,  Interspersed  with  Remarks  and  Anecdotes,  and  preceded 
by  an  Essay  on  English  Minstrelsy ;  the  Airs  harmonized  for  the  Pianoforte  by  Dr. 
Crotch,  G.  A.  Macfarren,  and  J.  A.  Wade.     Lond.,  4to,  part  I.,  1838;  II.,  1839; 
III.,  1840.     Popular  Music  of  the  Olden  Time  :  a  Collection  of  Ancient  Songs, 
Ballads,  and  Dance  Tunes,  Illustrative  of  the  National  Music  of  England,  etc. 
Lond.,  Cramer,  2  vols.,  8vo  [1845-59].     Old  English  Ditties,  Lond.,  2  vols.,  4to, 
n.d.     History  of  Music,  Art  and  Science,  from  the  earliest  records  to  the  fall  of  the 
Roman  Empire,  with  explanations  of  Ancient  Systems  of  Music,  Musical  Instru- 
ments,  and  of  the  true  Physiological  Basis  for  the  Science  of  Music,  whether 
Ancient  or  Modern,  Vol.  I.,  Lond.,  8vo,  1874.       Edited  works  (Collections  of 
Ancient  Poetry)  for  the  Ballad,  Percy,  and  Camden  Societies. 

Previous  to  the  appearance  of  Mr.  Chappell's  work  in  1838-40  it  had  been 
customary  to  regard  English  national  music  either  as  non-existent  or  unworthy  of 
preservation.  The  want  of  a  genuine  lyrical  poet  to  collect  and  adapt  such  melodies 
as  existed  to  pure  verse  was  no  doubt  the  cause  of  England  being  considered  lacking 
in  respect  to  national  airs.  In  Scotland  and  Ireland,  Burns  and  Moore  did  every- 
thing necessary  to  secure  universal  fame  for  their  national  melodies,  while  in 
England  the  works  of  RJr.  Chappell  have  done  everything  to  establish  its  title  to 
be  considered  a  most  musical  nation.  Mr.  Chappell  is  one  of  the  best  informed 
musical  antiquaries  living,  and  has  shown  in  his  work  on  the  History  of  Music 
much  careful  learning. 

CHAPPELL  &  CO.     English  firm  of  music  publishers,  established  in  London  in 
1812  by  Samuel  Chappell.     The  firm  was  originally  carried  on  by   Cramer, 
Chappell  and  Latour.     Samuel  Chappell  died  in  1834  and  was  succeeded  by 
his  son,  William,  as  above  noted. 
Their  publications  at  the  present  period  are  numerous  and  valuable,  and  include 
theoretical  works  by  Rimbault,  Richards,  etc.  ;  pianoforte  music  by  Ascher,  Bene- 
dict, Blumenthal,  Chopin,  De  Kontski,  C.  Dick,  Goodban,  Gounod,  Herz,  Kuhe, 
Lindahl,  Oesten,  Osborne,  Richards,  Rockstro,  Schubert,  Sloper;  arrangements  by 
C.  Hall^  and  Rimbault,  and  many  other  valuable  copyrights.     The  vocal  publi- 
cations consist  of  Chappell's  Musical  Magazine  (Songs  and  Pf.  music  in  books), 
operatic  part  songs,  vocal  library  of  part  songs,  etc.,  popular  operas  (arranged  for 

154  CH  A  —  C  H  A 

Pf.),  Songs  by  nearly  every  good  composer.     They  publish  also  Tutors  and  airs  for 
many  other  instruments,  and  a  large  selection  of  popular  music  for  the  harmonium. 

Messrs.  Chappell  have  done  much  to  foster  among  the  tniddle  classes  of  London 
a  taste  for  first-rate  chamber  music,  and  the  success  which  attends  their  "popular  " 
concerts  is  a  sufficient  testimony  to  the  fact  that  a  void  which  was  felt  by  the  public 
is  being  ably  filled.  The  best  performers  and  the  best  music  are  the  special  charac- 
teristics of  these  concerts. 

CHAPPLE  (Samuel).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Crediton,  Devon,  1775. 
Blind  from  childhood.     S.  Pf.     Org.  at  Ashburton,  1795-1835.     D.  [1845.] 

Works. — Five  songs  and  a  glee,  op.  3  ;  Six  anthems  in  score,  figured  for  the 
organ  or  Pf ,  op.  4;  A  second  set  of  six  anthems  in  score,  op.  5  ;  A  third  set  of  six 
anthems  and  twelve  Psalm  tunes  in  score,  op.  6  ;  The  eighteen  anthems,  republished 
(Ashdown  and  Parry)  ;  Three  sonatas  for  the  Pf.  ;  Six  songs  with  Pf.  accomp.; 
Anthem  for  the  coronation  of  George  IV.;  Single  Pf.  pieces  ;  Single  glees,  anthems, 
and  songs. 

Looking  to  the  fact  that  Chappie  was  blind — an  infirmity,  by  the  way,  which 
does  not  appear  greatly  to  interfere  with  a  musician  in  the  exercise  of  his  profession 
^it  may  be  said  that  his  anthems  are  fresh  and  correct,  and  his  glees  and  songs 
melodious  and  well  constructed,  showing  that  their  author  could  write  with  anima- 
tion as  well  as  science. 

CHABiD  (George   William).      English  comp.   and   org.,   B.    1765.     S.  under 
Robert  Hudson,  in  the  choir  of  S.   Paul's.     Lay-clerk  at  Winchester,    1778. 
Org.   of  Winchester  Cath.  and  Coll.     Doc.  Mus.  Cantab.,  1812.     D.  Win- 
chester, May,  1849. 
WoKKS. — Twelve  glees  (or  three,  four,  and  five  voices,  Lond.  [i8ii];  Services 

and  anthems,  songs,  etc. 

CHAEKE  (Richard).  English  violinist  and  comp.  of  middle  of  l8th  century. 
Married  to  Charlotte  Cibber,  whom  he  ill-treated,  and  from  whom  he  soon 
separated.  Notable  as  the  first  to  compose  medley  overtures  (Hawkins).  He 
died  in  Jamaica  of  disorders  brought  on  by  dissipated  habits. 

CHABLOT  (Joseph  AugUSte).  French  comp.,  B.  Nancy,  Jan.  21,  1827.  D. 
Sevres,  Aug.,  1871.     Comp.  songs  and  instrumental  music. 

CHARLTON  (R.).  English  writer.  Author  of  "  Reminiscences  and  Biogra- 
phical Sketches  of  Musicians, "  Lincoln,  1836. 

CHARPENTIER  (Marc  Antoine).  French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  1634.  Music 
director  to  Duke  of  Orleans.  D.  Paris,  1702.  He  comp.  a  number  of  operas 
and  other  pieces,  of  which  "  Medee"  achieved  some  fame. 

OHARTON-DEMEUR  (Anne  Arsene)  nie  Charton.  French  soprano 
vocalist,  B.  Saujon,  Mar.  5,  1827.  Married  to  M.  Demeur,  flutist,  1847.  She 
appeared  in  operas  by  Meyerbeer,  Halevy,  Donizetti,  Berlioz,  etc. 

CHASTON  (Jules).  French  comp.,  B.  Marseilles,  April  30,  1837.  S.  at  Mar- 
seilles Cons.     Wrote  operas,  Pf.  music,  songs,  etc. 

CHATTERTON  (John  Balsir).   English  harpist  and  comp.,  B.  Norwich,  1804. 
S.   under   Bochsa  and  Labarre.     Prof,    of  harp  at  R.A.M.     Harpist  to  the 
Queen,  etc.     D.  London,  April  9,  1871. 
Works. — Numerous  transcriptions  from  popular  operas  for  the  harp;   Songs 
with  harp  and  Pf.  accomp.,  etc. 

Chatterton  was  one  of  the  best  among  English  harp  players,  and  was  the  instruc- 
tor of  a  number  of  musicians  of  present  note. 

CHATJOER  (Geoffrey).  English  poet,  B.  London  [1321].  D.  1400.  He 
describes  in  the  "  Canterbury  Tales"  a  number  of  the  manners  and  usages  of 
his  times,  many  of  which  are  connected  with  music.  Extracts  in  this  connec- 
tion are  given  in  Hawkins'  "  History,"  and  in  Chappell's  "  Popular  Music." 

CHAULIEU  (Charles).  French  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Paris,  June  21,  1788. 
S.  under  Adam  and  Catel.  Settled  in  London  about  1840.  Teacher  and 
composer  there.     D.  London,  April  19,  1849, 

CHA  —  CHE  155 

Works.— Op,  i.  Two  Sonatas  for  Pf. ;  Sonatas  for  Pf.,  op.  11,  13,  17.  Grand 
Sonata  for  Pf.,  flute,  and  vn.,  op.  15.  Nocturne  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  flute.  Caprices, 
rondos,  variations,  dances,  etc.,  chiefly  on  airs  from  operas,  to  the  number  of  about 

This  composer  has  rapidly  declined  in  popular  estimation,  and  his  works  are  now 
known  only  in  the  school-room,  and  not  extensively  even  there.  His  works  were 
brilliant  show  pieces,  which  were  successful  in  their  day.  They  have  been  sup- 
planted by  a  more  powerful  and  earnest  school. 

CHAXJMET  (Gnillaume).  French  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Bordeaux,  April  26, 
1842.     Comp.  operas,  quartets,  songs,  Pf,  music,  etc. 

CHAUVET  (Charles  Alexis).  French  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Itfarnies,  June  7, 
1837.  S.  at  Paris  Cons.  Org.  in  various  churches.  D.  Argenton  (Orne),  Jan. 
28,  1871.     Comp.  fugues,  offertories,  and  other  organ  music. 

CHAVAGNAT  (A.  Pierre  E.)  French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  Oct.  17,  1845.  S. 
under  Masse  at  Cons.     Writer  of  choruses,  songs,  and  other  vocal  music. 

CHEESE  (G-.  J.)  English  org.  and  writer,  flourished  at  end  of  eighteenth 
century.  Was  org.  at  Leominster  and  teacher  in  London.  He  wrote 
"Practical  Rules  for  Playing  and  Teaching  the  Pianoforte  and  Organ,"  n.  d. 

CEELARD  (Hippolyte  Andre  Jean  Baptiste).    French  comp.  andcond., 

B.  Paris,  Feb.  i,  1789.    S.  under  R.  Kreutzer,  Gossec,  Mehul,  and  Cherubini. 

Gained  "  Grand   Prix  de  Rome,"  and   S.  in   Italy  under  Baini,   Zingarelli, 

Paisiello,   and  Fioravanti.     Violinist  at  the  opera,    Paris.     Chap. -master  to 

King  of  Bavaria,  Munich.     Cond.  the  great  Thuringian  Musical  Festival  at 

Erfurt,  1831.      Cond.  series  of  German  opera  in  London,  1832-33.      Musical 

director  at  Augsberg,  1836.     Chap.-master  at  Weimar,   1840.     D.  Weimar, 

Feb.  12,  186 1. 

Works. — Operas:  La  Casa  de  Vendere,  1815 ;  Macbeth,  1828;     La  Table  et 

le  Logement,   1829  ;  Minuit,   1829 ;   L'Etudiant,   1832 ;  Le  Combat  d'Hermann, 

1835  ;    Die  Seekadetten,    1842  ;   Scheibentoni.      Masses.      Miscellaneous  works, 

vocal  and  instrumental,  and  contributions  to  musical  literature. 

CHELL  (William).  English  writer  and  musician,  was  lay-vicar  and  precentor 
at  Hereford.  Mus.  Bac,  Oxford,  1524.  He  wrote  "  Musicse  Practicse  Com- 
pendium," "  De  Proportionibus  Musicis,''  etc. 

CHELLEKI  (Fortunio).  Italian  comp.,  B.  1668.  D.  1757.  Wrote  operas 
and  church  music. 

CHEKI  (Victor).  French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Auxerre,  Mar.  14,  1830.  S. 
at  Paris  Cons.,  at  which  he  gained  several  prizes.  D.  Paris,  Nov.,  1882.  Comp. 
ballets,  violin  and  Pf.  music. 

CHERRY  (John  William).     English  comp.  and  teacher,  B.  London,  Dec.  10, 
1824.     Self-educated  in  theory  and   on  Pianoforte.     Has  comp.  over  1000 
pieces,  of  which  the  following  are  the  best  known  ; — 
Works. — Will-o'-the-wisp  ;  Shells  of  ocean  ;  Beautiful  leaves  ;  The  Blacksmith  ; 
How  beautiful  is  the  sea ;   My  village  home  ;   Monarch  of  the  woods  ;   Estelle  ; 
Gentle  Spring ;  Sweet  Annie  ;  The  Invitation  ;  Silently,  silently  over  the  sea  ;  Trees 
of  the  forest ;  Upon  the  lonely  shore ;  Wanton  breezes,  whither  going  ;   Down  by 
the  sea  ;  Fair  Glen  Lochry ;  Home  again  to  England  ;  Seventh  day ;  Spirit  of  the 
whirlpool ;  Breath  soft,  summer  wind  ;  Summer  twilight  ;  Come  with  me  to  Fairy- 
land.    Duets:   Elfin  revels;   Hark!   there's  music  stealing;  Let  us  roam  away, 
etc.     Pf.  music,  dances,  etc. 

CHERUBINI  (Maria  Luigi  Carlo  Zenobi  Salvatore).  Italian  comp., 
teacher,  and  writer,  B.  Florence,  Sept.  14,  1760.  S.  under  his  Father, 
Bartolomeo  and  Alessandro  Felici,  and  Castrucci.  Sent,  at  instance  of  Grand 
Duke  Leopold,  to  study  under  Sarti  at  Bologna,  1777.  Resided  in  London 
and  held  post  of  composer  to  the  King,  1784-5.  Visited  Paris,  1786.  Returned 
to  Italy,  1787.  Settled  in  Paris,  and  became  director  of  the  Italian  Opera, 
1788.     Inspector  at  Paris  Cons.,  1795.     Married  to  Mdlle,  Cecile  Tourette, 

I56  CHE  —  CHE 

1795.     Chev.  of  Legion  of  Honour.     Visited  London  again,  iSlJ.     Returned 
to  Paris,  1S15.     Superintendent  of  the  Royal  Chapel,  1816.     Member  of  the 
"Institut."    Director  of  Paris  Cons.,  1822.     D.  Paris,  March  15,  1842. 
Works. — Op.   i.  Mass  in  D,   1773  ;   op.  2.   Intermezzo,  1773 ;   op.  3.  Mass, 
1774;  op.  4.  La  Pubblica  Felicita,  cantata,  1774;   op.   5,  Psalm,   1775;   op.  6. 
Mass  in  C,  1775  ;  op.  7.  Psalm,  1775  ;  op.  8.  Intermezzo,  1775  ;  op,  9.  Magnificat, 
1775;  °PP-  10  to  15.  Two  Lamentations  of  Jeremiah,  a  miserere,  etc.,  1776;  op. 
16.  Motet,   1777  ;   op.    17.   Oratorio   (name  unknown),   1777  ;    op.   18.   Te  Deum, 
1777  ;   op.  19  to  27.  Compositions  for  the  Church,  1778;   op.  28  to  36.  Composi- 
tions for  the  Church,  1779;  op.  37  to  47.  Church  music,  sonatas,  etc.,  1780;  op. 
48.  II  Quinto  Fabio,  opera,  1780 ;  op.  49  to  61.  Church  music,  sonatas,  etc.,  1780- 
1781  ;  op.  62.  Armida,  opera,  Florence,   1782 ;    op.   65.   Adriano  in  Siria,  opera, 
1782;  opp.  641078.  Nocturnes,  songs,   duets,  etc.,   1782;   op.   79.   II  Messenzio, 
opera,  1782;  op.  80-83.  Songs,  duets,  etc.,  1782;  op.  84.  II  Quinto  Fabio,  opera, 
Rome,  1783  (re-set) ;  op.  85-88.  Songs,  madrigals,  etc.,  1783  ;  op.  89.   Lo  Spose 
di  tre  Marito  di  Nessuna,  opera,  1783 ;  opp.  90-92.  Air  and  choruses  in  oratorio, 
1784 ;   op.  93.   ridalide,  opera,    1784  ;    op.  94.   L'Alessandro  nell'  Indie,  opera, 
1784  ;  opp.  95  to  100.  Airs,   etc.,   1785  ;   op.    loi.   La  Finta  Principessa,  opera, 
London,  1785  ;    II  Giulio  Sabino,  opera,   op.  11 1.  London,  1786  ;   Amphion,  can- 
tata, op.  112,  1786  ;  Ifigenia  in  Aulide,  op.  131,  1788;  Demophon,  opera,  op.  135, 
Paris,  1788;  Circe,  cantata,  op.  136,  1789;  Lodoiska,  opera,  op.  182,  Paris,  1791  ; 
La  Liberta,  cantata,  op.  199,  1793  ;  Kourkourgi,  opera,  op.  204,   1793  ;  Clytem- 
nestra,  cantata,  op.  207,  1794  ;   Elisa,  opera,  op.  209,  Paris,  1794  ;   Sixty-five  Sol- 
feggi (for  use  in  Conservatoire),  op.  212,  1795  ;   Med^e,  opera,  op.  214,  Paris,  Mar. 
I3>  1797  ;  L'  HStellerie  Portugaise,  opera,  op.  224,  1798  ;  La  Punition.  opera,  op. 
225,    1799;  Les  Deux  Journees  (The  Water  Carrier,   London,   1801   and   1824), 
op.    229,     Paris,    Jan.     16,     1800 ;     Epicure,     opera    (with    M^hul),    op.    230, 
1800 ;     Anacreon,    opera,    op.     241,    Paris,     1803  ;     Achille    a    Scyros,    ballet, 
op.    246,    1804;     Faniska,   opera,    op.    254,    Paris,    l8o6 ;     Pimmalione,    opera, 
op.    279,    Paris,    1809  ;    Le   Crescendo,   opera,   op.   283,    Paris,    1810 ;     Mass   in 
D  minor,  op.   295,   181 1  ;   Les  Abencerages,  opera,  op.   299,  Paris,  1813  ;   First 
quartet  for  strings,  op.  317,  1S14  ;    Overture  in   G   for  orch  ,  op.  318  (written  for 
Philharmonic  Soc.  Lond.),   1813;    Symphony,  op.  319  (written  for  same),  1815; 
Mass  in  C,  op.  325,  1816;  Mass  in  E  flat,  op.  338,  1816;  Requiem  in  C  minor, 
op.  349,  1816 ;  Mass  in  G,  op.  372,  1819 ;  Mass  in  A,   op.  403,  1825  ;  Ali  Baba, 
opera,  op.  417,  1833  ;  Quartet  for  strings  in  D  minor,  op.  419,  1834;  Quartet  for 
strings  in  E,  op.  421,  1835  >  Quartet  for  strings  in  F,  op.  424,  1835  ;  Requiem  in 
D  minor,  op.  426,  1836 ;  Quartet  for  strings  in  A  minor,  op.  427,  1837 ;  Quartet 
for  strings  in  E  minor,  op.  428,  1837.     Total  number  of  works,  including  minor 
pieces  not  enumerated  in  foregoing  list,  430. 

Cherubini  was  one  of  the  most  popular  of  the  many  composers  who  crowded 
Paris  in  his  day.  His  claims  to  recognition  rest  chiefly  on  the  clear  and  well- 
defined  character  of  his  writings,  together  with  the  great  contrapuntal  learning 
which  he  possessed.  Cherubini,  indeed,  may  fairly  be  reckoned  the  most  refined 
and  theoretically  able  composer  whom  Italy  has  in  modern  times  produced.  As 
to  ;he  enduring  quality  of  his  work  it  may  be  said  that  not  more  than  a  score  out  of 
the  many  above  noted  will  be  passed  to  posterity.  It  is  in  his  operatic  works  and 
church  compositions  that  Cherubini  is  fully  displayed  as  a  great  master.  Many  of 
his  minor  works  were  merely  occasional  pieces,  and  have  small  claims  on  the  atten- 
tion of  modern  musicians. 

"Though  the  style  of  Cherubini  belongs  more  to  the  German  than  the  Italian 
school,  still  he  cannot  properly  be  placed  amongst  the  artists  of  the  former  :  yet  his 
manner  is  less  Italian  than  that  of  Mozart ;  it  is  purer  than  that  of  Beethoven  ;  it 
is,  in  fact,  the  chaste  ancient  style  of  Italy,  refreshed  and  decorated  with  the  har- 
mony of  modern  times.  .  .  ,  Cherubini  is  not  to  be  ranked  with  those  musi- 
cians whose  labours  have  effected  revolutions  in  the  art  by  an  entire  transformation 
of  style.  Contemporary  of  Haydn,  of  Mozart,  of  Beethoven,  of  Rossini,  Cherubini 
seems  to  have  been  placed  by  nature  amongst  those  great  geniuses  as  a  moderator 
whose  wisdom  and  firmness  was  destined  to  counteract  the  ideality  of  the  satellites 
of  those  luminous  planets ;  as  Reason,  by  the  side  of  Imagination,  corrects  her  in 
her  eccentric  orbit,  and  focuses  her  scattered  rays.  The  works  of  this  master  wil] 
always  serve  as  models,  because  written  on  a  system  of  exactitude  almost  math?. 

c  M  E — CHI  t$'^ 

raatical,  and  consequently  exempt  from  the  changeable  affectations  of  time  and 
fashion,  they  will  survive  many  a  composition  of  more  startling  pretensions,  and 
which  may  have  reached  a  wider  renown  on  its  first  appearance." — Adolphe  Adam 
trans,  by  J.  iV.  Moore, 

As  a  teacher  Cherubini  was  greatly  celebrated,  and  numbers  among  his  pupils 
Auber,  Halevy,  Carafa,  Zimmermann,  Batton,  etc.  He  wrote  a  valuable  treatise 
on  counterpoint  and  -fugue,  trans,  as  "Course  of  Counterpoint  and  Fugue"  by  J. 
Hamilton,  Lond.,  2  vols.  8vo,  1837-41  ;  and  again  by  Mary  Cowden  Clark  in  1854, 
Lond.,  8vo  (Novello),  which  is  still  a  standard  text-book;  and  did  much  by  the 
encouragement  of  youthful  musicians  to  foster  a  high  standard  of  musical  culture. 
See  Cherubini,  Memorials  illustrative  of  his  Life,  by  E.  Bellasis,  Lond.,  8vo,  1874. 

OHEROUVRIER  (Edmond  Marie).  French  comp.,  B.  Sabl6,  Feb.  7,  1831. 
Writer  of  operas,  church  music,  etc. 

CHESHIRE  (John).      English  harpist  and  comp.,  B.  Birmingham,  March  28, 
1839.     Commenced  playing  the  harp  when  four  years  of  age.     S.  at  R.  A.  M., 
1852-55.     S.  afterwards  under  Prof.  Sir  G.  A.  Macfarren  and  J.  B.  ChaLterton. 
Harpist  at  the  Royal  Italian  Opera  from  1855.     Principal  Harpist  at  H.  M. 
Theatre,  1865.     Principal  Harpist  at  the  Grand  Opera,  Rio  Janeiro,  1858-61. 
Married  to  Miss  Maria  Matilda  Baxter,  Pianist,  1871.     Travelled  in  Norway 
and  Sweden  Concert-giving,  1879. 
Works. — Harp:  Six  romances,  1855  ;  Serenade,  Don  Quixote  ;  Album  of  Harp 
music,  24  pieces  ;  Miscellaneous  music  for  the  harp.    The  Buccaneers,  a  Cantata  for  4 
voices  and  orch.,  1866.     Pianoforte:  Six  easy  recreations;  Six  operatic  recollec- 
tions ;   Reverie ;    Souvenir  de  Brazil ;    Marche  Breselliene  ;    Valse  di  Bravoura  ; 
Patriotic  duet ;    Duet  in   B   flat ;    Zoe   Waltzes  ;    Chanson  d'Amour ;    Grazielle ; 
Gavotte  in   G ;    Mazurka   EspanhoU ;    La  Graceuse ;    Romance   in   G  ;    Second 
Gavotte  in  G.     Songs :  Cupid  the  conqueror  ;  Hurrah  for  bluff  King  Christmas  ; 
I  saw  thee  weep  ;    Spring  Song   (words  and  music)  ;    Only  thee  ;    The  fisher's 
daughter ;  The  withered  violet ;  When  her  we  love  is  nigh ;  Thoughts  of  the  far 
away  ;    O  never  call  mine  heart  thine  own  ;    The  Gerster  waltz.     Manuscripts : 
Overtures  for  orch.   in  B  flat,    D,  and  F  minor;    Cantata,   The  King   and   the 
Maiden  (libretto  by  Arthur  Matthison),  performed,  1866  ;  Diana,  opera,  written  in 
Brazil ;  etc. 

Mr.  Cheshire  is  a  harpist  of  the  school  of  Parish-Alvars,  and  is  well  known  in 
London  and  the  English  provinces  as  one  of  the  best  of  modern  performers. 

CHETHAM  (Rev.  John).  English  musician  and  divine.  Vicar  of  Skipton, 
Yorks.  D.  circa,  1760.  Published  "  A  Book  of  Psalmody,  all  set  in  Four 
Parts,"  8vo,  1718,  of  which  eleven  editions  were  issued  to  1787.  An  enlarged 
and  revised  edition  by -Houldsworth  was  issued  in  London,  1832. 

CHEVE  (EmUe  Joseph  Maurice).  French  musician  and  inventor  of  a 
musical  notation.  B.  Finisterre,  1804.  D.  Aug.,  1864.  Wrote  bopks  ex- 
planatory and  in  advocacy  of  his  system,  which  closely  resembles  the  English 
Tonic  Sol-fa.  His  "Theory  of  Music  "  was  translated  by  George  W.  Bullen. 
London,  1880. 

CHEYNE  (Edwin).  Scottish  writer,  author  of  "  The  Amateur's  Vocal  Guide 
and  Voice  Trainer.     .     .     ."    Glasgow,  8vo,  1879. 

CHIAVACOI  (VincenZO).  Italian  comp,,  B.  Rome,  1760.  D.  Warsaw, 
1815.    Wrote  comic  operas,  etc. 

CHICKERING'  &  SONS.  American  firm  of  Pianoforte-makers,  established 
at  Boston,  Mass.,  by  Jonas  Chickering,  in  1823.  Jonas  Chickering  was 
born  at  New  Ipswich,  N.  H.,  April  5,  1798.  He  was  the  son  of  a  black- 
smith, and  worked  at  Boston  with  John  Osborne,  a  Pianoforte-maker,  from 
1818.  He  commenced  business  for  himself  in  1823,  and  continued  to  prosper 
till  J852,  when  his  works  were  burned.  He  was  a  member  of  the  legislature  ; 
president  of  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society ;  and  was  far  famed  for  his 
charitable  virtues.  He  died  at  Boston,  Dec.  8,  1853,  and  was  succeeded  by 
his  son,  Colonel  Thomas  E.  Chickering,  who  served  during  the  Civil  War  in 

158  (JHt  — CHi 

command  of  the  41st  Mass.  regiment.      He  was  born  at  Boston,  22nd  Oct., 

1824.     D.  Feb.  14,  1 87 1.     The  firm  is  now  carried  on  by  members  of  the  same 


The  instruments  of  the  Chickerings  are  famed  for  their  great  solidity  and  rich 

quality  of  tone.      The  firm  has  kept 'pace  with  the  best  European  makers  in  every 

respect,  and  is  one  of  the  most  important  in  the  United  States.     The  Pianofortes  of 

Messrs.  Chickering  are  similar  in  style  and  quality  to  the  renowned  Broadwood 

instruments,  and  are  second  to  none  in  America.      The  operations  of  the  firm  are 

extensive,  and  they  have  branch  establishments  or  agents  in  every  important  town 

in  the  world. 

CHILCOT  (Thomas).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  beginning  of  iSth  century. 
Org.  of  Abbey  Ch.,  Bath,  1733.  Chilcot  is  chiefly  noted  as  having  been  the 
master  of  Thomas  Linley.  He  composed  two  sets  of  Concertos  for  the 
harpsichord ;  ' '  Twelve  English  Songs,  the  words  by  Shakespeare  and  other 
celebrated  poets  ;"  single  songs,  glees,  etc. 

CHILD  (William).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Bristol,  i6o5.     S.  under  Elway 

Bevin.     Mus.  Bac,  Oxlord,  1631.     Org.   of  St.  George's  Chap.,  Windsor, 

1632.     One  of  Org.  of  Chap.  Royal.     Chanter  of  Chap.  Royal,  1660.     Mem. 

of  King's  private  band.     Doc.  Mus.,  Oxon.,  July,   1663.     D.  Windsor,  Mar. 

23,  1697. 

Works. — The  First  Set  of  Psalmes  of  3  voyces,  fitt  for  private  chappells,  with  a 

continued  bass  either  for  the  organ  or  theorbo,  composed  after  the  Italian  way, 

Lond.,  1639  (2nd  edit.,  1650).     Divine  anthems  and  vocal  compositions  to  several 

pieces  of  poetry,  Lond. ;  Service  in  D  (Boyce) ;  Service  in  E  (Boyce) ;  Praise  the  Lord, 

O  my  Soul,  anthem  ;  O  Lord,  grant  the  King,  anthem  ;  O  Pray  for  the  Peace  of 

Jerusalem,  anthem  ;  Sing  we  Merrily,  anthem  ;  Services  in  G,  F,  and  A  minor  ; 

Court  Ayres  (a  Volume  of  Secular  Vocal  Music)  ;  Catches  and  Canons,  etc. 

Child's  compositions  are  very  simple  in  general  style,  and  his  counterpoint  has 
the  appearance  of  having  been  the  production  of  a  century  later.  ' '  At  times,  how- 
ever, as  in  his  service  in  D,  his  harmony  was  rich,  glowing,  and  closely  worked. 
Some  few  of  his  full  anthems,  without  any  great  depth  of  science  or  elevation  of 
genius,  possess  a  great  degree  of  warmth,  and  exhibit  imagination. "  He  paved  at 
his  own  expense  the  body  of  Windsor  Chapel,  and  was  otherwise  charitable. 

CHILMEAD  (Edmund).  English  scholar  and  musician,  B.  Stow-in-the-Wold, 
Gloucester,  •  1611.  Clerk  of  Magdalen  Coll.,  Oxford.  Canon  of  Christ 
Church,  1632.  Resided  with  Este  the  musician,  in  London,  1648.  D. 
London,  1654.  Wrote  "De  Musica  Antique  Grseca,"  printe4  at  the  end  of 
the  Oxford  edition  of  "  Aratus,"  1672.  He  gave  concerts  in  London  and  drew 
up  a  catalogue  of  the  Greek  MSS.  in  the  Bodleian  library.  "He  was  well 
versed  in  the  old  music,  and  vjfas  the  best  qualified  at  that  time  ...  to 
enter  upon  this  subject." — Heme. 

GHIPP  (Edmund  Thomas).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  London,  Dec.  25, 
1823.  Son  of  Thomas  Paul  Chipp  the  well-known  performer  on  the  kettle- 
drums and  harp.  Chor.  in  Chap.  Royal  under  William  Hawes.  S.  the  violin 
under  W.  Thomas,  J.  B.  Nadaud,  etc.,  1832-40.  Org.  (voluntary)  of  Albany 
Chap.,  Regent's  Park,  Lond.,  1843-6.  Mem.  H.  M.  Private  band,  as 
violinist,  1843-55.  Org.  S.  John's  Chap.,  Downshire  Hill,  Hampstead, 
1846-7;  S.  Olave's,  Southwark  (in  succession  to  H.  J.  Gauntlett),  1847-52; 
St.  Mary-at-Hill,  East-Cheap,  1852-6  ;  Royal  Panopticon  (in  succession  to 
W.  T.  Best),  1855;  Holy  Trinity  Ch.,  Paddington  (in  succession  to  C.  E. 
Stephens),  1856-62.  Mus.  Bac.  Cantab.,  Mar.  17,  1859.  Mus.  Doc,  do., 
June  21,  i860.  Org.  Ulster  Hall,  and  S.  George's  Ch.,  Belfast,  1862-6. 
Cond.  of  the  Anacreontic,  Classical  Harmonists,  and  Vocal  Union  Societies, 
Belfast.  Org.  of  Kinnaird  Hall,  Dundee,  Feb. -Nov.,  1866;  St.  Paul's, 
Edinburgh,  May  to  Nov.,  1866.  Org.  and  Master  of  Chor.,  Ely  Cath.,  Nov., 
1866.  Was  also  member  (org.)  of  the  Royal  Italian  Opera,  the  Philharmonic, 
and  Sacred  Harmonic  Society  Bands. 
Works. — Job,  an  Oratorio,  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orch.  ;  Naomi,  a  Sacred 

Idyll,  for  solo  voices,  chorus,  and  orch.     Music  for  the  Church  Service  and  home 

CHi — CHO  JI59 

circle,  containing  10  Sentences,  24  single  and  41  double  Chants,  4  Te  Deums,  2 
Jubilate,  2  Benedictus,  I  Te  Deum  in  unison,  2  Sanctus,  12  Kyrie,  4  Gloria,  2 
Magnificat,  Nunc  Dimittis,  4  Cantate  Domine,  Deus  Misereatur,  and  108  Church 
Melodies  in  short,  common,  long  and  irregular  measures,  by  various  authors.  Te 
Deum,  Jubilate,  Sanctus  and  Kyrie  in  D  ;  Church  Service  in  A  ;  Te  Deum  in  D  ; 
Gloria  for  male  voices.  Three  Studies  for  the  Organ,  op.  7  ;  Introduction  and  six 
variations  upon  Handel's  Harmonious  Blacksmith,  for  organ  ;  Do.  and  seven 
variations  on  God  preserve  the  Emperor,  for  organ  ;  Lord  of  all  power  and  might, 
anthem  ;  Part  songs  ;  Songs  and  miscellaneous  Church  and  Chamber  Music.  Dr. 
Chipp  has  for  long  held  a  leading  position  among  English  organists.  He  has  given 
recitals  in  various  parts  of  England,  and  has  been  everywhere  received  with  favour. 
His  style  and  execution  are  faultless.  Of  his  compositions  the  principal  are  Job 
and  Naomi ;  both  of  which  are  scholarly  and  effective  works.  His  services,  anthems, 
and  other  Church  works  are  all  impressed  with  the  same  marks  of  excellence,  and 
are  in  constant  use  among  British  Churches. 

CHIFP  (Thomas  Paul).  English  harpist,  Father  of  the  foregoing,  B.  London, 
May,  1793.  D.  June,  1870.  Well-known  as  a  drum  player  and  harpist. 
He  played  at  all  the  principal  festivals. 

CHISNEY  (E).     English  writer  of  "Concertina  Instruction,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1853. 

CHLADNI  (Ernst  Florens  Friedrich).  German  writer  and  acoustician,  B. 
Wittenburg,  Nov.,  1756.  Was  for  a  time  Prof,  of  Law,  but  latterly  devoted 
himself  to  the  study  of  Nature.  D.  Breslau,  April,  1827.  He  wrote  works 
entitled  "  Entdeckungen  iiber  die  Theorie  des  Klanges,''  Leipzig,  17S7; 
"  Die  Akustik,"  Leipzig,  1802  ;  "  Ueber  die  Lsengetjene  einer  Saite,"  Berlin, 
1792 ;  etc. 
In  these  works  he  records  the  results  of  many  experiments  in  acoustics  which 

resulted  in  the  discovery  of  a  number  of  previously  unknown   principles.     He 

invented  several  instruments  in  illustration  of  his  discoveries,  such  as  the  Euphon 

and  the  Claircylindre. 

CHOLLET  (Louis  Francois).  French  pianist,  org.,  and  comp.,  B.  Paris,  July, 
1815.  D.  Paris,  March  21,  1851.  He  was  a  brilliant  pianist,  and  wrote  a 
great  number  of  transcriptions  for  his  instrument. 

CHOPE  (Eichard  Bobert).  English  author  and  editor,  B.  Sept.,  1830.  Vicar 
of  St.  Augustine's,  S.  Kensington,  London.  Editor  of  Hymn  and  Tune  Book, 
1857-62  ;  Choir  and  Musical  Record,  1862.  Versicles,  Canticles,  Litany. 
Psalter  (Gregorian),  1862.  Choral  Communion  (Marbecke,  etc.),  1863  ;  Carols 
for  use  in  church,  1868-1876  ;  Easter  and  Harvest  Carols,  1884.  These  works 
are  all  well  known  at  home  and  abroad. 

CHOPIN   (Francois  Frederic),     French  comp.   and  pianist,   B.   at  Zelazowa 

Wola,  Warsaw,  March  i,  1809.     Son  of  Nicholas  Chopin,  a  French  teacher 

of  languages   from    Lorraine.       S.    at    Warsaw   under   Zywny    and    Eisner. 

Appeared   at  Vienna,    Prague,   and    Dresden,    1829.      Left    Poland,    1830. 

Appeared  iii  Berlin,  Munich,  and  London  as  pianist,  1831.     Settled  in  Paris, 

Sept.,  1831,  where  he  afterwards  lived  as  the  centre  of  attraction  to  a  large 

body  of  fashionable  and  itinerant  musicians.     Lived  with  Madam  Dudevant 

(George  Sand),  1836-1847.     He  visited  and  played  in  England  and  Scotland 

towards  the  close  of  his  life.     D.  Paris,  Oct.  17,  1849. 

Works. — Op.  i.  First  Rondo  for  Pf.  in  C  minor;    op.  2.   "La  ci  darem  la 

mano"  for  Pf.   and  orch.,  in  B  flat  minor;   op.  3.  Introduction  and  Polonaise 

brillante  for  Pf.  and  'cello  ;  op.  4.   Sonata  for  Pf.   in  C  minor  ;  op.  5.  Rondo  for 

Pf.  in  F  ;    op.  6.   Four  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  7.   Five  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  8. 

First  Trio  for  Pf.,  vn.,  and  cello  ;  op.  9.  Three  Nocturnes  for  Pf.  ;  op.  10.  Twelve 

Grand  Studies  for  Pf.  ;  op.  11.  Grand  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.  in  E  minor ;  op. 

12.  Variations  on  Herold's   "Je  vends  des  Scapulaires,"  for  Pf.  ;  op.  13.  Grand 

Fantasia  for  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  A;  op.   14.  Krakowiak,  grand  rondo  for  Pf.  and 

orch.,  in  F  ;  op.  15.  Three  Nocturnes  for  Pf  ;  op.  16.  Rondo  in  E  flat ;  op.  17. 

Four  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  18.  Grand  Valse  for  Pf.  in  E  flat  ;  op.  19.  Bolero  for 

Pf.  in  C  5  op.  20.  First  Scherzo  lor  Pf. }  op.  21.  Second  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch., 



in  ¥  minor  ;  op.  22.  Grand  Polonaise  brillante  for  Pf.  andorch.,  in  E  flat  ;  op.  23. 
Ballade  for  Pf.,  in  G  minor;  op.  24.  Four  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  25.  Twelve 
Studies  for  Pf.  ;  op.  26.  Two  Polonaises  for  Pf.  ;  op.  27.  Two  Nocturnes  for  Pf.  ; 
op.  28.  Twenty-four  Preludes  for  Pf.  ;  op.  29.  First  Impromptu  for  Pf.,  in  A  flat  ; 
op.  30.  Four  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  31.  Second  Scherzo  for  Pf.,  in  B.  minor  ;  op. 
32.  Two  Nocturnes  for  Pf.  ;  op.  33.  Four  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  34.  Three  Valses 
for  Pf.  ;  op.  35.  Sonata  for  Pf.,  in  B  minor  ;  op.  36.  Second  Impromptu  for  Pf.  ; 
op.  37.  Two  Nocturnes  for  Pf.  ;  op.  38.  Second  Ballade  for  Pf.  ;  op.  39.  Third 
Scherzo  for  Pf.  ;  op.  40.  Two  Polonaises  for  Pf.  ;  op.  41.  Four  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ; 
op.  42.  Valse  for  Pf.,  in  A  flat ;  op.  43.  Tarantelle  for  Pf.,  in  A  flat  ;  op.  44. 
Polonaise  for  Pf.,  in  F  sharp ;  op.  45.  Prelude  for  Pf.,  in  C  sharp  minor  ;  op.  46. 
Allegro  de  Concert  for  Pf.,  in  A  ;  op.  47.  Third  Ballade  for  Pf.  ;  op.  48.  Two 
Nocturnes  for  Pf.,  in  C  minor,  and  F  sharp  minor  ;  op.  49.  Fantasia  for  Pf.,  in  F 
minor  ;  op.  50.  Three  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  51.  Third  Impromptu  for  Pf.  ;  op. 
52.  Fourth  Ballade  for  Pf.,  in  F  minor  ;  op.  53.  Polonaise  for  Pf.  ;  op.  54.  Fourth 
Scherzo  for  Pf,  in  E;  op.  55.  Two  Nocturnes  for  Pf.  ;  op.  56.  Three  Mazurkas 
for  Pf.  ;  op.  57.  Berceuse  for  Pf.,  in  D  flat ;  op.  58.  Sonata,  in  B  minor  ;  op.  59. 
Three  Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  60.  Barcarolle  for  Pf.,  in  F  sharp ;  op.  61.  Polonaise- 
Fantasia  for  Pf.,  in  A  flat  ;  op.  62.  Two  Nocturnes  for  Pf.  ;  op.  63.  Three  Mazur- 
kas for  Pf.  ;  op.  64.  Three  Waltzes  for  Pf.  ;  op.  65.  Sonata  for  Pf.  and  'cello,  in  G 
minor.  Posthumous  Works  :  op.  66.  Fantasia- Impromptu  for  Pf.  ;  op.  67.  Four 
Mazurkas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  68.  Four  Mazurkas  ;  A  number  of  minor  and  detached  Pf. 
pieces  without  op.  numbers. 

Pianoforte  music  is  greatly  indebted  to  Chopin  for  much  that  is  beautiful  and 
original,  while  his  influence  has  been  considerable  over  succeeding  writers  of  the 
piano.  The  numberless  beautiful  forms  vifhich  Chopin  created  are  a  never  failing 
source  of  delight  to  every  musician,  and  stripped  of  the  silly  and  sentimental 
meanings  with  which  Liszt  and  other  writers  have  tried  to  invest  them,  are  as 
healthy  and  enjoyable  as  anything  ever  written.  It  is  not  within  the  range  of  this 
work  to  discuss  the  many  technical  points  involved  in  their  performance  or  construc- 
tion, and  the  reader  is  referred  in  consequence  to  the  valuable  Life  of  Chopin  by 
Moritz  Karasowski. 

CHOBLEV  (Henry  Fothergill).     English  musician,  art  critic,  novelist,  verse 
writer,  journalist,  dramatist,  general  writer,  traveller,  etc.,  B.  Blackley  Hurst, 
near  Billinge,  Lancashire,  Dec.   15,   1808.      Brought  up  for  mercantile  life. 
Commenced   connection   with   the    "Athenaeum,"    1830.      Member    of   the 
"Athenseum"  staff  1833-1871.     D.  London,  Feb.  16,  1872. 
Works. — Sketches  of  a  Sea-port  town,  3  vols.,  1835  (novel) ;  Conti  the  Discar- 
ded, a  novel,  3  vols.,  1835  ;  Memorials  of  Mrs.  Heraans,  2  vols.,  8vo,  1836  ;  The 
Lion,  a  Tale  of  the  Coteries,   3  vols.,   1839;  Music  and  Manners  in  France  and 
Germany,  3  vols.,  London,  8vo,  1841  ;  Pomfret,  a  novel,  1845  !  0'<i  '°™  ^"'^  "^^ 
fortune,  a  play,   8vo,   1850  ;  Modern  German  music,  recollections  and  criticisms, 
Lond.,   3  vols.,   8vo,    1854;    Roccabella,  a.  novel,   1859;     Thirty  years'  musical 
recollections,  Lond.,  2  vols.,  8vo,  1862  ;  Prodigy,  a  tale  of  music,  Lond.,  3  vols., 
1866 ;  Handel  Studies,   2  parts,   1859  ;  National  music  of  the  vs^orld,  edited  by 
H.  G,  Hewlett,  8vo,  1880  ;  Librettos  for  Wallace's  Amber  Witch  ;  Bennett's  May 
Queen,    etc. ;    Translations    of   Mercadante's    Elena   da   Feltre ;    Cimarosa's   II 
Matrimonio  Segreto  ;  H&old's  Zampa  ;  Auber's  Haydee  ;  Mendelssohn's  Son  and 
Stranger,  etc. 

Chorley  was  too  many-sided  ever  to  attain  great  distinction  in  any  one  of  the 
numerous  walks  he  attempted.  His  musical  writings  possess  greater  literary  merit 
than  most  of  the  English  work  of  the  same  period,  but  the  judgments  formed  in 
them,  especially  with  regard  to  Mendelssohn,  have  long  since  been  overturned. 
His  "Autobiography,  Memoir,  and  Letters,"  edited  by  Henry  G.  Hewlett,  was 
published  in  London,  2  vols.,  1873,  with  a  photograph. 

CHOBON  (Alexander  Etienne).      French  comp.   and  writer,  B.  Caen,  Oct. 

21,  1771.      Director  of  the  Academic  Royal  de  Musique,   i8i6'l7.       Founder 

and  director  of  the   Institution    Royal    de    Musique,    1824-30.       Master   of 

Monpou,  Duprez,  Scudo,  etc.     D.  Paris,  June  29,  1834. 

Works. — Principes  de  Composition  des  ^coles  d'ltalie,  etc.,  Paris,  fo.,  3  v., 

1808  ;    Dictionnaire  Historique  des  Musiciens,   par  Choron  et  Fayolle,   Paris,   1 

CHO  —  CHW  l6l 

vols.,  1810-H  ;  Methode  ^l^mentaire  de  Musique,  1811.  Other  didactic  works  in 
association  with  Fiocchi,  Lafage,  etc.  Masses,  psalms,  songs,  etc.  M^thode  con- 
certante  de  Musique,  Paris,  1833. 

CHOTEK  (Franz  Xaver).  German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Liebisch,  Oct., 
1800.  D.  Vienna,  May,  1852.  His  worlcs  are  mostly  arrangements  and 
transcriptions  for  the  Pf. 

CHOUQUET  (Adolphe  Gustave).      French  musician  and  writer,  B.  Havre 
April  i6,   1819.     Keeper  of  the  Museum  of  Paris  Cons.     He  is  author  of 
"  Historic  de  la  Musique  Dramatique  en  France,  depuis  ses  origines  jusqu'a  nos 
jours,"  Paris,   8vo,    1873,   and  of  a   number  of  valuable  articles  on  French 
musicians  in  Sir  G.  Grove's  "  Dictionary  of  Music  and  Musicians." 

CHRISTIE  (William).  Scottish  collector  and  Dean  of  Moray,  compiled 
"Traditional  Ballad  Airs,  arranged  and  harmonised  for  the  Pianoforte  and 
Harmonium,  from  copies  procured  in  the  counties  of  Aberdeen,  Banff,  and 
Moray,  by  W.  Christie,  M.A.,  and  the  late  Wm.  Christie,  Monquhitter, 
edited  by  W.  Christie,  M.A.,  Dean  of  Moray,"  etc.  Edin.,  2  vols.,  4to, 
1876-1881.  A  very  handsome  and  interesting  work,  containing  a  number  of 
previously  uncollected  airs. 

CHBYSANDEB  (Friedrich).  German  writer,  B.  Ltlbthee,  Mecklenburg, 
July  8,  1826.  Has  written  "  Ueber  die  Moll-Tonart  in  den  Volkges^ngen, 
und  ueber  das  Oratorium,"  Schwerin,  1853.  "G.  F.  Handel  (eine  kunsthisto- 
riche  Biographic),"  Leipzig,  3  vols.,  1858-67.  "  Jahrbiicher  fiir  Musikalische 
Wissenschaft, "  2  vols.,  1863-67.  Also  author  of  many  contributions  to 
periodical  literature. 

CHURCH  (John).  English  composer,  B.  Windsor,  1675.  Chor.  of  S.  John's 
Coll.,  Oxford.  Gent,  of  Chap.  Royal,  1697.  Lay-vicar  Westminster  Abbey, 
Choir-master,  do.  D.  Westminster,  Jan.  5,  1741-  Author  of  an  Introduction 
to  Psalmody,  containing  useful  Instructions  for  young  Beginners,  explained 
in  a  familiar  and  easie  manner,  Lond.,  8vo,  1723.  Anthems,  songs,  etc.  A 
number  of  Church's  anthems  are  very  fine  specimens  of  contrapuntal  writing,  and 
are  occasionally  produced  at  the  present  time. 

CHURCH  (John  and  Co).  American  music-publishing  firm,  established  at 
Cincinnati,  by  John  Church,  in  1844.  The  firm  is  one  of  the  most  important  and 
best  known  in  the  United  States,  and  has  issued  a  number  of  good  publications. 
Messrs.  Church  publish  the  magazine  known  as  "Church's  Musical  Visitor," 
which  contains,  in  addition  to  music,  a  great  variety  of  interesting  matters. 
The  principal  publications  issued  by  the  firm  in  addition  to  sheet  music,  are 
music  books  embracing  theoretical  and  practical  treatises  ;  school  music  books  ; 
cantatas ;  glee  and  chorus  music ;  convention  and  temperance  books ; 
masses ;  collections  of  church  music ;  and  a  fe^y  works  on  general  musical 

CHURCHILL  ( ? )  English  pianist  and  comp.  who  flourished  in  London  at  end 
of  last  and  beginning  of  present  century.  He  wrote  a  number  of  works  for  his 
instrument,  including  Three  Sonatas  for  Pf.  and  violin  ;  Six  Duos  for  2  vns., 
op.  2  ;  Six  Duos  for  violin  and  alto;  Ten  Progressive  Lessons  for  Pf.,  op. 
10 ;  etc. 

CHURCHYARD  (Thomas).  English  poet  and  musician  who  flourished  during 
the  i6th  century.  Wrote  "The  Commendation  of  Musyke  by  Churchyarde," 
1562.    For  other  works  see  Hazlitt's  "  Handbook  of  Poetical  Literature,"  1867. 

CHWATAL  (Franz  Xaver).     Bohemian  comp.,  B.  Rinnburg,  July  19,  1808. 
Commenced  study  of  Pt.,  1814.     Studied  at  Prague  Cons.    Resided  for  a  time 
at  Magdeburg,  1835.      Writer  in  musical  journals  and  teacher.      D.  Soolbade 
Elmen,  June  24,  1879. 
Chwatal  was  a  comp.  of  some  repute,  and  his  works  are  very  voluminous,  in- 
cluding theoretical  books,  all  kinds  of  Pf.  music,  songs,  etc.,  a  number  of  which 
will  be  found  in  the  catalogues  of  the  leading  English  publishers, 


l62  CIA  —  CIM 

CIANCHETTI  (Pio).     Italian  comp.,  B.   London,  1799.     Appeared  as  infant 

prodigy,  ,1804.    Travelled  through  Germany,  Holland,  and  France.     Returned 

to  London,  1805.'    Accompanist  and  cond.  to  Catalani.     Teacher  and  comp. 

in  London.     D.  Cheltenham,  1851. 

Works.— Pope's  Ode  to  Solitude.     Sixty  Italian  Catches,  for  two,  three,  and 

four  voices  (Martini),  edited.     Cantata  for  two  voices  from  Milton's   "Paradise 

Lost."     Concertos,  Pf  Music,  and  Songs.     Take,   O,  take  those  lips  away,  song. 

Music  by  Mozart,  and  Beethoven,  edited,  etc. 

This  clever  musician  was  at  one  time  well  known  and  popular,  though  now  un- 
known and  not  likely  ever  to  have  his  name  restored  to  popular  favour. 

CIANCHETTI  (Veronica),  nk  Dussek.  German  pianist  and  comp.,  mother 
of  the  above,  B.  Bohemia,  1779.  S.  under  her  Father.  Married  to  Francesco 
Cianehetti,  London,  1797.  D.  London,  1833.  She  composed  miscellaneous 
Pf.  music,  as  concertos,  sonatas,  and  transcriptions.    A  sister  of  J.  L.  Dussek. 

CIANCHI  (Emilio).     Italian  operatic  comp.,  B.  Florence,  March  21,  1833. 

CIBBER  (Susanna  Maria),  nie  Arne.  English  soprano  vocalist,  B.  London, 
Feb.,  1714.  S.  under  her  brother,  T.  A.  Arne,  etc.  Debut  in  Lampe's 
"  Amelie,"  1732.  Married  to  T.  Cibber,  1734.  Appeared  as  a  tragic  actress, 
1736,  in  Hill's  "Zara."  Sang  at  oratorio  concerts,  etc  D.  London,  Jan. 
30,  1766. 

CIFRA  (Antonio).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Rome  in  latter  part  of  i6th  century. 
S.  under  Palestrina.  Master  of  Loretto  Chap.,  Rome,  16 10.  D.  Rome, 
1629.  He  composed  a  number  of  motets  and  psalms  ;  and  ' '  Madrigali  a  5 
Voci,"  1617,  which  are  more  learned  than  pleasing. 

CIMA  (Griovanni  Paolo).  Italian  org.  and  comp.  who  flourished  at  Milan 
between  1591  and  1610.  He  wrote  some  learned  fugues  and  canons.  Other 
members  of  the  same  family  are  G.  B.  and  A.  Cima,  neither  of  great  renown. 

CIMAROSA  (Domenico).     Italian  comp.,   B.  Aversa,  Naples,  Dec.  17,  1749. 

S.    at   Cons.   Santa   Maria  di  Loreto,   1761-2.     Resided  at  Rome,   1772-80. 

Went  to   S.   Petersburg,  and   was  made  chamber  musician  to  Catherine  II., 

1787.     Chap. -master  to  Leopold  II.   at  Vienna.     Chap. -master  to  King  of 

Italy  at  Naples,  1793.     Imprisoned  for  promulgating  revolutionary  principles, 

1799.     Restored  to  liberty,  1800.     Travelling  back  to  S.  Petersburg,  but  on 

his  way  D.  Venice,  Jan.  II,  1801. 

Works. — Operas:  Le  Stravaganze  del  Conte,  1772  ;  La  Finta  Parigina,  1773; 

L'ltaliana  in  Londra,  1774;  Gli  Sdegni  per  amore,  1776  ;  I  Matrimonii  in  ballo, 

1776  ;  II  Fanatico  per  gli  antichi  Romani,  1777  ;  Le  Stravaganze  in  Amore,  1777  5 

La  Contessina,  1777  ;    I  due  Baroni,  1777  ;  Amor  costante, '1778  ;  I  Finti  Nobile, 

1778  ;  Gli  Amanti  comici,  1778  ;  II  Duello  per  complimento,  1779  ;  H  Matrimonio 

per  raggiro,  1779;  II  Riturno  di  Don  Calandrino,  1779;    Cajo  Mario,  1780;    II 

Mercato  di  Malmantile,   1780;   L'Assalonte,   1780;   L'Infedelta  fedele,  1780;  II 

Falegrame,   1780;    L'Avviso   ai   maritati,   1780;   Alessandro  nel  1'  Indie,    1781  ; 

L'Artaserse,  1781  ;  II  Capricio  dramatico,  1781  ;  II  Convito,  1782;  La  Ballerina 

amante,  1782;  Nina  e  Martufifo,  1782;  La  Villana  riconosciuta,  1783;  L'Oreste, 

1783;  L'Eroe  cinesq,  1783;  II  Pittor  parigino,  1783;    II  Barone  burlato,  1784; 

I  due  Supposti  conti,  1784;  Le  Statue  parlante,  1784;  Giannina  e  Bernadone, 
1785;  II  Marito  disperato,  1785;  II  Credulo,  1785;  Le  Trame  deluse,  1786; 
L'Impresario  in  Angustie,  1786  ;  La  Baronnessa  Stramba,  1786  ;  II  Valdomiro, 
1787;  II  Fanatico  burlato,  1787  ;  La  Felicita  inaspettata,  1790;  La  Cleopatra, 
1790  ;  La  Vergine  del  Sole,  1791  ;  II  Matrimonio  Segreto,  1792  ;  La  Calamita  di 
ciiori,  1793;  Amor  rende  sagace,  1793;  I  Traci  amanti,  1793;  Le  Astuzie 
femminili,  1794 ;  Penelope,  1794 ;  I'Impegno  superato,  1795  ;  Gli  Orazi  e 
Curiazi,  1794;  Achille,  1798;  L'Apprensivo  raggirato,  1798;  Semiramide,  1799; 
Artemisia,  1801.      Oratorios:  La  Guiditta,  1770;  II  Trionfa  della  religione,  1781  ; 

II  Martirio  di  S.  Gennero,  1781  ;  II  Sacrificio  d'Abramo,  1786.  Masses,  Cantatas, 

The  comic  operas  of  Ciraarosa  are,  in  the  matter  of  originality  of  idea  and  fresh 
melody,  equal  to  anything  produced  by  his  contemporaries.     The  only  one  out  ot 

CIN  —  CLA  163 

all  the  works  given  in  the  foregoing  list  which  has  preserved  any  degree  of  vitality 
is  "II  Matrimonio  Segreto,"  which  is  still  occasionally  produced,  and  has  been 
printed  in  England.  Cimarosa.  was  the  rival  of  Paisiello,  and  authorities  are 
divided  over  their  respective  merits. 

CINTHIE  (Laure).    See  Damoreau  (Laure  C.  M.) 

CIPRIANO  DI  BORE.     See  Rore  (Cipriano  di.) 

CLAGG-ET  (Charles).  English  violinist  and  inventor,  B.  London,  1755. 
Leader  at  theatre  in  Dublin.  Invented  a  number  of  instruments,  1776-90. 
Exhibited  them  in  London,  1791.     D.  1820. 

Works. — Six  duos  for  2  flutes.  Six  duos  for  2  violins.  Six  duos  for  violin  and 
violoncello,  op.  5.  "Musical  Phsenomena,  An  organ  made  without  pipes, 
strings,  bells  or  glasses,  the  only  instrument  in  the  world  that  will  never  require  to 
be  retuned.  A  cromatic  trumpet,  capable  of  producing  just  intervals  and  regular 
melodies  in  all  keys  without  undergoing  any  change  whatever.  A  French  horn 
answering  the  above  description  of  the  trumpet."     London,  4to,  1793- 

Cls^get  was  a  most  ingenious  mechanic,  and  aided  by  the  example  of  his  inven- 
tions, if  not  by  their  perfection,  in  reforming  some  of  the  systems  applied  to  keyed 

OLAGGET  (Walter).  English  comp.  and  pianist,  living  towards  end  of  last 
century.  He  composed  "A  new  medley  overture,  consisting  entirely  of  Scots 
tunes  and  thirty-six  of  the  most  favorite  Scots  airs,  to  which  is  added  the 
favorite  air  of  Chivey  Chase.  All  with  variations  for  2  violins,  or  2  German 
flutes,  and  a  violoncello,  also  adapted  to  the  Pianoforte."  Clagget's  Scots 
Tunes  for  the  Pianoforte  or  Flute.  Six  Solos  and  Six  Scots  airs,  with 
variations  for  the  viola  or  violoncello,  with  a  thorough  bass  for  the  Harpsi- 
chord, op.  2.     Miscellaneous  arrangements  and  teaching  pieces  for  the  Pf. 

CLAIEVILLE.    See  Nicolaie. 

CLAFHAM  (Jonathan).  English  writer  and  divine.  Rector  of  Wrampling- 
ham,  Norfolk,  during  17th  century,  He  wrote  "A  short  and  full  vindication 
of  that  sweet  and  comfortable  ordinance  of  singing  of  Psalms."     Lond.,  1656. 

CLAPISSON  (Antonio  Luigi).     Italian  comp.,   B.  Naples,  Sept.   15,   1808. 

S.  at  Paris  Cons.,  1830-35.     Gained  2nd  violin  prize,    1833.     Pupil  of  Habe- 

neck  and  Reicha.     Violinist  at  Paris  opera.     Chevalier  of  Legion  of  Honour, 

1847.     Mem.  of  the  Institute  of  France,  1854.     Prof,  of  Harmony  in  Paris 

Cons.,  1861.     D.  Paris,  March  19,  1866. 

Works.— 0/«roj.-  La  Figurante,   1838;  La  Symphonie,  1839;   La  Perruche, 

1840 ;  Le  Pendu,  1841  ;  Fr^re  et  Mari,  1841  ;  Le  Code  Noir,  1842  ;  Les  Bergers 

trumeaux,  1844  ;  Gibby  la  cornemuse,   1846  ;  Jeanne  la  FoUe,  1848  ;  La  Statue 

Equestre,  1850  ;  Les  Mystires  d'Udolphe,  1852  ;  La  Promise,  1854;  La  Fanchon- 

nette,  1856;  La  Sylphe,   1856;  Margot,  1857;  Les  trois  Nicolas,  1858;  Madame 

Gregoire,    1861  ;  Don  Quixhotte  et  Sancho,   1847  ;  Dans  les  Vignes,    1854, ;    Le 

Coflret  de  St.  Dominique,    1855  ;  Les  Amoureux  de  Perrette,    1855.    Romances 

and  Songs  to  the  number  of  over  200. 

Clapisson  was  a  fine  melodist  and  a  graceful  harmonist.  His  operas  are  flovnng, 
though  scmetimes  trivial,  and  were  very  popular  in  their  day.  He  is  now  princi- 
pally known  by  his  numerous  fine  songs. 

CLARE  (Edward).  English  writer  and  org.  of  present  century.  D.  [London], 
April  9,  1869.  Author  of  "Analysis  of  practical  Thorough-bass."  Lond.,  fol. 
[1835].  "A simple  guide  for  chanting  for  the  use  of  amateurs,  followed  by  the 
complete  service  for  the  Church,  and  twenty  psalms  from  the  Psalter,  carefully 
pointed  and  adapted  to  the  chants  in  general  use."    Lond.  (Cocks),  4to,  n.d. 

CLARI  (Giovanni  Carlo  Maria).     Italian  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Pisa,  1669.     S. 
under  Colonna.     Chap. -master  of  Cath.  of  Pistoja.     D.  [1745-6.] 
Works.— II  Savio  Delirante,  opera,  Bologna,  1695.     Stabat  Mater.     Mass,  for 
5  voices  and  orch.,  1712.     Collection  of  vocal  duets  and  trios,  1720.     Psalms  and 
miscellaneous  Church  music. 

164  CLA  —  CLA 

Clari  is  chiefly  celebrated  for  his  elegant  chamber  duets  and  trios,  which  at  one 
time  were  in  great  request.  His  Church  music  will  be  found  in  modern  collections, 
and  is  admirable  in  many  respects. 

CLARIBEL.     See  Barnard  (Mrs). 

CLARK  (John).  Scottish  collector  and  violinist  of  the  i8th  century.  Published 
"  Flores  Musicse,  or  the  Scots  Musician,  being  a  general  collection  of  the 
most  celebrated  Scots  Tunes,  Reels,  Minuets,  and  Marches,  adapted  for  the 
Violin,  Hautboy,  or  German  Flute,  with  a  Bass  for  the  violoncello  or  Harpsi- 
chord."    Edin.,  fo.  1773. 

CLARK  (Richard).      English  writer  and  singer,   B.  Datchet,   Bucks.,  April  S, 

17S0.     Chor.   in  St.   George's  Chap..   Windsor,   under  Aylward.     Chor.  at 

Eton  Coll.,  under  S.  Heather.     Lay-Clerk  at  St.  George's  Chap.,  and  Eton 

Coll.,    1802-11.       Secretary  of  the  Glee  Club.      Lay-Vicar  of   Westminster 

Abbey.      Vicar-Choral  of  St.   Paul's.      Gent,    of  Chap.    Royal,   1820.       D. 

London,  Oct.  5,  1856. 

Works. — Words  of  the  most  favourite  pieces  performed  at  the  Glee  Club,  Catch 

Club,  and  other  Societies,  London,  8vo,  1814.      First  volume  of  poetry,  revised, 

improved,    and    considerably    enlarged,    containing    the    most    favourite    pieces 

performed  at  the  Glee  Clubs,  etc.,   Lond.,  8vo,   1824.     Continuation,   1833.     An 

account  of  the  National  Anthem  entitled  "God  save  the  King,"etc.,  Lond.,8vo,  1822. 

Reminiscences  of  Handel,   His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Chandos,  Powells  the  Harper, 

the  Harmonious  Blacksmith,  and  others,  London,  fo.,  1836.     Reading  and  playing 

from  score  simplified,   Lond.,   8vo,    1838.     An  Examination  into  the  derivation, 

etymology,  and  definition  of  the  word  "Madrigale,"  Lond.,  8vo,   1852.     On  the 

sacred  oratorio  of  "  The  Messiah  "  previous  to  the  death  of  G.  F.  Handel,  17S9> 

Lond.,  8vo,  1852.     An  address  to  the  directors  of  the  Ancient  Concerts  on  the  high 

pitch  of  the  scale,  Lond.,  1845.     Glees,  anthems,  chants,  etc. 

The  reader  is  referred  to  Chappell's  "Popular  Music  in  the  Olden  Time  "  for  cer- 
tain exposures  touching  Clark's  works.  Apart  from  his  errors,  wilful  or  otherwise, 
Clark  has  done  much  good  to  the  general  cause  of  music  in  England,  by  his  anti- 
quarian researches. 

CLARK  (Rev.  Frederick  Scotson).     Irish  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Loridon,  Nov. 
16,  1840.     S.  under  his  mother  (a  pupil  of  Mrs.  Anderson  and  Chopin).    S.  Pf. 
and  harmony  under  Sergent,  org.  of  Notre  Dame.     Org.  of  Regent  Sq.  Ch., 
Lond.,  1855.     S.  organ  under  E.  J.  Hopkins.     S.  at  R.A.M.  under  Bennett, 
Goss,  Engel,  Pinsuti,  and  Pettit.     Org.  successively  of  a  number  of  London 
churches.     Founded  a  College  of  Music  in  London,  1865.     S.  for  the  ministry 
at  Oxford.     Org.  at  Exeter  Coll.,  Oxford.      Bac.  Mus.,  Oxon.,  1867.      Head 
master  of  S.  Michael's  Grammar  School,   Brighton,  1867.     Curate  of  Lewes, 
Sussex.     S.  at  Leipzig  Cons,  under  Richter,  Reinecke,  etc.,  and  was  assistant 
in  English  church  there.    S.  under  Lebert,  Pruckner,  and  Kruger,  at  Stuttgart. 
Returned  to  London,  1873.    Resumed  his  connection  with  the  Coll.  or  London 
Organ  School,  1875.     Represented  English  organ-playing  at  Paris  Exhibition, 
1878.     D.  London,  July  5,  1883. 
Works. — Organ:  Voluntaries;   Pastorale;  Douce  Pensee  ;  Andantes  in  F  and 
D  ;  Melodies  in  D,  A,  F,  and  E  flat  ;  Postlude  ;  Marches :  Anglaise,  aux  Flambe- 
aux, des  Fontomes,  des  Girondins,  des  Jacobins,  Militaire,  Belgian,  Commemora- 
tion, Festal,  HoUandaise,   Inauguration,   Pilgrims,   Procession,   Roman,   Russian, 
Vienna,  etc.  ;  Communions  in  D  minor,  F,  C  minor,  A  minor,   G  and   E  ;   Offer- 
toires  in  F,  D,  A,  G,  and  C  ;  Meditation,  in  B  flat ;  Fantasias  in  F,  etc. ;  Improvisa- 
tions in  B  flat,  C,  G,  F  ;  Impromptus,  prayers,  romances  ;  Gavottes ;  Minuets,  airs  ; 
Twelve  songs  from  Handel's  oratorios,  arranged  ;  Twelve  choruses  from  Handel, 
arranged  ;    Transcriptions,  various  ;   Harmonium :  Arrangements  from  foregoing. 
Voluntaries  ;  Reverie,  Romance,  Gavotte,  Ave  Maria,  Songs.   Same  for  Harmonium 
duet  ;  Meditation,  in  B  flat,  for  violin,  harmonium  and  Pf.;  Pianoforte:  Chinese 
march  ;  Midnight  march  ;  Indian  march  ;  Turkish  march,  etc.;  Mazurkas  :  Clotilde, 
Hiilene,  La  Fleurette,  La  Zingara ;  Polkas,  Galops,  Valses,  and  minuets  ;   Barcar- 
olles, studies,   nocturnes,   melodies,   morceaux  de  salon  ;   Transcriptions,  various ; 
Sacred  Evenings  :  selections  from  various  composers  ;  Arrangement   for  Pf.  duet, 
etc.;    Vocal:  Kyrie  Eleison  and  Sanctus  in  E,  from  communion  service  No.  I  ;  Do. 

CtA  —  CLA  165 

from  No.  2  ;  Magnificat  and  nunc  Dimittis,  chant  service  in  F.  Cupid,  part  song  ; 
For  Queen  and  Fatherland,  part-song ;  Agnus  Dei,  sacred  song  ;  He  shall  convert 
my  soul,  sacred  song  ;  How  dear  is  home  to  me,  song ;  Lullaby  ;  Meet  me  once 
more  ;  Never,  my  child,  forget  to  pray  ;  The  sea  hath  its  pearls ;  Pussy,  etc. 
Didactic:  First  Steps  in  Organ- Playing,  Lond.  (Augener),  4to,  n.d. ;  First  Steps  in 
Harmonium-Playing,  (Do. )  4to  n.d. ;  First  Steps  in  Pianoforte-Playing,  do.  MS. 

Clark  was  one  of  the  most  accomplished  British  musicians  of  recent  times.  He 
gave  to  the  world  a  number  of  organ  pieces  of  the  greatest  brilliancy  and  effect ; 
refined  and  free  from  vulgarity.  As  an  instrumental  composer  he  will  doubtless  be 
better  known  to  posterity  than  as  a  vocal  composer,  as  his  works  in  the  latter  de- 
partiiient  do  not  possess  those  features  which  insure  a  continued  vitality.  His 
abilities  as  an  instructor  on  the  organ  were  well  known  in  London,  and  his  influence 
over  the  pupils  whom  he  instructed  was  lasting  and  healthy  in  its  effects.  His 
pianoforte  music  is  brilliant  rather  than  learned  in  style. 

CLARK  (Thomas).  English  comp.,  B.  Canterbury,  1775.  D.  there.  May, 
1859.     Best  known  by  his  psalm  tunes,  a  few  of  which  are  still  used. 

CLARKE  (Charles  E.  J.).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Worcester,  1796. 
Chorister  in  Worcester  cath.  Org.  of  Durham  cath.,  1812.  Org.  of  Wor- 
cester cath. ,  1814.     D.  [?] 

CLARKE  (Hugh  A.).  American  writer  and  comp.  Has  written  "  New  Method 
for  the  Pianoforte,"  Boston  (Ditson),  n.d.  ;  "  Improved  School  for  the  Parlor 
Organ  "  ;  Grand  Chant  Te  Deum ;  Anthems,  etc. 

CLARKE  (James  Hamilton).     Irish  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Birmingham,  Jan. 
25,  1840.     Chiefly  self-educated  in  music.     Apprenticed  to  a  land  surveyor, 
1855-61.     Org.  of  S.  Matthew's  ch.,  Duddeston,  Birmingham,  1852.     Entered 
musical  profession,  May,  1862,  as  org.  of  the  Parish  ch.  of  Parsonstown,  Ire- 
land.    Org.  of  Zion  ch.,  Rathgar,  Dublin,  1863.     First  violin  Dublin  Philhar- 
monic Soc,  1862.     Cond.   of  Belfast  Anacreontic  Soc,  Nov.  1864.     Org.  of 
Carnmoney  ch.,  Belfast,  Jan,,  1865.     Temporary  org.  and  choir-master  Llan- 
daffcath.,  Dec,  1865.    Org.  and  cond.,  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford,  1866-7.     Bac. 
Mus.,  Oxon.,  May,  1867.     Org.  and  choirmaster,  S.  Paul's  ch.,  Camden  Hill, 
S.  Kens.,  Lond.,  June,  1871.     Org.  of  S.  Peter's  ch.,  S.  Kens.,  in  succession 
to  (Sir)  A.  S.  Sullivan,  Mar.,  1872.  Accompst.  and  assistant  cond.  at  Promenade 
Concerts,  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  Aug.,  1873.     Travelled  on  tour  as  cond.  of 
Carlotta   Patti  concert  party,   1S73.     Leader  at  the  Opera  Comique,  Lond., 
1874-5.       Cond.    of  travelling   company   performing   Gilbert   and   Sullivan's 
"Sorcerer,"   1878.     Do.  with  "Sorcerer"  and   "  Pinafore,"  1878.     Musical 
director  and  comp.  at  the  Royal  Lyceum  Theatre,  London,  Sept.,  1878,  etc. 
Works. — Op.  i.  Capriccio  for  vn.  and  Pf.,  1852  ;  op.  7.  Overture  :  Thanistene, 
1859  ;  op.  44.  The  Lord  is  my  light,  anthem  in  8  parts,  gained  Coll.  of  Org.  first 
prize  ;  op.  68.  Praise  :  a  sacred  cantata  (degree  exercise),  June,  1867 ;  op.  78.  First 
Concerto,  Pf.  and  orch.,  in  D.  minor  ;  op.  79.  Romance  and  Polonaise,  vn.  and 
Pf. ';  op.  80.  Ode  to  Industry  ;  op.  93.  First  quartet,  Pf ,  vn.,  viola,  and  'cello,  in  E 
minor ;  op.  95.  Parade  March,  Gertiani,  1872  ;  op.  98.  Saltarello  for  orch.,  1874  ; 
op.  100.  Ballet  overture  for  orch.  ;   op.  loi.   First  symphony,  orch.,  in  F.,  Royal 
Albert  Hall,  Aug.,  1873  ;  op.    102.   Overture  composed  for   Birket  Foster,  Esq., 
1874 ;  op.  122   Second  symphony,  in  G  minor,  Promenade  Concerts,  Aug.,  1879  ; 
op.  123.  Concert  overture  ;  op.  134.  Overture  to  Hamlet,  1875  ;  op.  135.  Romanza 
cromatica,  for  flute  ;  op.  136.  Music  to  a  Ballet,  Alexandra  Palace,  1875  ;  op.  137. 
Overture:  Rob  Roy;  op.  153.  Second  gavotte,  for  strings;  op.  155.  Second  sonata,  flute 
and  Pf.  ;  op.  156.  Three  sonatinas,  Pf  ;  op.  157.  Romance,  flute  and  Pf.  ;  op.  159. 
Six  sonatas,  organ;  op.  161.  Two  choruses  and  ballet  music  in  reconstruction  of  "  Die 
Fledermaus,"  1876  ;  op.  166.  Six  movements  for  organ.  Part  I.  (36  pieces)  ;  op.  168. 
Part  2.  of  organ  music  (6  pieces) ;  op.  169.  Part  3  of  do.  ;  op.  179.  Two  andantes,  or- 
gan ;  op.  183.  Martial  Law,  a  musical  comedietta  in  one  act ;  op.  187.  Overture  : 
Nanon  ;  op.  188.  Romance  and  Tarantella,  'cello  and  Pf.  ;  op.  191.  Gavotte  in  F, 



mance  and  valse,  flute  and  orch.  ;  op.  201.  Incidental  music  to  "  Zillah,"  a  tragedy, 
1879;  op.  202.  Overture  and  incidental  music  (partly  from  Storace)  to  the  "  Iron 
Chest,"  revived  by  Henry  Irving,  1879  ;  op.  203.  Overture  and  masque  music,  etc., 
to  "Merchant  of  Venice,"  1879;  op.  206.  Operetta:  "Castle  Botherem, "  or  An 
Irish  Stew,  German  Reed's,  1880;  op.  207.  Orchestral  music,  etc.,  to  "lolanthe," 
1880  ;  op.  208.  Overture  and  incidental  music  for  the  "  Corsican.Brothers,"'Lyceum, 
Sep.,  1880  ;  op.  209.  Polonaise,  Pf.  and  orch.  ;  op.  210.  Overture  :  Cecile,  1880; 
op.  214.  Overture,  entr'acte,  choruses,  march,  dirge,  and  incidental  music  to  "The 
Cup,"  tragedy  by  Alfred  Tennyson,  produced  by  Henry  Irving  at  the  Lyceum 
Theatre,  London,  Jan.  3,  1881  ;  Songs,  part-songs,  etc. 

CLARKE  (James  P).  A  Scottish  musician,  who  held  a  good  teaching  position 
in  the  West  of  Scotland,  early  in  the  present  century.  He  edited  "Parochial 
Psalmody,  a  new  Collection  of  Psalm  Tunes,  to  which  are  prefixed  Lessons  in 
the  Art  of  Singing,"  Glasgow  [c.  1830],  2nd  ed.,  1832.  He  comp.  songs  and 
other  vocal  pieces. 

CLARKE  (James).  English  writer  and  teacher,  B.  London,  1793.  D.  Leeds, 
1859.  Author  of  a  "Catechism  of  Wind  Instruments,  containing  explanations 
of  the  scale  and  compass  of  each  instrument,  and  particular  directions  for 
writing  the  parts  of  flutes,  clarinets,  etc.,"  Lond.,  n.d.  "Instruction  Book  for 
Children  on  the  Pianoforte,"  Lond.,  n.  d.  "The  Child's  Alphabet  ofMusic," 
Lond.,  n.  d.  "  Exercises  in  Harmony,  designed  to  facilitate  the  study  of  the 
Theory  of  Music  and  the  Practice  of  Thorough  Bass,"  Lond.,  1832.  "  Cate- 
chism of  the  Rudiments  of  Music,"  Lond.,  n.  d.  "  New  School  ol  Music,  com- 
bining the  Practice  of  Singing  with  that  of  the  Pianoforte,"  Lond.,  11.  d. 

CLARKE  (Jeremiah).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  London,  1670.  S.  under 
Blow.  Chor.  in  the  Chap.  Royal.-  Org.  of  Winchester  Coll.,  1692-95. 
Almoner  and  master  of  the  Chor.  of  St.  Paul's  Cath.,  London,  1693.  Org. 
and  Vicar-Choral  of  St.  Paul's,  1695.  Gent,  of  Chap. -Royal,  1700.  Joint 
Org.  of  Chap.-Royal  with  Croft,  1704.     D.  London,  Nov.  5,  1707  [suicide]. 

Works. — Music  to  the  following  Plays :  Antony  and  Cleopatra  (Sedley),  1677; 
The  Fond  husband,  1676  ;  Titus  Andronicus,  1687  ;  The  World  in  the  Moon  (with 
D.  Purcell),  1697  ;  The  Island  Princess  (with  D.  Purcell  and  Leveridge),  1699. 
Ode :  Alexander's  Feast,  Dryden  ;  Ode  in  Praise  of  the  Island  of  Barbadoes. 
Services  in  G  and  C  minor.  Anthems :  Praise  the  Lord,  O  Jerusalem  ;  How 
long  wilt  Thou  forget  me  ? ;  I  will  love  Thee,  O  Lord ;  O  Lord  God  of  my  Sal- 
vation ;  Bow  down  Thine  Ear.  Songs  in  D'Urfey's  "Pills  to  Purge  Melan- 
choly." The  Assumption,  Cantata;  Lessons  for  the  Harpsichord  ;  Ten  Songs,  op. 
4  ;  Secular  music,  miscellaneous. 

Clarke's  anthems  are  all  of  a  high  degree  of  merit,  "Praise  the  Lord  "  being 
accounted  one  of  his  best.  His  secular  music  is  not  above  the  average  works  of 
his  time.  His  dramatic  music  is  not  sufficiently  matured  in  style  to  afford  any 
medium  for  comparison,  and  his  endeavours  in  that  direction  were  too  unimportant 
to  invite  criticism.  His  instrumental  productions  are  too  few  and  mediocre  to  call 
for  comment.  Although  by  no  means  so  good  or  so  great  a  composer  as  some  of 
his  contemporaries  Clarke  is  deserving  of  much  credit  for  the  good  music  he  has 
written  for  the  Church,  which  is  still  in  constant  use. 

CLARKE  (Jessie  Murray).  English  writer,  authoress  of  "How  to  Excel  in 
Singing  and  Elocution.     A  manual  for  lady  students,"  Lond.,.  1884. 

CLARKE   (John),  CLARK-WHITFIELD.     English  comp.    and  org.,    B. 
Gloucester,  Dec.   30,   1770.     S.   under  Philip  Hayes.     Org.  of  S.  Laurence's 
Ludlow,   1789.     Mus.  Bac,  Oxon.,   1793.     Org.  of  Armagh  Cath.,  1794-97. 
Mus.  Doc,  Dublin,  1795.      Master  of  chor.  and  org.  of  Christ  Ch.  and  St. 
Patrick's   Caths.,   Dublin,    1798.      Org.   and  Choirmaster  of  Trinity  and  S. 
John's  Colls.,   Cambridge,    1798-1820.      Mus.   Doc,    Cantab.,    1799.      Mus. 
Doc,  Oxon.,  1810.     Org.  of  Hereford  Cath.,  1820-33.     Prof-  ofMusic,  Cam- 
bridge University,  1821.     D.  Holmer,  near  Hereford,  Feb.  22,  1835. 
Works. — Cathedral  services  and  anthems,  4  vols.,  1805,  reprinted  by  Novello. 
The  Crucifixion  and  the  Resurrection,  oratorio,   1822.    Twelve  Glees,  composed 
and  inscribed  by  permission  to  H.R.H.  the  Prince  Regent  [1805] ;  Twelve  Vogal 

CLA  —  CLA  167 

Pieces,  with  original  poetry,  2  vols.,  a.  d.  Glees,  etc. :  Alice  Brand  ;  The  Carpet 
Weaver  ;  Celestial  Hope ;  Come,  Ossian,  Come  ;  The  Coronach  ;  Dawn  of  Day  ; 
Edith  of  Lorn  ;  Hymn  for  the  Dead  ;  Hymn  to  the  Morning  Star  ;  It  was  a  Night 
of  lovely  June  ;  Malvina's  Lamentation  ;  Merrily  Bounds  the  Bark  ;  Minstrel's 
Tale  ;  Oh  !  Liberty  ;  Red  Cross  Knights  ;  Roderick  Vich  Alpine  ;  What  the'  the 
Knights ;  When  I  am  Doom'd  ;  When  shall  Joy ;  Wide  O'er  the  Brim  ;  Ve 
Gentle  Muses.  Songs:  Ah!  Whither,  Morpheus;  Behold  Me;  Blanche  of 
Devon's  Song  ;  Bonnie,  Bonnie  Blue  ;  Dark,  dark  was  the  Dungeon  ;  Days  that 
are  Gone ;  Ellen's  Song  ;  Fair  Jessy,  the  Maid  of  the  Moor  ;  Go  forth,  my  Song  ; 
Heath  this  Night ;  Here's  the  Vow  ;  If  Stormy  O'er  Enamelled  Ground  ;  In  Peace 
Love  Tunes  ;  Know  ye  the  Land  ;  Laugh  and  Rejoice  ;  Lay  of  the  Imprisoned 
Huntsman;  L'insomnie  ;  Minstrel's  Harp;  Moorland  Mary;  Mute  Grey  Fields; 
Oh  !  Sweet  is  the  Perfume  ;  Oh  !  Why  did  thy  Soft ;  Poor  Mary  ;  Smile  of  Affec- 
tion ;  Soldier  Rest ;  Thou  Dear  Native  Land  ;  Wake,  Maid  of  Lorn  ;  With  Jet 
Black  Eyes ;  Withered  Rose  ;  Young  Lochnivar.  The  Beauties  of  Purcell. 
Collection  of  Anthems  (edited).  The  Vocal  Works  composed  by  G.  F.  Handel, 
arranged  for  organ  or  pianoforte,  Lond.,  17  vols.,  fo.  [1809].  Selection  of  Single 
and  Double  Chants,  etc.,  2  vols.,  4to,  n.  d. 

Clarke  is  one  of  the  well-known  composers  of  Church  music.  He  has  written  a 
variety  of  good  anthems  and  services,  many  of  which  are  still  often  used.  His  glees 
and  songs  from  the  works  of  Sir  Walter  Scott,  etc.,  are  among  the  best  of  his  vocal 
pieces,  and  though  now  almost  forgotten,  were  once  deservedly  popular. 

CLARKE  (Mary  Cowden).  English  writer,  daughter  of  Vincent  Novello,  B. 
London,  June,  1809.  Married  in  1828  to  Charles  Cowden  Clarke.  She  com- 
piled the  famous  "  Shakespeare  Concordance,"  wrote  novels  and  poetry,  edited 
an  edition  of  Shakespeare,  and  wrote  the  "Life  and  Labours  of  Vincent 
Novello."     Lond.,  8vo,  1864  (portrait). 

This  is  a  good  work,  and  bears  abundant  evidence  to  the  fact  that  Mrs.  Clarke 
has  inherited  a  considerable  portion  of  her  father's  musical  genius.  She  has  also 
translated  a  number  of  important  works  on  musical  theory. 

CLARKE  (Stephen).  Scottish  comp.  and  org.,  B.  about  middle  of  i8th  cen- 
tury. He  was  Org.  of  the  Episcopal  Chap,  of  Edinburgh,  and  a  teacher  there 
in  the  last  decade  of  the  i8th  century.  D.  Edinburgh,  6th  August,  1797.  He 
comp.  "Two  Sonatas  for  the  Pianoforte  or  Harpsichhrd,  in  which  are 
introduced  favourite  Scotch  airs,  composed  and  respectfully  dedicated  to  Mr. 
Erskine,  Jun.,  of  Mar."  Edin.,  1790.  He  also  harmonized  the  airs  in 
Johnson's  "Scots  Musical  Museum."  On  his  death  the  work  was  continued 
by  his  son,  William  (B.  Edinburgh  [c.  1780].  D.  Edinburgh,  1820),  who  was 
a  teacher  and  writer  of  some  small  pieces  for  the  pianoforte  and  voice. 

CLARKE  (William  H.).  American  writer  and  musician.  Author  of  "  Clarke's 
Dollar  Instructor  for  the  Piano.  Prepared  for  self-instruction  and  for  the  use 
of  teachers,"  Boston,  n.d.  "An  Outline  of  the  Structure  of  the  Pipe 
Organ,"  Indianapolis,  8vo,  1877.  "Reed  Organ  Melodies."  "Harmonic 
School  for  the  Organ,"  Boston.  "Dollar  Instructor  of  the  Organ,"  Boston. 
"New  Method  for  Reed  Organs,"  Boston.  "Reed  Organ  Companion." 
"  Short  Voluntaries  for  the  Reed  Organ."  "Home  Recreations  for  the  Par- 
lor Organ,"  Boston.     "  Dollar  Instructor  for  the  Violin,"  Boston,  etc. 

CLARKSON  (John).  Scottish  dancing-master  and  violinist,  B.  [?].  D.  St. 
Andrews,  Jan.  20,  1812.  He  compiled  "  Clarkson's  Musical  Entertainment, 
being  a  Selection  of  various  Tunes  and  Pieces  of  Music  adapted  for  the  Pf.  or 
Harpsichord,"  n.d. 

CLARKSON  (John,  Jlinr.).  Scottish  dancing-master  and  violinist,  son  of  above. 
Published  "A  Complete  Collection  of  the  much-admired  Tunes,  as  Danced  at 
the  Balls  and  Publics  of  the  late  Mr.  Strange,  Teacher  of  Dancing  in  Edin- 
burgh."    This  work  appeared  about  the  beginning  of  this  century. 

CLASING  (Johann  Heinrich).  German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Hamburg,  1779. 
Teacher  at  Hamburg,  where  he  D.  Feb.  8,  1829.  He  composed  oratorios, 
operas,  chamber  music,  church  music,  etc.,  some  of  which  is  meritorious,  and 
is  still  kept  in  print, 

l68  CLA  —  CLE 

CLAUDE  le  Jeune.    See  Lejeune. 

GLAUS  (Wilhelmine).      Bohemian  pianist,  B.  Prague,  Dec.  13,   1834.     See 


CLAVE  (Jose  Anselmo).  Spanish  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Barcelona,  April  21, 
1824.  D.  Barcelona,  Feb.,  1874.  He  organised  Festivals, on  a  large  scale, 
and  composed  choral  music. 

CLAY  (Frederick).  English  comp.,  B.  Paris,  Aug  3,  1840.  S.  under  Molique 
at  Paris.  Resident  in  London  as  teacher  and  comp. 
Works. — Operas  and  Operettas,  etc. :  The  Pirate's  Isle,  1859  ;  Out  of  Sight, 
i860  ;  Court  and  Cottage,  1862  ;  Constance,  1865  ;  Ages  ago,  1869  ;  The  Gentle- 
man in  Black,  1870  ;  Happy  Arcadia,  1872  ;  Cattarina,  1874  ;  Princess  Toto,  1875  ; 
Don  Quixote,  1875  ;  Babul  and  Bijou,  1872  (with  others) ;  The  Black  Crook,  1872  ; 
Oriana  (Albery) ;  The  Knight  of  the  Cross,  1866  ;  Lalla  Rookh,,  1877  ;  Merry 
Duchess,  1883;  Music  to  Shakespeare's  Twelfth  Night.  Cantatas,  Songs,  Part- 
Songs,  etc. 

CLAYTON  (Eleanor  Creathorne)  Mrs.  Needham.  Irish  general  writer  and 
novelist,  B.  DubHn,  1832.  Has  published  "Queens  of  Song,  Being  Memoirs 
of  some  of  the  most  celebrated  Female  Vocalists  who  have  appeared  on  the 
Lyric  Stage,  from  the  earliest  days  of  opera  to  the  present  time,  with  a  chrono- 
logical list  of  all  the  operas  that  have  been  performed  in  Europe,"  Lond. ,  2 
vols.,  8vo,  1863.  She  writes  also  a  number  of  popular  biographical  works, 
and  some  novels. 

CLAYTON  (Thomas).  English  comp,,  B.  1670.  D.  1730.  He  composed 
music  for  Addison's  "Rosamond,"  "  Arsinoe ; "  Dryden's  "Alexander's  Feast," 
"  The  Passion  of  Sappho,"  etc.,  which  is  generally  regarded  as  worthless.  See 
BuRNEY,  Hawkins,  etc. 

CLEGG-  (John).      Irish  violinist,   B.    Ireland,    1714.      S.    under   Dubourg   and 
Buononcini.     Dibut  in  London,    1723.     Travelled  in  Italy.     Was  principal 
violin  at  the  Opera,  London.     Latterly  insane.     D.  1746. 
Clegg  was  reckoned  the  best  British  violinist  of  his  time. 

CLELAND  (George).  English  musician,  was  org.  of  S.  Mary's  Chap.,  Bath. 
He  published  "A  Selection  of  Chants,  never  before  published,"  Lond.  [1824]. 

CLEMENT  (Felix).  French  writer  and  comp.,  B.  Paris,  Jan.  13,  1822.  S.  at 
S.  Louis.  Tutor  in  family  in  Normandy.  Prof,  of  Pf.  and  Singing  in  Stanis- 
las College,  Paris,  1843-1860.     D.  Paris,  Jan.  23,  1885. 

Works. — Chants  de  la  Sainte-Chapelle,  1849  ;  Eucologe  eh  musique  selon  le  rit 
Patisien,  1851  ;  Le  Paroissien  Remain,  1854  ;  Methode  complete  du  plain-chant, 
1854  ;  Methode  d'  orgue,  Paris,  n.  d.;  Tableaux  de  plain-chant,  1854  ;  Methode  de 
musique  vocale,  Paris,  4to,  n.d. ;  Histoire  generale  de  la  Musique  Religieux,  Paris, 
8vo,  1861  ;  Les  Musiciens  cel^bres,  depuis  le  seizieme  siecle  jusqu'  anosjours, 
Paris,  8vo,  1866;  Dictionnaire  Lyrique,  ou  Histoire  des  Operas,  etc.,  Paris,  8vo, 
[1869],  (with  supplements  to  date);  Music  for  Racine's  "AthaUe";  Les  Deux 
Savants,  opera,  1858  ;  Le  Dormeur  eveille,  opera  ;  etc. 

The  majority  of  Clement's  works  are  valuable  contributions  to  musical  biblio- 
graphy, as  well  as  to  the  general  literature  of  France.  Their  literary  merit  is  high, 
though  their  accuracy  is  not  always  perfect.  His  musical  compositions  have  never 
been  heard  in  Britain. 

CLEMENT  (Franz).  Austrian  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Vienna,  Nov.  19,  1784 
[1780].  S.  under  his  father  and  Kurzweil.  Travelled  in  Europe  as  concert 
giver.  Came  to  London,  1790.  Solo  violinist  to  Emperor  of  Austria,  1802. 
Cond.  of  theatre  at  Vienna,  1802-11.  Travelled  in  Germany  and  Russia, 
181218.  Travelled  with  Catalani  from  1821.  D.  Vienna,  Nov.  3,  1842. 
He  composed  violin   concertos,    3  overtures  for  orch.,  a  Pf.  concerto,  and  an 

opera,  and  minor  pieces  for  violin.     He  was  a  violinist  of  great  refinement,  and 

held  a  high  position  en  the  Continent, 



CLEMENT  (Jacques),  Clemens  non  Papa.  Belgian  comp.,  B.  at  end  of  15th 
century,  in  Flanders.  Chapel-master  to  Charles  V.  of  Spain  in  succession  to 
Gombert.     D.  about  middle  of  i6th  century  [1556]. 

Works. — Missa  cum  quatuor  vocibus  ad  imitationem  cantilense  Mis^ricorde 
condita,  nunc  primum  in  lucem  edita,  1556;  Missa  cum  quatuor  vocibus, 
etc.,  1557  ;  Missa  cum  quatuor  vocibus,  etc.,  tomus  III.,  1557  ;  Missa  cum 
quinque  vocibus,  1557  ;  Missa  cum  quinque  vocibus,  tomus  V.;  Missa  cum 
quinque  vocibus,  1559;  Missa  cum  sex  vocibus,  1559;  Missa  cum  quinque 
vocibus,  1 560 ;  Missa  cum  sex  vocibus,  1 560 ;  Missa  defunctorum  quatuor  vocum, 
1580  ;  Liber  primus  cantionum  sacrarum  vulgo  moteta  vocant,  quatuor  vocum,  etc., 
1559 ;  Sooter  Liedekens  (joyous  song),  I.  Het  vierde  musyck  boexken  mit  dry 
parthien,'waer  inne  begrepen  zyn  die  eerste  12  Psalmen  van  David,  etc.,  1556; 
Sooter  Liedekens,  II.,  1556;  Sooter  Liedekens,  III.,  1556;  Sooter  Liedekens,  IV., 
1557  ;  Chansons  Franfaise  k  quatre  parties,  etc.,  1569. 

"  His  style  was  smooth  and  clear,  his  melody  harmonized  without  being  drowned, 
and  his  fugue  and  imitation  simple  and  natural.  His  genius  was  so  prolific,  that 
numerous  as  were  his  productions,  he  seldom  borrowed  even  from  himself." — Busby. 

CLEMENTI  (Muzio).      Italian  comp.,  pianist  and  publisher,   B.   Rome,  1752. 
S.  under  Buroni,  an  org.  at  Rome.     Became  org.  in  1761.     S.  under  Carpani 
and  Sartarelli.      Went   to  F,ngland  (Dorsetshire)  with  Mr.    Peter  Beckford, 
1766.     Cond.  Italian  opera  in  London,  1777-80.     Travelled  in  Europe,  1781. 
Established    music  -  publishing    business.       Teacher   of  Ludwig   Berger,   J. 
Field,  Zeuner,  Klenzel,  J.  B.  Cramer,  etc.      D.  Evesham,  Worcester,  March 
10,  1832. 
Works. — Op.   i.  Six  Sonatas  for  the  Pf.  ;  op.  2.  Six  Sonatas  for  Pf.  and  flute 
or  violin  ;  pp.  3.-4.  Six  Sonatas  for  Pf.   (2  sets) ;  opp.  5.  to  10.  Sonatas  for  Pf.,  in 
sets  of  3  and  5  ;  op.  II.  Sonata  and  Toccata  for  Pf.  ;  op.   12.  Four  Sonatas  and  a 
duet  for  Pf.  ;  op.  13.  Six  Sonatas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  14.  Three  Sonatas  for  Pf.  ;  op.   15. 
Sonatas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  16.  Sonata  for  Pf.  in  D  (La  Chasse)  j  op.   17.   Capriccio  for 
Pf.  ;  op.  18.  Sonatas  ;  op.  19.  Sonata  for  Pf.  in  C  ;  op.  20.   Sonata  in  E  flat ;  op. 
21.   Three    Sonatas   for  Pf.  ;    op.   22.   Three  Sonatas  with  violin  accomp.  ;    op. 
24-26.  Sonatas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  27.  Three  Sonatas,  Pf.,  with  violin  accomp.;  op.  29-30. 
Sonatas  for  Pf.  and  vn.  ;  op.   32-33.   Sonatas  for  Pf.  ;  op.  34.  Two  Sonatas  and 
two  capriccios,   Pf.  ;  op.  35.  Two  Sonatas  ;  op.   36.   Progressive  Lessons  in  Piano- 
forte Playing  (Sonatinas,  etc.);  op.  37.  Sonatinas;  op.   38.   Waltzes  for  Pf.  ;  op. 
39.  Waltzes  (second  set)  ;  op.  40.   Three  Sonatas ;  op.  41.   Sonata  ;  op.  42.  Intro- 
duction to  the  Art  of  Playing  on  the  Pianoforte  ;  op.  43.   Second  part  of  do.  ;  op. 
44.  Gradus  ad  Parnassum,  or  the  Art  of  Playing  on  the  Pianoforte,  exemplified  in 
a  series  of  exercises  in  the  strict  and  free  styles,  composed  and  fingered  by  the 
author,  Lond.,  2  vols.,  n.  d.  ;  op.  46.  Sonata  for  Pf.  (ded.  to  F.  Kalkbrenner)  ;  op. 
47.  Two  Capriccios,  Pf.  ;  op.  48.  Fantasia,  Pf.  j  op.  49.  Twelve  Monferrinas ;  op. 
So.  Three  Sonatas,  Pf.  ;  op.  51.  Detached  pieces  various  for  Pf. 

Clementi  belonged  to  a  school  of  pianists  and  composers  long  since  passed  away. 
He  was  a  follower  of  Mozart  in  his  style  of  composition,  but  a  reformer  and 
developer  of  playing,  marking  the  turning  point  from  which  the  great  modern  school 
of  Moscheles,  Thalberg,  Liszt,  and  Rubinstein  took  its  departure.  Of  his  personal 
capabilities,  Moscheles  says. — "dementi's  pianoforte  playing,  when  he  was 
young,  was  famed  for  the  exquisite  legato,  pearliness  of  touch  in  rapid  passages, 
and  unerring  certainty  of  execution.''  His  compositions  are  still  in  use  among  stu- 
dents of  the  pianoforte  and  his  op.  44,  though  nearly  supplanted  by  more  modern 
works,  is  one  of  the  best  books  a  beginner  can  have.  His  compositions  are  pretty 
rather  than  vigorous,  and  always  melodious  and  original. 

CLEMENTI  AND  COMPANY.  English  music-publishing  and  instrument 
manufacturing  firm,  established  by  Muzio  Clementi  in  London.  The  firm  was 
carried  on  under  the  name  of  Clementi,  Collard  and  CoUard  in  1823,  and  they 
manufactured  pianofortes  and  nearly  every  other  variety  of  instrument.  Their 
publications  included  works  by  most  of  the  good  composers  of  that  period,  and 
consisted  of  instrumental  and  vocal  music  of  every  kind. 

CLERAMBAULT  (Louis  Nicolas).  French  org.  and  comp.,  B.  -Paris,  19th 
Pec,  1676,     D.  Paris,  Oct,  26,  1749, 

lyo  CLI  —  CLO 

Works. — Operas:  Le  Soleil  vainqueur  des  nuages,  1721  ;  Le  Depart  du  roi, 
idylle,  1745-  Livre  d'orgue  contenant  deux  suites  du  premier  et  du  second  ton, 
Paris,  4to,  1710;  Harpsichord  music,  etc. 

CLICQUOT  (Francois).     French  organ-builder,  B.  Paris,  1728.     D.  1791. 

CLIFFORD  (Rev.  James).     English  divine  and  musician,   B.   Oxford,    1622. 

Chor.  of  Magdalen  Coll.,  Oxford,  1632-42.      Minor  Canon  S.   Paul's  Cath., 

Lond.,    1661.     Senior  Cardinal,   S.    Paul's,   Lond.,    1682.     Curate  of  Parish 

Ch.  of  S.  Gregory.     Chaplain  to  Society  of  Serjeant's  Inn.     D.  London,  1700. 

Works. — A  Collection  of  Divine  Services  and  Anthems,  usually  sung  in  His 

Majesty's  Chapel,  and  in  all  the  cathedral  and  collegiate  choirs  of  England  and 

Ireland,  by  James  Clifford,  1664;  Sermons,  etc. 

CLIFTON  (John  Charles).     English  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  London,  1781.     S. 

under  R.  Bellamy  and  Charles  Wesley.     Employed  for  a  time  in  mercantile 

pursuits.     Resided  at  Bath  as  teacher  and  cond.     Went  to   Dublin,    1802. 

Resided  there  as  teacher  and  comp.   till   1815.      Settled  in   London,    1816, 

as  teacher  of  the  Pf.  and  advocate  of  Logier's  system.     D.  London,  Nov., 


Works. — Edwin,   opera,   Dublin,    1815  ;  A  Series  of  Moral   Songs,  by  W.  F. 

CoUard,  published  in  parts,  1823-4  (dementi  &  Co. );  Selection  of  British  Melodies, 

with  appropriate  words,  by  J.  Y.  M.  Dovaston,  Lond.,  n.d.;  Collection  of  French 

Airs,  with  symphonies  and  accompaniments,  2  vols.     As  pants  the  hart,   canon. 

Glees :  Three  glees  for  3,  4,  and  5  voices,  1823  ;  A  blossom  wreath.  Maid  of  Toro, 

On  a  rock  whose  haughty  brow.  Quick  flew  the  gales  of  rosy  spring,   Durandarte 

and  Belerona,  Hushed  is  the  harjD,   Pray  goody;  Songs:  As  through  life's  early 

path  ;  Awake,  Oh  !  sleeper  sweet,  awake  ;   First  dawn  of  love ;  Good  night,  my 

pretty  Anne  ;  If  music  be  the  food  of  love  (canzonet) ;  Lorenzo  to  Jessica  ;  Miller's 

daughter  ;  Near  the  purple  fountain ;   Sensitive  plant ;  Soft  on  the  violet  bank  ; 

The  dear  delights  of  duty  ;  The  prayers  that  are  sent ;   When  passion  first  begins  ; 

With  love-fraught  eyes ;    Here  recline ;    Hope ;    It   may   be   love ;    Nay,    if  you 

threaten  ;  Sweet  choice  of  my  heart ;  A  bumper  of  sparkling  wine,  etc.     Theory  of 

Harmony  Simplified,  1816  ;  Instructions  for  the  Pianoforte;  Memoir  of  Sir  John 

Stevenson  (in  a  review),  etc. 

Clifton  was  a  pianist  of  much  ability,  and  invented  an  instrument  called  the 
"Eidomusicon,"  which,  on  being  fastened  to  the  keyboard  of  the  Pianoforte,  pro- 
duced the  notes  and  chords  as  they  were  struck,  with  a  view  to  displaying  them  to 
the  eye,  and  so  facilitate  sight-singing,  etc.  His  songs  are  very  fine  works,  the  one 
called  "  If  music  be  the  food  of  love,"  being  especially  well  known. 

CLINTON  (John).  English  flute  player  and  writer,  B.  1810.  D.  London,  1864. 
Author  of  "  A  'Treatise  upon  the  Mechanism  and  General  Principles  of  the 
Flute,"  Lond.,  i2mo,  n.d. ;  "Complete  School  for  the  Boehm  Flute,  contain- 
ing everything  necessary  to  learn  that  instrument,  from  the  elements  to  the 
most  advanced  stage,"  Lond.,  n.d.  (S  editions),  Ashdown  ;  "A  Code  of  In- 
struction for  the  Equisonant  Flute,  in  which  the  fingering  and  resources  of  that 
instrument  are  fully  explained  by  numerous  examples"  ;  "First  Set  of  three 
GrandStudiesfor  the  Flute"  ;  Second  do. ;  "Universal  Flute  Tutor"  (Boosey). 
Flute  music :  Trios  for  two  flutes  and  Pf. ,  opp.  2,  3,  10  ;  Trios  for  three  flutes, 
opp.  7  and  9  ;  Five  Notturnos,  flute  and  harp  (with  Oberthiir) ;  Beauties  for 
the  flute  ;  Gems  of  the  Italian  School  ;  Cavatinas,  or  songs  without  words ; 
The  Drawing-Room  Concert,  written  by  W.  Ball ;  Transcriptions. 
Clinton's  works  on,  and  for  the  flute,  are  among  the  best  ever  produced  in  Eng- 

CLIVE  (Catherine),  n^e  Rafftor.  Irish  soprano  vocalist,  B.  London,  1711. 
Sang  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre  from  1728.  Married  to  George  Clive,  a  Barrister, 
1734.  Separated  from  him,  1769.  Retired  from  Stage.  D.  Twickenham,  Dec. , 

CLOUGH  &  WARREN.  American  firm  of  reed  organ  makers,  established  at 
Detroit,  Mich.  This  firm  stands  among  the  foremost  of  American  makers,  and 
their  instruments  are  in  use  all  over  the  worjd.     Their  instruments  possess  a 



few  original  features,  such  as  qualifying  tubes  for  producing  a  tone  resembling 
the  pipe  organ. 

CLUEB  (Jolm).  Ene;Ush  music  publisher  during  the  i8th  century.  He  printed 
Handel's  works  and  Collections  of  English  Songs,  etc. 

COBB  (Bicliard).  English  comp.  and  org.  during  the  i6th  and  17th  centuries. 
Was  org.  to  Charles  I  ,  and  composed  some  vocal  music.  "Smiths  are  good 
fellows,"  a  catch,  is  by  him. 

COBBOLD  (William).  English  comp.,  flourished  in  latter  part  of  i6th,  and 
beginning  of  17th  centuries.  His  biography  is  unknown.  He  was  one  of  the 
harmonizers  of  Este's  "Whole  Book  of  Psalms,"  1592,  and  contributed  the 
S-part  madrigal  "With  wreaths  of  rose  and  laurel"  to  the  "Triumphs  of 

COCOHETTA.    See  Gabrielli. 

COCCHI  (Gioacchino).     Italian  comp.  and  teacher,  B.  Padua,  1720.      Chap.- 

master   at    Cons,    degli    Incurabili,    Venice,     1753.       Resided    in    London, 

1757-1773.     Returned  to  Venice,  1773.     D.  Venice,  1804. 

Works. — Operas:  Adelaide,   1743;   Bajasette,   1746;    Giuseppe   riconosciuto, 

1748;  Arminio,  1749;  Siroe,  1750;  La  Mascherata,  1751;  Le  Donne  Vendicate, 

1752;  La  Gouvernante  rusee,  1752;  II  Pazzo  Glorioso,  1753;  Semiramide  ricon- 

osciuta,  1753  ;  I  Matti  per  amore,  1756 ;  Zoe,  1756  ;  Emira,  1756  ;  Gli  Amanti, 

Lond.,  1757  ;  Gli  Amanti  Gelosi,   Lond.,  1757  ;  Zenobia,   Lond.,  1758  ;    Issifile, 

Lond.,  1758  ;  II  Tempio  della  Gloria,  Lond.,  1759  ;  La  Clemenza  di  Tito,  Lond., 

1760 ;    Erginda,   1760;    Tito  Manlio,    1761;    Alessandro  nell'   Indie,   1761  ;    Le 

Nozze   di   Dorina,    1762 ;    La   Famiglia   in   Scompiglio,    Lond.,    1762.       Grand 

Serenata,  Lond.,  1761,  etc. 

COCCIA  (Carlo).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Naples,  April,  1789.  S.  under  Paisiello, 
Capelli,  etc.  Accompanist  to  Joseph  Buonaparte's  private  band.  Teachei 
and  comp.  at  Lisbon,  1820.  Cond.  Italian  opera  in  London,  1823-4.  Chap.- 
master  of  Cath.  of  Novara,  1836.  Director  of  Music  Academy  of  Turin. 
D.  Novara,  April  13,  1873. 
Works. — Operas:  II  Matrimonio  per  cambiale,  1808  ;  II  Poeta  fortunato,  1809; 

Voglia  di  dote  e  non  di  moglie,  1810  ;  II  Sogno  verificato,  1812  ;  I  Solitari,  1812  ; 

La  Selvagia,  1814  ;  II  Crescendo,  1815  ;  Euristea,  1815  ;  Evelina,  1815  ;  Clotilde, 

1816  ;  Rinaldo  d' Asti,  1816  ;  Carlotta  e  Werter,  1816  ;  Claudine,  1817;  Simile, 

1817  ;  Donna  Caritea,  1818  ;  Mandane,  1821  ;  Elena  e  Costantino,  1821  ;  La 
Festa  della  Rosa,  1822;  Maria  Stuart,  1827  ;  L'  Orfano  della  selve,  1829  ;  Rosa- 
munda,  1831  ;  Odoardo  Stuart,  1832 ;  Enrico  di  Montfort,  1833  ;  Catarina  di 
Guisa,  1833;  Ser  Mercantonio,  1834;  Marfa,  1834;  II  Lago  della  fate,  1841. 
Cantata  for  entry  of  allied  armies  into  Paris,  1814 ;  Cantatas,  various.  Church 
Music.     Orchestral  Overtures,  etc. 

Fifty  years  ago  Coccia  was  well-known  in  Europe,  and  even  in  London,  but  his 
operas  not  being  possessed  of  much  merit  or  interest  are  now  unknown  and  uncared 
for.  The  melody  of  Coccia's  works  was  good,  and  he  was  a  follower  in  the  steps 
of  Paisiello. 

COCHLAN  (J.  P.).  English  writer,  author  of  "An  Essay  on  the  Church  Plain- 
Chant,"  Lond.,  i2mo,  1782. 

COCHLJGUS  (Johann),  or  Cocleus.  German  theoretical  writer,  B.  Wendel- 
stein,  in  15th  century.  D.  [1552].  Author  of  "Musica,"  Cologna,  4to, 
1507  ;  "  Tetrachordum  Musices  :  de  Musicse  elementis,  de  musica  gregoriana, 
de  octo  tonis  meli,  de  musica  mensurali,"  Nuremburg,  1311. 

COCK  (Lamborn).  English  music  publisher  of  the  present  day,  established  in 
London,  issues  works  by  most  of  the  great  living  English  composers,  and  the 
complete  works  of  Signer  Piusuti. 

COCKS  &  COMPANY  (Robert).  English  music  publishing  firm,  established 
at  London  by  Robert  Cocks  in  1823.  The  firm  was  carried  on  by  the  senior 
member  of  the  firm  till  1859,  when  he  took  his  sons  Robert  Lincoln  and  Stroud 
Lincoln  into  partnership.     Robert  Lincoln  died,  and  the  firm  is  carried  on  by 

172  COC  —  COL 

the  only  surviving  son  Stroud  Lincoln,  and  Robert  Cocks,  sen.  Robert 
Cocks,  born  in  1796,  has  always  shown  himself  alive  to  the  musical  interests 
of  the  country.  The  catalogue  of  the  firm  is  large,  and  contains  in  addition 
to  the  usual  display  of  songs  and  Pf.  music,  a  most  valuable  collection  of  theor- 
etical works,  including  translations  of  foreign  authors.  The  principal  loreign 
writers  represented  are  Albrechtsberger,  Cherubini,  Czerny,  Marx,  Weber  (G.), 
Reicha,  Rinck,  Chaulieu,  Otto,  etc.,  etc.  The  principal  British  authors  are 
Hamilton,  Bishop  (J.),  Warren,  Corfe,  Best,  Hopkins,  and  Rimbault,  etc.,  etc. 
The  general  catalogue  contains  specimens  of  most  modern  composers  of  note, 
and,  with  several  large  monumental  editions  of  single  works  by  Handel  and 
Haydn,  represent  a  high  standard  of  music. 

COOLIUS  (Adrian  Petit),  or  Coclicus,   German  writer  of  the  l6th  century. 
A  pupil  of  Josquin.     Wrote  "  Compendium  Musices  descriptum,"  Nuremberg, 
4to,  1552. 
"His  book  has  great  merit. " — Hawkins. 

CCEDES  (AugUSte).  French  comp.,  B.  1835.  Chorus-master  at  the  Theatre 
Lyrique  (Gaite),  Paris.    Comp.  of  operas,  ballets,  etc.    D.  Paris,  July,  14  1884. 

COENEN  (Franz).  Dutch  violinist  and  comp.  Brother  of  the  following.  B. 
Rotterdam,  Dec.  26,  1826.  Travelled  in  South  America,  etc.  Writes  Psalms, 
string  quartets,  songs,  etc. 

COENEN  (Willem).     Dutch  comp.  and  pianist.,  B.  Rotterdam,  Nov.  17,  1837. 

S.  under  his  father  and  sister.     Afterwards  self-taught.     Travelled  in   West 

Indies  and  N.  and  S.  America,  1854-62.     Settled  in  London,  1862.     Teacher 

and  concert-giver  there. 

Works. — Oralo^ium:  Lazarus  (MS),  Brighton,  1878.    Caprice  Concertante  for 

16  performers  on  8  pianofortes.    Pf.  Music:  Galops;  Transcriptions;   Dance  des 

Fantomes ;   Chant  du  Barde ;   Serenade,  Andante,   Caprices,  Valses,   Nocturnes, 

Meditation,  etc.,  for  Pf.  solo  and  duet ;  Songs :  Lovely  spring.  Come  unto  me,  The 

rose.  Kindly  stars.  Yes,  True  love.  Thou  wilt  remember  us.    Sonata  for  Pf.  and 

violin  (MS.),  1867  ;   Concerto  for  Pf.,  with  accomp.  for  wind  insts.  (MS.) ;  Three 

Masses  (MS.)  ;  Four  Cantatas  (MS.). 

COGAN   (Philip).     Irish  comp.,   org.,  and  pianist,  B.  Cork,   1750  [Doncaster, 
I7S7'']-     Chor.  and  choirman  of  Cath.  of  St.  Finbar,  Cork.     Stipendiary  of 
Christ  Oh.,  Dublin,  1772.     D.  1834. 
Works.— Anthems,  various ;  Six  Sonatas  for  Pf.  and  violin,  op.  2,  1788  ;  Sona- 
tas for  Pf.,  op.  4  ;  Concerto  for  2  violins,  viola,  'cello,  2  flutes,  and  2  horns,  op.  6,  . 
1792  ;  Sonatas  for  Pf.  (Clementi),  op.  8  ;  Harpsichord  Lessons  ;  Songs. 

COGGINS  (Joseph).  English  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  1780.  S.  under  J.  W. 
Callcott.  Teacher  of  Pf.  in  London.  D.  in  first  half  of  present  century. 
Works. — The  Musical  Assistant,  containing  all  that  is  truly  useful  to  the  theory 
and  practice  of  the  Pianoforte,  Lond.,  1815  ;  Companion  to  the  Musical  Assistant, 
containing  all  that  is  truly  useful  to  the  theory  and  practice  of  the  Pianoforte,  Lond., 
8vo,  1824  ;  Admired  Hymns... adapted  for  the  use  of  schools,  2  parts  ;  Pf.  music, 
fantasias,  etc  ;  Songs ;  Complete  Instructions  for  the  Flute,  according  to  Drouet's 
system,  Lond.,  fo.,  1830. 

COHEN  (Jules).     French  comp.  and  pianist,   B.   Marseilles,   Nov.  2,   1830.     S. 

at  Paris  Cons.     Gained  prizes  for  Pf.,  organ  and  harmony,  1850-53.     Teacher 

and  conductor  in  Paris. 

Works. — Operas:  Mattre  Claude,  1861  ;  Jos^  Maria,  1866  ;  Les  Bleuets,  Paris, 

1867    (London    "Estelle,"    1880);    D^a,     1870;    Athalie    (Racine).       Cantatas: 

L'Annexion,  i860  ;  Vive  I'Empereur,  i860.    Masses ;  Overtures  for  orch.  in  F,  D, 

and  G  ;  Two  Symphonies ;  Pf.  Music  ;  Songs. 

COICK  (Grian  Le).  Belgian  comp.,  who  flourished  during  latter  part  of  l6th 
century  [B.  1520].  He  composed  songs,  and  a  curious  medley  which  is 
noticed  in  most  musical  histories  as  a  miracle  of  clever  contrivance. 

COLASSE  (Pascal).  French  comp.,  B.  Paris,  1636.  Chap,  master  to  Louis 
XIY.     D.  Versailles,   1709  [1687].     He  composed  some  operas  in  the  style  of 

COL  —  COL  173 

LuUi,  the  most  famous  being  "  Achilla  et  Polixene,"  1687.  Th^tys  and  Pflee, 
1689.  En^e  et  Lavinie,  1690.  Astr^e,  1691.  Les  Saisons,  1695.  Jason,  i6g6. 
La  Naissance  de  V^nus,  1696.  Canente,  1700.  Amarillis,  1689.  L'Amour 
et  I'Hymen,  etc. 

COLBORNE  (Langdon).   English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Hackney,  London,  Sept. 

15,  1837.     Org.  of  S.   Michael's  Coll.,  Tenbury,    i860.  '  Bac.  Mus.  Cantab., 

1864.       Mus.  Doc.  Cantuar,  1883.     Org.  of  Beverley  Minster,  1874 ;  Wigan 

Parish  Ch.,  1875  ;  Dorking  Parish  Ch.,  1877  ;  Hereford  Cath.,  1877. 

Works. — Complete  Service  in  C  ;    Magnificats  and   Nunc  dimittis  in    D,   A, 

and   B   flat;    Te   Deum  and  Benedictus  in  E  flat.      Anthems:    I   will   lay  me 

down  ;    O  Lord,  our  Governor ;   Out  of  the  deep  ;  Ponder  my  words,   O  Lord ; 

Rend  your  hearts.      Part  Songs :   If  slumber   sweet,   Lisena  ;   The   Siesta ;  The 

bright-hair'd  morn  is  glowing  ;  Songs,  etc. 

pOLBBAN  (Isabella  Angela),  Rossini,  Spanish  soprano  vocalist,  B.  Madrid, 
Feb.  2,  1785.     S.  at  Madrid.     Sang  in  Italy,  France,  etc.,  1806-15.     Married 
to  G.   Rossini,    1822.      Appeared  in  London,   1824.      D.  Bologna,  Oct.  7, 
She  created  the  soprano  parts  in  a  number  of  Rossini's  operas,  and  was  one  of 

the  foremost  singers  of  her  time. 

COLEIBE  (Richard,  M.A.)  English  divine.  Wrote  "The  Antiquity  and 
Usefulness  of  Instrumental  Musick  in  the  Service  of  God,  a  Sermon," 
London,  1738. 

COLEMAN  (Charles).  English  comp.,  B.  about  beginning  of  17th  century 
[1600].  Member  of  the  private  band  of  Charles  I.  Doc.  Mus.,  1651.  D. 
London,  1664. 

Works. — The  Siege  of  Rhodes,  Davenant  (with  Lawes,  Cook,  and  Hudson), 
1657  ;  Musicall  Ayres  and  Dialogues,  1652  ;  Musick's  Recreation  on  the  Lyra- 
vioU,  1656  ;  Select  Ayres,  1659  ;  The  Musical  Vocabulary  in  Philips'  New  World 
of  Words,  1658. 

COLEMAN  (Edward).  Brother  of  above,  B.  1633.  Gent,  of  Chap.  Royal. 
D.  Greenwich,  Aug.  29,  1669.     Wrote  songs  in  various  collections,  etc. 

COLEMAN  (Obediah  M.)  American  musician  and  inventor,  B.  Barnstable, 
Mass.,  Jan.  23,  1817.  He  invented  several  very  ingenious  pieces  of  mechanism 
such  as  the  "Automaton  Lady  Minstrel  and  Singing  Bird,"  and  improved  the 
accordion.  He  invented  what  is  known  as  the  CEolian  Attachment  for 
Pianofortes.     D.  Saratoga  Springs,  April  5,  1845. 

COLEEIDGE  (Arthur  Duke).    See  Moscheles. 

COLIN  (Charles  Joseph).  French  oboe  player,  B.  Cherbourg,  June,  2,  1832. 
S.  at  Paris  Cons.  Prof,  of  oboe  at  Paris  Cons.  Composed  cantatas, 
exercises,  etc. 

COLLABD  &  COLLABD,  English  firm  of  Pianoforte-makers,  established  in 
London  early  in  the  present  century  in  company  with  Clementi.  The  founder 
of  the  present  firm  was  W.  F.  Collard,  a  Frenchman,  to  whom  is  due  the 
chief  merit  of  the  excellence  attained  by  the  firm  in  its  workmanship.  The 
firm  hold  the  patents  of  several  important  inventions  applicable  to  the  Pf. 
Frederick  W.  Collard  of  this  firm  (1772-1860),  composed  some  vocal  music. 

COLLIER  (Joel).     See  Bicknell  (John  L.) 

COLLINS  (William).  English  poet,  B.  1710.  D.  1756.  Author  of  a  number 
of  fine  odes  which  have  been  repeatedly  set  by  English  musician.  The  ode  to 
"  The  Passions  "  commencing  "  When  music,  heavenly  maid,  was  young,"  is 
by  him,  and  has  been  several  times  set. 

COLLIS  (J.  D.)  English  writer,  author  of  "An  Outsider's  View  of  the  Musical 
Festival  Question."     Worcester,  1874. 

COLON  (Marguerite).      French  vocalist,  B.  BouIogne-sur-Mer,  Nov.  5,  1808, 

174  COL  —  CON 

Dibut,  1822.     D.  Paris,  June  5,   1842.     Sang  in  operas  by  Adam,  Thomas, 
Bordese,  Halevy,  Grisar,  etc. 

COLONNA  (Fabio).  Italian  theoretical  writer  of  17th  century,  D.  1647.  He 
wrote  a  work  on  the  division  of  the  scale,  now  very  scarce. 

COLONNA  (Giovanni  Paolo).     Italian  comp.,  B.  Brescia,  1640.     S.  under 
Benevoli  and  Carissimi.    Chap. -master  of  S.  Petronne,  Bologna.     Principal  of 
Musical  Academy  of  Bologna,  1672-91.     D.  Bologna,  Nov.  28,  1695. 
Works. — Op.  i.  Psalms ;  op.  2.  to  6.  Motets ;  op.  7.  Psalms ;  op.  10.  Motets ; 

op.    1 1- 12.   Psalms;   Masses;   Stabat  Mater.     Absalone,    oratorio;   La  Profegia 

d'Eliseo  nell'  assedio  di  Samaria,   oratorio,    l688.     Amilcare,   opera,    Bologna, 


COLONNE  (Jules).  French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Bordeaux,  July  23,  1838. 
S.  at  Paris  Cons,     Comp.  music  for  his  instrument,  etc. 

COLVILLE  (David).  Scottish  musician,  B.  Campbeltown,  1829.  Published 
"Graduated  Course  of  Elementary  Instruction  in  Singing,  on  the  Letter-Note 
Method,  in  Twenty-Six  Lessons,  with  Hints  on  Self-Instruction,  etc."  (with 
George  Bentley),  1864  ;  Collections  of  Part-Songs,  under  the  title  of  "  Choral 
Harmony,"  etc. 

COLYNS  (Jean  Baptiste).  Belgian  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Brussels,  Nov.  25, 
1834.     S.  at  Brussels  Cons.     Writer  of  opera,  violin  music,  and  songs. 

COMETTANT  (Jean  Pierre  Oscar).  French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Bordeaux, 
April  18,  1819.  S.  at  Paris  Cons.,  1839-44. 
Works. — Trois  ans  aux  Etats-Unis  ;  etude  des  mseurs  et  coutumes  Americaines. 
La  Propriete  intellectuelle,  etc..  Histoire  d'un  inventeur  au  dix-neuvieme  siecle, 
Adolphe  Sax  :  ses  ouvrages  et  ses  luttes,  i860  ;  Portefeuille  d'un  Musicien  ;  Musique 
et  Musiciens,  Paris,  8vo,  1862  ;  La  musique,  les  musiciens,  et  les  instruments  de 
musique  chez  les  differents  peuples  du  Monde,  Paris,  8vo,  1869  ;  Pianoforte  pieces, 
various  ;  Church  music,  etc. 

COMMEK  (Franz).     German  writer  and  comp.,  B.  Cologne,  Jan.  23,  1813. 

Works. — Der  Zauberring,  1843  ;  Der  Kiffaenser  ;  Masses  ;  Lieder  ;  Overtures  ; 
Cantatas ;  etc.  Musica  Sacra,  Sammlung  der  Meisterwerke  des  l6en,  I7en 
und  iSen  Jahrhunderts,  Berlin,  4  v.  4to,  1839 ;  CoUectio  Operum  Musicorum 
Batavorum  Steculi  xvi.,  Mayence,  10  pts.  [1857] ;  Cantica  Sacra,  Berlin,  2  v.,  n.d. 

Commer's  collections  are  valuable  and  interesting  works, 

COMON,  or  CORMAC  DALL,  Irish  harper,  story-teller,  and  vocalist,  B. 
Woodstock,  Mayo,  May,  1703.  Lived  an  itinerant  life,  and  was  famous  as  a 
comp.  of  songs  and  elegies.  He  died  about  the  end  of  the  l8th  century  ;  or  at 
least  after  1786,  at  which  date  he  was  alive. 

CONCONE  (Giuseppe).  Italian  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Turin,  1810.  Resided  at 
Paris,  1837-1848.     Org.  of  Royal  Chap.,  Turin,  1848.     D.  Turin,  June,  i86i. 

Works. — Graziella,  opera  (MS.) ;  Fifty  Lessons  in  Singing,  for  a  Medium  Voice, 
4bks.;  School  of  Sight-Singing  ;  School  of  Part- Singing ;  Songs,  etc.  Methode 
d'  harmonie  et  de  Composition. ..Paris,  4to,  1845. 

This  composer  is  celebrated  for  his  fine  vocal  studies  and  admirable  exercises  for 
the  voice.  His  "  Schools  "  have  been  translated  and  issued  in  a  great  many  different 

CONDELL  (Henry).     English  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  latter  part  of  i8th  century. 

Violinist  at   Drury  Lane  Theatre.     Gained  prize  at  Catch  Club   with   glee 

"Loud  blowe  the  wyndes,"  1811.     D.  London,  June,  1824. 

Works. — The  enchanted  island,   ballet,    1804 ;    Who  wins  ?   or  The  widow's 

choice,  farce.  1808;  Transformation,  farce,  1810;  The  farmer's  wife,  1814;  Glees; 

Songs,  etc. 

OONGKEVE  (Benjamin).  English  comp.,  B.  1S36.  D.  London,  March  23, 

CON  —  COO  175 

He  has  composed  many  songs  and  part-songs  of  merit,  some  of  the  latter  having 
obtained  prizes. 

CONINCK  {Jacques  Felix  de).  Belgian  comp.  and  pianist,  B.  Antwerp,  May 
18,  1791.     D.  April  25,  1866.     Wrote  Pf.  music,  songs,  vocal  v^orks,  etc. 

CONINCE  (Joseph.  Bernard  de).  Son  of  above,  Belgian  comp.,  B.  Ostend, 
Mar.  10,  1827.     Writer  of  theoretical  virorks,  songs,  operas,  etc. 

CONINGSBY  (George).  English  divine,  author  of  "  A  Sermon  preached  at  the 
Cathedral  Church  of  Hereford,  at  the  Anniversary  Meeting  of  the  Three  Choirs, 
Sept.  6,  1732."  Oxford,  1733. 

CONBADI  (August).     German  comp.,  B.  Berlin,  1821.    S.  under  Rungenhagen. 
Cond.  of  theatre  at  Stettin,    1849  ;  also  at  Cologne,   Diisseldorf,  and  Berlin, 
1856.     D.  Berlin,  May  21,  1873. 
Works. —0/craj;   Rubezahl,    1847;   Musa  der  letzle  Maurerfurst,    1855;    Le 
Valet   Rupert,    1865  ;    Operettas  and  farces  ;   Symphonies  and  overtures ;    Quar- 
tets for  strings,  Pf.  music,  songs,  etc. 

CONBAN  (D.).  Irish  writer,  author  of  "Musical  Research,  or  General  System 
of  Modulation, "  Dublin,  4to,  1840. 

CONRAN  (Michael).  Probably  a  relation  of  the  above,  author  of  "The 
National  Music  of  Ireland ;  containing  the  History  of  the  Irish  bards,  the 
national  melodies,  the  harp,  etc.,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1850. 

CONRARDY  (Jules).  French  comp.,  B.  Liege,  Jan.  27,  1836.  A  good 
organist,  and  writer  of  Operas:  Le  Pere  Lajoie,  1858;  Annibal  et  Scipion, 
i860;  Jeanne  et  Jeannot,  i85l  ;  Le  roi  de  1'  arbal^te,  1862  ;  Le  Loup-Garou, 
1872.     Songs,   Pf.  music,  etc. 

CONSTANTIN  (Titus  Charles).  French  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Marseilles, 
Jan.  7,  1835.     Comp.  operas,  violin  music,  songs,  etc. 

CONTE  (Jean).  French  violinist  and  comp.',  B.  Toulouse,  May  12,  1830. 
Comp.  operas,  violin  music,  etc. 

CONTI  (Francesco  Bartolomeo).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Florence,  Jan.  20,  1681. 
Court  musician  at  Vienna,  1701-32.  D.  Vienna,  July  20,  1732. 
Works. — Operas:  Clotilde,  Lond.,  1709;  .Mba  Cornelia,  1714  ;  I  Satiri  in 
Arcadia,  1714;  Teseo  in  Creta,  171S;  II  Finto  Policare,  1716  ;  Giro,  1716  ; 
Alessandro  in  Sidone,  1721  ;  Archelas,  1722;  Mose  preservato,  1722;  Penelope, 
1724  ;  Griselda,  1725.     Motets  and  other  vocal  music. 

CONTI.    See  GizziELLO. 

CONTRERAS  (Joas).  Spanish  violin-maker,  who  worked  at  Madrid  about 
middle  of  l8th  century.     He  made  violins  in  the  Italian  style  of  good  quality. 

CONVERSO  (Girolamo).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Correggio  about  middle  of  i6th 
century.  He  published  "Canzoni  a  cinque  voci,"  Venice,  1575,  and  "  Madri- 
gali  a  sei  voci,"  Venice,  1584.  He  is  now  known  as  the  composer  of  the 
pretty  madrigal,  "  When  all  alone  my  pretty  love." 

COOK  (Eliza).      English  poetess  and  song- writer,  B.  London,  1818.     She  con- 
tributed to  the  literary  magazines  of  her  day,  and  edited  a  journal  which 
attained  some  popularity.     She  published  "New  Echoes  and  other  Poems," 
1864,  etc.     She  was  given  a  literary  pension  of  ;^I00  in  1864. 
She  composed  a  number  of  pleasing  ballads,  and  furnished  a  number  of  composers 
with  the  words  of  a  great  many  more.     Among  composers  who  have  set  her  poetry 
maybe  named  Blockley,  Dempster,  S.  Glover,  C.  E.  Horn,  etc. 

COOKE  (Benjamin).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  London,  1730  [1732-1734- 
1739]-  S.  under  Pepusch.  Deputy  -  org.  at  Westminster  Abbey,  1742. 
Cond.  of  Academy  of  Ancient  Music,  1752-1789.  Master  of  boys  and  lay- 
clerk,  Westminster  Abbey,  1757.  Doc.  Mus.,  Cantab.,  1775.  Org.  of  S. 
Martin's-in-the-Field,  1782.  Sub.-director  at  Handel  Commemoration,  1784. 
D.  London,  Sept.  14,  1793. 

176  coo  —  coo 

Works.— Ode  on  Handel,  for  8  voices.  Glees :  Collection  of  twenty  Glees, 
Catches  and  Canons  for  3,  4,  5  and  6  voices,  in  score,  Lond.,  1775  ;  As  now  the 
shades  ;  A  bachelor  he  may  show  his  cares  ;  A  knight  there  came  from  the  field  of 
the  slain  ;  Away  with  gloom  and  care  ;  The  beef-steak  glee  ;  Ere  the  beams  of 
morning  break  ;  Farewell ;  Hand  in  hand  ;  Hark,  the  lark  ;  How  sleep  the  brave  ; 
In  the  merry  month  of  May ;  I've  been  young,  though  now  grown  old  ;  Now  the 
bright  morning  star,  day's  harbinger  ;  O  strike  the  harp  ;  Take  thou  this  cup  ;  Let 
Rubinelli  charm  the  ear,  duet ;  Thrysis,  when  he  left  me,  duet ;  The  dormouse, 
glee  ;  Beneath  in  the  dust.  Nine  glees  and  two  duets,  op.  9  [1795].  Ode  on  the 
Passipns  (Collins),  1784,  etc.  Concertos  for  combinations  of  various  instruments. 
Organ  and  Harpsichord  Music.     Anthems  and  Church  Services.     Songs,  etc. 

"Dr.  Cooke's  glees  are  numerous,  and  of  great  beauty.  They  are  remarkable 
for  natural  and  graceful  ease  of  melody,  great  simplicity  and  yet  much  art  in  the 
disposition  of  parts,  and  fine  expression." — Hogarth.  A  number  of  them  are  still 
in  use  among  our  singing  companies;  "Hark,  the  lark,"  being  one  of  those 
perennial  favourites  of  which  the  English  school  furnishes  not  a  few  examples. 
With  Callcott,  Webbe,  and  Horsley,  Cooke  shares  the  preeminent  position  among 
the  older  glee  writers.  As  an  organist  he  was  one  of  the  best  of  his  day.  His 
sacred  music  is  now  almost  forgotten,  as  also,  it  must  be  said,  his  various  other 
works.  Much  confusion  appears  to  exist  as  regards  the  date  of  his  birth,  1734  and 
1739  being  obviously  wrong  when  compared  with  the  dates  following. 

COOKE  (Captain  Henry).     English  com;),  and  teacher,  B.  beginning  of  17th 

century.     Educated  at  Chap.  Royal.     Obtained  a  Captain's  commission  during 

the  Civil  War,  1642.     Gent,  of  Chap.  Royal  and  Master  of  Children,  1660. 

Comp.  to  the  King,  1664.     D.  July  13,  1672. 

Works. — Anthems  and  Services  preserved  (MS.)  in  the  Collection  formed  by 

Dr.  Aldrich  in  Christ  Church,  Oxford.     Madrigals,  Songs,  etc. 

Cooke  was  the  teacher  of  Blow,  Wise,  Purcell  and  Humfrey,  and  for  that  alone 
is  entitled  to  some  little  credit  and  esteem.  He  is  said  by  Anthony  Wood  to  have 
died  of  grief  at  the  musical  attainments  of  Pelham  Humfrey,  which  far  exceeded 
his  own  ;  but  from  a  physiological  point  of  view  this  seems  rather  absurd. 

COOKE  (John  P.)  English  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Chester,  1820.  Cond.  of 
various  theatre  orchestras  in  New  York.  D.  New  York,  Nov.  4,  1865. 
Wrote  music  to  Shakespeare's  Plays,  Songs,  etc. 

COOKE  (Nathaniel).  English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Bosham,  near  Chichester, 
1773.  S.  under  his  uncle  Matthew  Cooke  of  London  (organist).  Org.  of  the 
Parish  Ch.  of  Brighton.     D.  [?] 

Works. — Collection  of  Psalms  and  Hymns  sung  at  Brighthelmston,  with  several 
Canons,  and  a  Te  Deum,  arranged  for  the  Organ  or  Pianoforte,  8vo,  n;  d.  Glees 
and  Songs.     Pianoforte  Music. 

Cooke  was  a  good  organist,  and  comp.  the  canon  "I  have  set  God  always 
before  me." 

COOKE  (Rohert).     Son  of  Benjamin  Cooke,  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1768. 

S.  under  his  Father.     Succeeded  his  Father  at  S.  Martin's-in-the-field,  1793. 

Org.  and  choir-master  at  Westminster  Abbey,  1802.     Drowned  in  Thames, 

Aug.  13,  1 8 14. 
Works. — Magnificat  and  Nunc  Dimittis  in  C.     Anthems.      G/«j ;  In  the  rose's 
fragrant  shade ;    Love  and  folly  were  at  play  ;  Mark,  where  the  silver  queen  of 
night ;  Queen  of  the  sea  ;  Round  thy  pillow  ;  Sweet  warbling  bird  ;  Why  o'er  the 
verdant  banks.     Collection  of  Eight  Glees  (Clementi)  [1805].     Songs,  etc. 

COOKE  (Thomas  Simpson).  Irish  vocalist  and  comp.,  B.  Dublin,  17S2.  S. 
under  his  Father  and  Giordani.  Cond.  of  theatre  in  Dublin,  1S03.  Debut  as 
vocalist  at  Dublin  in  Storace's  "  Siege  of  Belgrade."  Appeared  in  London, 
July,  1813.  Cond.  and  vocalist  at  Drury  Lane  from  1813.  Married  to  Miss 
Howell.  Mem.  of  R.  A.  M.  ;  the  Philharmonic  Soc.  ;  the  Nobleman's 
Catch  Club ;  the  Glee  Club  j  etc.,  etc.     D.  London,  Feb.  26,  1848. 

coo  —  coo  177 

VfOKKS.— Music  to  Plays:  The  Count  of  Anjou ;  A  Tale  of  the  Times,  1822; 
The  Wager,  1825;  Oberon,  or  the  Charmed  Horn,  1826;  Malvina,  1826;  The 
Boy  of  Santillane,  1827 ;  The  Brigand,  1829 ;  Peter  the  Great,  1829 ;  The 
Dragon's  Gift,  1830 ;  The  Ice  Witch,  1831  ;  Hyder  Ali,  1831  ;  St.  Patrick's  Eve, 
1832;  King  Arthur,  1835;  The  King's  Proxy;  Frederick  the  Great;  The  Five 
Lovers  ;  Numerous  Farces  ;  Adaptations  of  Foreign  Operas.  Glees :  Six  Glees  for 
3  and  4  voices,  Lond.,  1844;  Come  Spirits  of  Air;  Fill  me,  boy,  as  deep  a 
draught ;  Strike,  strike  the  lyre.  Duets :  Love  and  War ;  Army  and  Navy ; 
Songs.  Singing  Exemplified  in  a  Series  of  Solfeggi  and  exercises,  progressively 
arranged,  London,  n.  d.;  Singing  in  parts,  containing  progressive  instructions,  ex- 
tracts, exercises,  and  original  compositions.  Lend.,  a.  d.  [c.  1842]  etc. 

Cooke  enjoyed  great  popularity  in  his  day  and  in  his  delineations  of  seafaring 
characters  (currently  known  as  in  the  style  a  la  Tom  Cooke)  was  remarkably 
successful.  He  taught  J.  Sims  Reeves,  Miss  Tree,  Miss  Povey,  Miss  Rainforth 
and  a  number  ot  other  vocalists  who  have  attained  renown.  His  compositions  in 
general  are  in  the  same  style  as  those  of  Dibdin  and  Braham,  and  are  marked  by 
a  free  and  melodious  manner.  He  was  a  violinist  of  some  note,  and  a  good 
vocalist.  His  son,  Grattan  Cooke,  is  a  composer  of  operettas  and  songs.  He 
published  "Statement  of  Facts  and  Correspondence  between  the  Directors  of  the 
Philharmonic  Society  and  Mr.  Grattan  Cooke,"  London  [1850]. 

COOMBE  (William  Francis).      English  org.  and  comp.,  B.   Plymouth,  1786. 
S.   under  his  father  (a  singing  master)  and  W.  Jackson  of  Exeter.     Org.  at 
Chard,  Somerset,  1800.     Org.  at  Totness,  Devon,  1802-11.     Org.  at  Chelms- 
ford, 181 1-22,     D.  about  middle  of  present  century. 
He  composed  a  few  pianoforte  sonatas,  etc.,  but  was  chiefly  remarkable  as  an 

instrumental  performer. 

COOMBS  (James  Morris).     English  org.    and   corap.,    B.    Salisbury,    1769. 

Chor.  at  Salisbury  Cath.     S.  under  Dr.  Stephens  and  Parry.     Org.   at  Chip- 

penham,  Wilts,  1789-20.     D.  Chippenham,  1820. 
Works. — Set  of  Canzonets  ;   Te  Deums ;   Divine  Amusement,  being  Hymns, 
Psalms,  etc.,  from  Marcello,  Handel,  etc.  ;  Glees  and  Songs. 

COOPER  (Alexander  Samuel).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  London,  April 
30,  1835.  Org.  of  S.  Paul's,  Covent  Garden.  Has  composed  "The  Athan- 
asian  Creed."  Music  for  the  Holy  Communion.  Nicene  Creed.  Te  Deum. 
Anthems:  I  did  call  upon  the  Lord;  Brightest  and  best;  Come  unto  me. 
Chants.  Part  Songs :  Happy  bygone  days  ;  The  wayside  well ;  Cheerily ; 
Sweet  echo ;  O  tranquil  eve ;  Every  season  hath  its  pleasures.  Songs. 
Parochial  Chant  Book.     The  Parochial  Psalter,  etc. 

COOPER  (George).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.   Lambeth,  London,  July  7, 

1820.     Org.  of  S.  Benet's,  Paul's  Wharf,  London ;  Assistant  org.  S.  Paul's  ; 

Org.  of  S.  Anne  and  S.  Agnes,  Lond.,   1836;  S.  Sepulchre,   1843;  Christ's 

Hospital ;  Chapel  Royal.     D.  London,  October  2,  1876. 

Works. — The  Organist's  Assistant,  a  series  of  movements  selected  and  arranged 

from  the  works  of  classical  authors  (Novello),  Lond.,  n.  d. ;  The  Organist's  Manual, 

consisting  of  select  movements  for  the  organ,  from  the  works  of  the  most  eminent 

composers  (Novello),  Lond.,  n.  d.  ;  Organ  Arrangements,  3  vols.,  Lond.  ;  Classical 

Extracts  for  the  Organ ;  Introduction  to  the  Organ,  Lond.,  n.  d. ;  Songs  ;  Part- 

Songs,  etc. 

Cooper  was  one  of  the  best  modern  organists,  and  an  editor  and  arranger  of  the 
first  ability.  His  death  was  a  sad  loss  to  musical  England.  His  style  was  chiefly 
remarkable  for  refinement  and  for  the  entire  absence  of  vulgarity  and  of  straining. 

COOPER  (Henry  Christopher).  English  violinist,  B.  Bath,  1819.  S.  violin 
under  Spagnoletti.  Appeared  as  solo  violinist  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  1830. 
Principal  violinist  at  Royal  Italian  Opera.  Leader  at  Philharmonic  Society. 
Violinist  at  Provincial  Festivals.  Cond.  at  various  theatres.  Latterly  cond. 
at  Gaiety  Theatre,  Glasgow.  D.  Glasgow,  Jan.  26,  1881.  He  was  one  of  the 
foremost  of  the  English  school  of  violinists  and  at  one  time  well  known  in 
London.     He  was  married  to  Madame  Tonnellier,  the  vocalist. 


178  coo  —  COR 

COOPER  (Isaac).  Scottish  editor  and  violinist,  published  "A  Collection  of 
Reels,  by  Isaac  Cooper  of  Banff,"  about  1783. 

COOPEB  (Rev.  James).  English  divine  and  writer,  author  of  "  Musse  Sacrse  ; 
being  Selections  from  Browaler,  Heber,  etc. ,  set  to  music  ;  to  which  is  pre- 
fixed an  Essay  on  Church  Music."     Lond.,  fo.,  i860. 

COOPER  (John),  Coperario.     English  performer  on  the  viol-da-gamba,   and 

comp.,  B.  in  latter  part  of  l5th  century.     Musical  preceptor  of  the  children  of 

James  I.,  and  master  of  Henry  and  W.  Lawes.     D.  beginning,  of  17th  century. 

Works. — Funeral  Tears  for  the  Death  of  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earle  of 

Devonshire,  figured  in  seaven  songs,  whereof  sixe  are  soe  set  forth  that  the  words 

may  be  expressed  by  a  Treble  voyce  alone  to  the  Lute  and  Base  Voil,  or  else  that 

the  meane  part  may  be  added,  if  any  shall  affect  more  fulnesse  of  Parts,  etc.,  1606. 

Songs  of  Mourning,  bewailing  the  untimely  death  of  Prince  Henry,  Lond.,  fo. , 

1613  ;  Music  in  Leighton's  "  Teares  "  ;  Music  to  Masque  by  Dr.  Campion  ;  Songs 

and  Fancies,  etc. 

COOPER   (Joseph   Thomas).      English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  1810.      Org.  of 
Christ  Ch.,  Newgate  Street.     Org.  of  Christ's  Hospital.     D.  London,  1880. 
Works. — Songs,  Part-Songs,  Sacred  Music,  Organ  Music,  etc. 

COOPER  (J.  Wilbye).  English  vocalist  and  writer,  author  of  "The  Voice,  the 
Music  of  Language,  and  the  Soul  of  Song  ;  a  Short  Essay  on  the  Art  of  Sing- 
ing." Lond.,  1874.  "Cramer's  Vocal  School"  (edited),  Lond.,  n.  d.  D. 

COOTE  (Charles).  English  band-master  and  comp.  of  dance-music,  B.  1809. 
D.  London,  March  6,  1880. 

He  composed  a  great  number  of  vigorous  waltzes,  galops,  and  polkas.  The 
style  of  those  works  is  best  illustrated  by  the  following  titles — "  Rage  of  London,"- 
"  Break-neck,"  "  Express,"  etc.    He  also  wrote  dances  on  airs  from  popular  operas. 

COOTE  (Charles,  Junr.),  Son  of  the  above,  an  English  band-master  and  writer 
of  dance  tunes  in  the  same  style  as  his  father. 

COPERARIO.    See  Cooper  (John). 

COPPOLA  (P.  Antonio).  Italian  comp.,  B.  1792.  D.  Nov.,  1877.  Comp. 

CORBETT    (Samuel).      English  comp.  and  org.,   B.  Wellington,   Shropshire, 

"     Jan.  29,  1852.     S.  under  Dr.  Sir  G.  A.  Macfarren  and  James  Coward.     Org. 

of  Christ  Ch.,  Wellington,   Oct.,   1867.     Mus.   Bac,  Cantab.,  May  I,  1873. 

Org.   of   S.   Mary's,   Bridgnorth,  Jan.,   1875.      Doc.  Mus.,   Cantab,,    March 

20,   1879. 

Works. — Bethlehem,  a  cantata ;  Sonata  for  the  Pf.;  Part-songs  ;  Magnificat  and 
nunc  dimittis  in  F_ ;  Anthems  ;  .Songs. 

CORBETT  (William).  English  comp.  and  violinist,  B.  [1669].  Mem.  of  King's 
Band.  Travelled  in  Italy,  Burney  says,  on  behalf  of  the  English  Government, 
who  paid  him  to  watch  the  movements  of  the  Pretender.  Returned  to  Eng- 
land, 1740.     D.  1748. 

Works.  —Op.  I.  Sonata  for  two  violins  and  bass,  Lond.,  1705  ;  Op.  2.  Sonata 
for  2  flutes  and  bass,  Lond.,  1706 ;  op.  3.  Sonata  for  2  flutes  and  bass,  Lond., 
1707  ;  Six  Sonatas  for  -^  oboes  or  trumpets,  2  violins,  and  bass  ;  Concertos,  or 
Universal  Bizzarries,  composed  on  all  the  new  Gustos  during  many  years' resi- 
dence in  Italy,  op.  5,  Lond.,  1741  ;  Twelve  Concertos  for  various  instruments; 
Music  to  "  Henry  IV.,"  1700  ;  Music  to  "Love  Betray'd,"  1763  ;  Songs  in  collec- 
tions, etc. 

Corbett  collected  a  valuable  musical  library,  and  was  a  remarkable  performer  on 
the  violin.  His  compositions  are  of  good  quality,  and  generally  melodious.  The 
story  of  Burney  anent  his  watch  on  the  Pretender  is  discredited. 

CORDER  (Frederick).  English  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Hackney,  London,  Jan. 
26,    1852.      S.  at  the  R.  A.  M.,  1874.      Gained  Mendelssohn  Scholarship, 

COR  —  coR  175 

1875.  S.  at  Cologne  under  Dr.  Hiller,  1875-78.  Returned  to  England, 
1879,  and  became  occupied  with  literary  pursuits.  Appointed  cond.  of  orches- 
tra at  Brighton  Aquarium,  June,  1880.  Resides  at'  Brighton  as  comp.  and 

Works.— Op.  i.  Orchestral  Suite  :  "  In  the  Black  Forest,"  1876;  op.  2.  Idyll 
for  orchestra  :  "  Evening  on  the  Sea-shore,"  1876  ;  op.  3.  Grand  opera  :  "  Morte 
d'  Arthur,"  1877-9  ;  op.  4.  Opera  :  "  Philomel,"  in  one  act,  1879  ;  op.  5.  Cantata: 
"The  Cyclops,"  1880;  op.  6.  Four- River  Songs  (Trios  for  female  voices),  1880; 
Ossian,  a  concert  overture  for  orch.,  produced  by  the  Philharmonic  Soc,  London, 
1882  ;  Songs  and  part-songs,  miscellaneous. 

Mr.  Corder's  works  are  marked  by  an  ambitious  and  undoubtedly  artistic  aim, 
and  the  majority  of  them  which  have  been  produced  have  been  well  received.  Mr. 
Corder  has  contributed  largely  to  periodical  literature,  and  also  to  Sir  George 
Grove's  "Dictionary  of  Musicians." 

COBrELLI  (Arcangelo).      Italian  violinist  and  comp.,   B.  Fusignano,  Imola, 
1653.     S.  under  G.  Bassani  and  Simonelli.     Early  career  unknown.     Travel- 
led in  Germany.     Mem.  of  Court -band  of  the  King  of  Bavaria.     Returned  to 
Italy,  1681.     Cond.  opera  at  Rome,  1690.     D.  Rome,  Jan.  18,  1713. 
Works. — Op.    I.  xii.   Sonata  a  tre,  due  violini  e  violoncello,  col  basso'per  1' 
organo,  Rome,  1683  ;  op.  2.  xii.  Suonate  da  Camera  a  tre,  due  violini,  violoncello 
e  violone  o  cembalo,  Rome,  1685  ;  op.  3.  xii.  Suonate  a  tre,  due  violini  e  arciluito 
col  basso  per  1'  organo,  Bologna,  1690  ;  op.  4.  xii.  Suonate  da  Camera  a  tre,  due 
violini  e  violone  o  cembalo,  Bologna,  1694  ;  op.  5.  xii.  Suonate  a  violino  e  violone 
o  cembalo,  Rome,  1700  ;  op.  6.  Concerti  grossi  con  due  violini  e  violoncello  di  con- 
certino obligati  e  due  altri  violini,  viola  e  basso  di  concerto  grosso  ad  arbitrio  che  si 
potranno  radopptare,  Rome,  1712.     An  Edition  of  op.  5  was  published  by  Gemini- 
ani  at  London. 

Corelli  is  the  acknowledged  founder  of  modern  violin  playing  and  composition. 
His  works  are  in  every  respect  worthy  of  the  high  favour  once  bestowed  upon  them 
and  are  superior  to  the  compositions  of  any  of  his  contemporaries.  Although  now 
rarely,  if  eVer,  performed,  Corelli's  sonatas  have  lived  tenaciously,  and  will  no  doubt 
continue  to  exist  for  a  considerable  period.  Their  chief  characteristics  are  the  fine 
melody,  clear  massive  harmony,  and  general  good  effect  secured  by  skilful  arrange- 
ment of  the  parts.  He  was  one  of  the  first  who  wrote,  for  the  violin  with  a  perlect 
knowledge  of  its  capabilities,  and  his  music  is,  in  consequence,  always  playable,  if 
occasionally  dry.  As  a  performer,  he  excelled  most  of  his  contemporaries,  and  laid 
the  foundation  of  the  succeeding  school  of  violinists,  through  Geminiani,  his  pupil. 

COBiFE  (Joseph),     English  org.,  writer,  and  comp.,  B.  Salisbury,  1740,     Chor. 

at  Salisbury  Cath.     Gent,  of  Chap.  Royal,  1782.     Org.  and  choir-master  at 

Salisbury  Cath.,  1792-1804.  D.  1821. 
Works. — A  Treatise  on  Singing,  explaining  in  the  most  simple  manner  all  the 
Rules  for  learning  to  Sing  by  Note  without  the  assistance  of  an  Instrument,  with 
some  Observations  on  Vocal  Music,  Lond.,  fc,  1791,  another  ed.,  1801  ;  Thorough- 
bass Simplified,  Lond.,  n.  d.  Beauties  of  Handel,  being  154  songs,  duetts,  and 
trios  with  accomp.  for  Pf.,  3  vols.,  n.  d. ;  Beauties  of  Purcell,  2  vols.,  n.  d.;  First 
Set  of  12  Glees,  n.  d. ;  Second  Set  of  12  Glees  ;  Third  Set  of  12  Glee's,  in  score  for 
3  and  4  voices,  from  melodies  of  Sacchini,  Paisiello,  Haydn,  Pleyel,  Storace,  etc. 
Sacred  Music,  consisting  of  a  collection  of  the  most  admired  pieces,  adapted  to  some 
of  the  choicest  music  of  Jomelli,  Pergolesi,  Perez,  Martini,  Biretti,  etc.,  2  vols., 
n.  d. ;  Three  Collections  of  Scottish  Songs  ;  Anthems  ;  Nine  Vocal  Trios,  harmon- 
ized, Lond.,  n.  d. 

COBFE  (Arthur  Thomas).     English,   comp.,  org.,  and  writer,  son  of  above, 

B.  Salisbury,  April  9,  1773.     Chor.  in  Westminster  Abbey,   1783.     S.  under 

Dr.  Cooke  and  Clementi.     Org.  and  choir-master  of  Salisbury  Cath.,   1804. 

D.  Salisbury,  Jan.  28,  1863. 

Works. — Anthems  ;  Church  Services  ;  Pf.  music.     The  Principles  of  Harmony 

and  Thorough-Bass  explained,  Lond.,  11.  d.     Songs;  Glees,  etc. 

CORFE  (Charles  -William).     English  org.  and  comp.,  son  of  the  above,  B. 
Salisbury,  July  13,  1814.     S.  under  his  father,  etc.     Org.  of  Christ  Ch.  Cath., 

l8o  COR  —  COR 

Oxford,  Dec,  1846.      Mus.    Bac,  Oxon.,   Mar.,    1847.      Mus.  Doc,  Oxon., 
June,  1852.     Choragus  of  the'  University  of  Oxford,  i860.     D.  Oxford,  Dec. 
16,  1883. 
Works. — Vocal  music,  as  songs,  part-songs  ;  Anthems. 

COBKINE  (William).     English  lute-player  and  comp.,  B.  in  latter  part  of  i6th 
century.     D.  first  part  of  17th  century. 
Works.— Ayres  to  Sing  and  Play  to  the  Lute  and  Basse  Violl,  with  Pavins, 
Galliards,  Almaines,  and  Corantos  for  the  Lyra  Violl,  1610  ;  The  Second  Booke  of 
Ayres,  some  to  sing  and  play  to  the  Base  violl  alone,  etc.,  16 1 2. 

CORNELIUS  (Peter).     German  comp.,  B.  Mayence,  Dec.  24,  1824.    Nephew  of 

P.  von  Cornelius,  the  painter.     S.  under  Liszt.     Resided  at  Weimar,  assisting 

Liszt  in  spreading  the  theories  of  Wagner,  1852-60.     Prof,  at   Munich  Cons. 

D.  Mayence,  1874. 

Works.— The  Barber  of  Bagdad,  opera,  Weimar,  1858  ;  The  Cid,  opera,  Munich, 

1863;  Pf.   music;  Collections  of  Songs:   Trauer  und  Trost;  Weihnachtslieder ; 

Trauerchore,  etc.;  Part-songs. 

CORNELL  (J.  H.).  American  writer  and  comp.,  author  of  ,\  Primer  of 
Tonality  (2  editions).  New  York,  n.  d. ;  The  Practice  of  Sight-Singing,  in  2 
parts,  New  York,  8vo,  n.  d.  ;  Songs  with  Pf.  accomp. ;  Te  Deum  ;  Part-songs. 
Silicate  Music  Slate  (with  pamphlet),  for  Practical  Exercises  in  learning  to 
Transpose  and  Sing ;  The  lutroit  Psalms  as  prescribed  by  the  First  Prayer- 
Book  of  Edward  VL,  set  to  original  chants.  New  York,  4to,  1871. 

COENETTE  (Victor).  French  comp.  and  writer,  B.  Amiens,  1795.  S.  at 
Paris  Cons,  from  1811.  Prof,  of  music  at  College  of  St.  Acheul,  1817-25. 
Mem.  oforch.  at  Ode'on,  Opera  Comique,  etc.,  1825-37.  Singing-master  at 
Gymnase  de  Musique  Militaire,  1839.  Chorus-master  and  leader  at  various 
theatres,  1842-48. 
Works. — Methods  or  Tutors  for  the  Trombone,  Cornet,  Bugle,  Sax-horn,  Ophi- 
cleide.  Bassoon,  Oboe,  Horn,  Trumpet,  Harp,  Saxophon,  Violoncello,  Viola, 
Organ,  Harmonium,  etc.  ;  Pf.  arrangements  from  operas  ;  Music  for  wind- 
instruments  ;  Dance  music. 

COB.NISH  (William).  English  poet  and  musician,  flourished  about  1500-.  He 
wrote  a  "  Parable  between  Information  and  Musike,"  a  poem,  which  will  be 
found  in  Hawkins.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Chapel  Royal  choir,  and  D.  be- 
1526.     His  compositions  exist  in  MS. 

CORNISH  (William).  Son  of  the  above,  flourished  in  first  part  of  the  l6th  cen- 
tury, wrote  songs,  part-songs,  etc.,  said  by  Hawkins  to  be  good. 

CORNWALL  (N.  E.).  American  writer,  author  of  "  Music  as  it  was  and  as  it 
is,"  New  York,  l2mo,  n.  d. 

COREI  (Dominico).     Italian  comp.   and  collector,  B.   Rome,   1746.     S.  under 
Porpora,  1763-67.    Came  to  London,  1774.     Publisher,  with  Dussek,  in  Lon- 
don. Teacher  and  publisher  in  Edinburgh.    Married  to  Miss  Bacchelli.   Cond. 
of  Musical  Soc.  of  Edinburgh.     D.  London,  May  22,  1825. 
WOKKS.— Operas :  Alessandro  nell'  Indie,  Lond.,  1774.  ;  The  Travellers,  Lond. 
The  Singer's  Preceptor,  or  Corri's  Treatise  on  Vocal  Music,  2  vols.,  fo.,  18:0  (con- 
taining his  life)  ;  A  new  and  complete  Collection  of  the  most  favourite  Scots  Songs, 
including  a  few  English  and  Irish,  with  proper  Graces  and  Ornaments  peculiar  to 
their  character  ;  likewise  the  New  Method  of  Accompaniment  of  Thorough  Bass,  2 
vols. .  1788.  A  select  collection  of  the  most  admired  Songs,  Duets,  etc.,  from  operas  in 
the  highest  esteem,  and  from  other  works  in  Italian,  English,  French,  Scotch,  Irish, 
etc.,  in  three  books,  n.  d. ;  A  Select  Collection  of  Forty  of  the  most  favourite  Scotch 
Songs,  with  introductory  and  concluding  Symphonies,   proper  graces  peculiar  to 
their  character,  and  accompaniments  for  the  Pf.,  n.  d.   (four  editions  of  this  work 
were  published).;  The  Art  of  Fingering,  1799  ;  Musical  Dictionary  as  a  Desk,  1798; 
Complete  Musical  Grammar,  with  a  Concise  Dictionary  of  all  the  Signs  and  Forms 
used  in  Music,  etc,  Lond.,  n.  d.;  Two  vols,  of  Sonatas  for  the  Pf. ;  Several  vols, 
of  English  and  other  national  songs  ;  Six  Canzonets  and  Two  Duets  (Clementi)  ; 
Lilliput,  a  dramatic  romance  ;   Single  songs,  duets,  etc. 

COR  —  COS 

Corri  was  a  fine  musician,  and  enterprising  man  of  business,  both  of  which  quali- 
■  ties  he  utilized  in  a  beneficial  manner  in  improving  the  musical  taste  of  the  Scottish 
capital.  His  publications  were  superior  in  general  to  the  common  order  of  music- 
books  issued  in  Britain,  and  he  appears  to  have  been  one  of  the  first  to  employ 
written-out  accompaniments  in  Britain.  He  mentions  at  length,  in  a  preface  to  one 
of  his  "Select  Collections,"  the  nature  and  extent  of  his  innovation. 

CORBiI  (Montague).  Italian  comp.,  second  son  of  above,  B.  Edinburgh,  1784. 
S.  under  his  father,  Winter,  and  Steibelt.  Resided  in  London  as  comp.  to  the 
Surrey  Theatre.  Comp.  to  Astley's  and  the  Cobourg  Theatre  till  1816.  Chorus- 
master  at  English  Opera  House,  1816-17.  Resided  successively  in  Edinburgh, 
Newcastle,  Manchester,  and  Liverpool.  D.  London,  Sept.  19,  1849.  He 
wrote  a  few  songs  and  other  unimportant  pieces.  He  was  an  expert  swords- 
man, and  a  respectable  conductor. 

CORRI  (Haydn).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Edinburgh,  1785.  D.  Dublin,  Feb.  19, 
i860.  Corri  was  a  cond.,  teacher,  and  comp.,  in  Dublin,  where  he  was  much 
respected  among  musicians.     His  wife  (1800-67)  was  an  operatic  vocalist. 

CORRI  (Natale).  Italian  comp.  and  music  teacher,  brother  of  Domenico  Corri, 
was  living  in  Edinburgh  contemporaneously  with  his  brother. 

CORRI-PALTONI  (Fanny).     Italian  mezzo-soprano  vocalist,   B.   Edinburgh, 

1801,  daughter  of  Natale  Corri.     S.  under  her  father  and  Braham.     Debut  at 

the  King's  Theatre,  Lond.     Sang  in  Germany,  Italy,  etc.     Married  to  Signer 

Paltoni  in  Italy,  1821.     Sang  in  Spain,  Russia,  etc.     D.  [?] 

Her  sister  Rosalie  sang  in  London  in  1S20  and  afterwards,  with  considerable 


Other  members  of  this  family  are  DussEK  (died   1870),  Patrick  (1820-1876), 
and  Haydn,  a  vocalist  (died  1876). 

CORSI  (JaCOpo).  Italian  amateur  musician  of  i6th  century,  who  encouraged 
Peri  and  Caccini  in  their  efforts  to  establish  what  is  noAf  known  as  the  opera. 

CORTECCIA  (Francesco).  Italian  comp.,  B.  Arezzo,  early  in  l6th  century. 
Chap. -master  to  Grand  Duke  Cosmo  IL,  1541-1571.  D.  1571.  Composed 
Motets,  Madrigals,  etc. 

CORTESI  (Antonio).  Italian  dancer,  B.  1797.  D.  1880.  He  improved  and 
invented  new  features  in  the  ballet. 

COSSMANN  (Bernhard).  German  violoncellist  and  comp.,  B.  Dessau,  May 
17,  1822.  S.  under  Drechsler,  MUUer,  and  Kummer.  'Cellist  at  Italian  opera, 
Paris.  Appeared  in  Loudon,  1841.  Returned  to  Germany  and  played  at 
Gewandhaus  and  other  important  concerts.  Prof,  of  violoncello  at  Cons,  of 
Moscow,  1866-70. 

COSTA  (Francisco  Eduardo  da).  Portuguese  comp.,  B.  Lamego,  May  15, 
1818.     D.  1854.     Wrote  church  music,  etc. 

COSTA  (Joao  E.  P.  da).  Portuguese  comp.,  B.  Lisbon,  1805.  S.  at  Lisbon. 
Writer  of  operatic  works,  songs,  etc. 

COSTA  (Sir  Michael).     Italian  comp.  and  cond.,  B.  Naples,  Feb.  4,  1810.     S. 
under  Zingarelli,  etc.     S.  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  Naples.     Visited 
England,  and  assisted  at  the  Birmingham  Musical  Festival,  1828.     Cond.  at 
H.M.  Theatre,  1831.     Naturalized  as  British  subject,  1839.     Cond.  of  Philhar- 
monic Soc.   Concerts,  1846.     Cond.  at  Royal  Italian  opera,  1847.     Cond.  of 
Sacred  Harmonic  Soc,  1849.     Cond.  of  the  Handel  Festivals,  1857,  and  after- 
wards.   Knighted  at  Windsor,  April  14,  1868.     Invested  with  the  Royal  Order 
of  Frederick,  1869.     Cond.  at  H.M.  Theatre,  1871.     Knight  of  the  Turkish 
Order  of  the  Medjidie.     Knight-Commander  of  the  Crown  in  Italy.     D.  Lon- 
don, April  28,  1884. 
Works.— Ora/(;«>.f  and  Cantatas:  L'  Immagine,  1815  ;  La  Passione,  1827  ;  Eli, 
Birmingham,  1855;   Naaman,  Birmingham,  1864.     Operas  and  Ballets:  II  Delitto 
punilo,  1826;  II  Sospetto  funesto,  1827;  II  Carcere  d' Ildegonde,  1828;  Malvina, 
1829  ;  M?ilek  Adhel,  1837  ;  Pop  Carlos,  1844}  K?nilw6rth,  1831  ;  Une  he«te  & 

COS — cou 

Naples,  1832  ;  Sir  Huon,  1833  ;  Alma,  1842.  Mass  ;  Three  Symphonies  ;  Songs 
and  miscellaneous  music. 

Costa  was  one  of  the  greatest  and  most  influential  conductors  in  Britain.  He  had 
a  singularly  fortunate  career,  which,  coupled  with  hard  work,  raised  him  to  the 
highest  position  among  musicians.  His  services  at  those  institutions  where  he  acted 
as  conductor  were  very  beneficial  to  their  prosperity,  and  healthy  in  general  tend- 
ancy.  His  superior  powers  as  a  conductor  were  universally  acknowledged,  and  his 
tact  and  firmness  in  training  large  bodies  of  singers  and  instrumentalists,  as  at  the 
Handel  Festivals,  insured  him  a  success  almost  unprecedented  in  the  annals  of 
musical  direction. 

His  compositions  are  ol  moderate  popularity,  and,  saving  "Eli  "  and  "  Naaman," 
none  are  works  which  will  have  permanent  interest.  "  Eli "  and  ' '  Naaman  "  were 
successful  when  originally  produced,  and  are  occasionally  brought  forward  by  musi- 
cal societies.  His  dramatic  music  is  decidedly  inferior  to  his  sacred  music,  and  none 
of  his  operas  have  survived,  or  are  likely  to  survive,  their  original  production.  His 
minor  works  are  still  current. 

COSTE  (Jules).  French  amateur  comp,,  B.  Lorraine,  1828.  Wrote  a  number 
of  operas.     D.  November  13,  1883. 

COSTELEY  (William).  Scottish  comp.,  B.  1531.  Settled  in  France  as  org. 
to  Henri  II.  and  Charles  IX.  He  was  a  member  of  the  society  known  as 
"  Puy  de  musique  a  honneur  de  Ste  Cecile."  D.  Evreux,  1606.  His  works 
consist  of  songs  in  Le  Roy's  Collections  of  Chansons,  etc.,  and  a  treatise 
entitled  "Musique,"  Paris,  1579. 

COSYN  (Benjamin).  English  comp.  for,  and  performer  on  the  Virginals  who 
flourished  in  first  part  of  i8th  century.  He  wrote  music  for  his  instrument  of 
a  difficult  and  complicated  style,  and  was  one  of  the  best  performers  of  his  day. 

COSYN  (John).  English  comp.,  probably  father  of  above.  Wrote  Sixty 
Psalms,  in  six  Parts,  1585. 

COTES  (Digby),  M.A.  English  writer,  author  of  "Music  a  rational  assistant  in 
the  duty  of  praise  when  united  with  charity,  a  Sermon,"  1756. 

COTTELL  (George  Lansdowne).  English  pianist,  comp.,  and  teacher,  B. 
Bath,  Sept.  22,  1835.  S.  under  his  mother,  and  at  R.  A.  M.,  London.  Per- 
formed on  Wornum's  Pf.  at  the  International  Exhibition,  1862.  Married 
daughter  of  Samuel  Perkes,  C.E.,  of  Bombay,  etc.,  1864.  Founder  and 
director  of  the  London  Conservatoire  of  Music,  1S76. 
Works. — Pianoforte :    The    Archers ;    Gipsy    Dance ;     Westminster    Bridge  ; 

Fierce  Passions  ;  Three  Minutes ;  Nora  ;  Joy ;  Sea  Song  ;  New  Wedding  March, 

etc.     Sottas:  Coming;  What  do  Lovers  Say  ?  ;  I'm  waiting  ;  Westminster  Bridge, 

etc.     The  Archers,  opera,  etc. 

Cottell  is  known  as  a  successful  teacher,  and  as  a  pianist  of  much  ability.      His 

compositions  are  brilliant  and  tasteful. 

COTTON  (John).  American  writer,  author  of  "Singing  of  Psalmes  a  Gospel 
Ordinance."     Boston,  4to,  1647. 

COTTRAU  (GrUillaume).  French  song  writer,  B.  Paris,  1797.  D.  Naples, 
Oct.  31,  1847. 

COTTRAU  (Theodore),  Martelli.  French  comp.,  son  of  above,  B.  Naples, 
Nov.  7,  1827.     Writer  of  Pf.  music. 

COTTRAU  (Jules).  French  corap.,  brother  of  above,  B.  Naples,  1836.  Writer 
of  operas,  songs,  Pf.  music,  etc. 

COUDERC  (Joseph  Antoine  Charles).  French  vocalist  and  comedian,  B. 
Toulouse,  March  10,  1810.  S.  at  Paris  Cons.  Sang  in  operas  by  Benoist, 
Thomas,  etc.     D.  April  l6,  1875. 

COUPERIN  (Francois),  surnamed  Le  Grand.  French  org.  and  comp.,  B. 
Paris,  1668.  S.  under  an  org.  named  Thomelin.  Org.  of  St.  Gervais,  Paris, 
1696.  Chamber  musician  (harpsichord)  to  the  king,  1701.  Org.  of  Royal 
Chapel,  1701,     D.  Paris,  1733. 

cou  —  cou  183 

Works. — Premier  Livre  de  Pieces  de  Clavecin,  Paris,  1713  ;  Deuxieme  livre  de 
pieces  de  Clavecin,  Paris,  1716  ;  Troisiime  livre  de  pieces  de  Clavecin  k  la  suite 
du  quel  il  y  a  quatre  concerts  a  I'usage  de  touts  sortes  d'instruments,  Paris,  1722  ; 
Quatrifeme  livre  de  pieces  de  Clavecin,  Paris,  1730  ;  Les  Goftts  reunis,  ou  Nouveaux 
Concerts,  augmentes  de  1'  Apotheose  de  Corelli,  en  trio,  Paris,  1724  ;  L'Apoth^ose 
de  r  Incomparable  L  x  x  x  (Lully),  Paris,  n.d.  ;  Trios  pour  deux  dessus  de  violon, 
basse  d'archet  et  basse  chiftrie,  Paris,  n.d.  ;  Lecons  des  ten^bres  k  une  et  deux 
voix,  Paris  ;  L'Art  de  toucher  du  clavecin,  par  M.  Couperin,  organist  du  Roi, 
Paris,  17 17. 

Couperin  is  said  to  have  influenced  J.  S.  Bach  in  the  formation  of  his  style. 
His  work  "L'Art  de  toucher  "  influenced  the  development  of  piano-playing  during 
his  period.  His  compositions  are  elegant  and  spirited  in  style,  and,  though  original, 
are  often  dry  by  reason  of  repeated  ornaments. 

OOUKCY  (F.  de).  Author  of  "  The  Art  of  Singing,  its  Theory  and  Practice;  for 
perfecting  and  scientifically  developing  the  Human  Voice..."  Lond.,  n.d. 

COURTOIS  (Jean).  -Belgian  comp.  of  i5th  century,  who  wrote  elaborate  music 
for  the  church,  madrigals,  etc. 

COUBTEVILLE  (Eaphael).     English  musician,  B.  in  first  part  of  17th  century, 
D.  Dec.  28,  1675. 
He  was  Gent,  of  Chap.  Royal  in  time  of  Charles  I.,  and  founder  of  the  Courte- 
ville  family. 

COXJRTEVILLE  (Raphael).     English  org.  and  comp.,  son  of  above,  B.  latter 
part  of  17th  century.     Org.  of  St.  James'  Ch.,  Piccadilly,  Lond.,  1691.     D. 
Works.— Don  Quixote,  opera  by  D'Urfey  (with  Purcell,  etc.),  1696  ;  Six  Sona- 
tas for  two  violins  ;   Sonatas  for  two  flutes,   1685  ;   Songs  in  contemporary  collec- 
tions ;   "  St.  James"  psalm  tune  ;  etc. 

COXJRTEVILLE  (Jolin).  English  song- writer  of  the  17th  century,  son  of 
Raphael,  the  elder.  His  works  appear  in  the  "Theater  of  Music,"  1685-87, 

COURTEVILLE  (Raphael).  English  org.  and  comp.,  son  of  Raphael  the 
younger,  succeeded  his  father  as  org.  of  St.  James'  Ch.  He  died  in  1771 .  He 
was  a  severe  political  writer,  and  gained  the  nick-name  of  Court-evil. 

COUSINS  (Charles).     English  band-master  and   director  of  music  at  Kneller 
Hall,  B.  near  Portsmouth,  Jan.  2,   1830.      Educated  at  the  Royal  Hospital 
Schools,  Greenwich,  from  1841.     Assistant  band-master  of  Royal  Caledonian 
Asylum,  1846.     Member  of  band  of  the  ist  Life  Guards,   under  Mr.  James 
Waddell.     S.  at  Kneller  Hall,  Hounslow,  for  a  band-mastership.     Band-mas- 
ter of  2nd  Dragoon  Guards,  Oct.,  1863.     Served  with  Guards  in  India,  1864- 
70.     Held  appointment  till  1874.     Director  of  Music  at  Kneller  Hall,  Nov.  i, 
As  music-director  at  Kneller  Hall,  Mr.  Cousins  has  much  of  the  musical  instruc- 
tion imparted  to  band-masters  in  the  British  army  under  his  control  ;  the  institution 
having  been  established  in  1857  for  "the  better  training  of  some  of  the  most  in- 
telligent and  promising  of  the  six  thousand  men  and  boys  who  are  employed  in  the 
musical  service  of  the  army.     The  younger  pupils  are  trained  to  the  various  mstru- 
ments  used  in  a  military  band,  and  for  this  purpose  a  staff  of  ten  masters  is  employ- 
ed.    Those  who  are  to  be  trained  for  band-masterships  are  reconimended  by  their 
respective  commanding  officers  for  their  musical  and  general  intelligence,  good  con- 
duct, and  fitness  for  responsibility.    The  experiment  of  opening  up  to  bandsmen  the 
opportunity  of  qualifying  themselves  for  the  highest  posts  in  their  calling  has  been 
so  successful,  that  the  War  Office  authorities  have  granted  the  status  of  warrant 
ofBcers  to  band-masters,  which  gives,  while  serving,  emoluments  of  nearly  ;^200 
per  annum,  and  a  maximum  retiring  allowance  of  about  £?iO  per  annum. 
COUSSER  (Johann  Sigismund).     Hungarian  comp.,  B.  Presburg,  1657.     S. 
under  Lully.    Visited  Italy,  etc.     Settled  in  London  as  teacher.     Weiit  to  Ire- 
land, 1710.     Org.  in  Dublin  cath.     D.  Dublin,  1727.     He  composed  operas, 
church  music,  songs,  etc, 

184  cou  —  cow 

COUSSEMAKER  (Charles  Edmond  Henri  de).  French  writer,  B.  BaiUeul, 
April,  19,  1805.  D.  Lille,  Jan.  10,  1876. 
Works. — Memoire  sur  Hucbald  et  sur  ses  traites  de  Musique... Paris,  1841  ; 
Notices  sur  les  Collections  Musicales  de  la  Bibliotheque  de  Cambrai  et  des  autres 
villes  du  departement  du  Nord,  Paris,  1843  ;  Essai  sur  les  Instruments  de  Musique 
au  Moyen  ige  ;  Histoire  de  1'  Harmonie  au  moyen  Sge,  Paris,  4to,  1852  ;  Chants 
liturgiques  de  Thomas  a  Kempis... Ghent,  8vo,  1856  ;  Drames  liturgiques  du  Moyen 
age,  Paris,  4to,  1S61  ;  Les  Harmonistes  de  xii.  et  xiii.  Siecles,  4to,  1864  ;  L'  Art 
Harmonique  aux  xii.  et  xiii.  Siecles,  Paris,  4to,  1865  ;  Scriptores  de  Musica  medii 
Eevi  nova  series  a  Gerbertina  altera,  Lille,  3  vols.,  1866-69 ;  Les  Harmonistes  du  xiv. 
Siecle,  4to,  1869;  CEuvres  complies  du  trouvere  Adam  de  la  Halle. ..(edited), 
Paris,  8vo,  1872  ;  Chants  populaires  de  Flamands  de  France,  Ghent,  8vo,  1876. 

[COUTTS  (W.  G.)],  Ithuriel.  Scottish  writer,  author  of  "Scottish  verszis 
Classic  Music,  and  the  Ethical  and  ^Esthetical  aspect  of  the  Question,"  Edin- 
burgh, 8vo,  1877  (2  eds.). 

COWARD  (James).  English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  London,  Jan.  25,  1824. 
Chorister  in  Westminster  Abbey.  Org.  of  Crystal  Palace,  1857-80.  D. 
London,  Jan.  22,  1880. 

Works. — O  Lord,  correct  me  ;  full  anthem.  Part-songs :  Lady,  I  think  of  thee ; 
May  Day  ;  Summer  Morning  ;  Airy  Fairy  Lilian  ;  The  sun  is  bright ;  Peaceful 
Slumbering  ;  The  day  is  done  ;  Where  Claribel  low  lieth  ;  The  Skylark.  Songs : 
Take,  O  take  those  lips  away  ;  Give  back  my  love  again  ;  etc.  Miscellaneous 
music.    Ten  Glees  for  4  and  5  voices,  Lond.,  1857  ;  Ten  Glees,  etc.,  Lond.,  1871. 

Coward's  part-songs  are  perhaps  the  best  known  of  his  published  works,  and  are 
agreeable  pieces  of  a  high  standard  of  merit.  He  was  a  performer  on  the  organ  of 
great  ability. 

COWDEKY  (E.).    See  Ramann  (L.). 

COWEN  (Frederic  Hymen).     English  comp.,  pianist,  and  cond.,  B.  Kingston, 
Jamaica,  Jan.  29,  1852.     Brought  to  England,  1856.     S.  under  Benedict  and 
Goss,   1860-65.      S.  at  Leipzig  and  Berlin,    under  Hauptmann,    Moscheles, 
and  Reinecke.     First  work,  "Minna  Waltz,"  published,  1858.     Gave  series 
of  orchestral  concerts,  introducing  modern  English  works,  Nov.,  1880.     Con- 
ducted Promenade  Concerts,   Lond.,    1880.     Travelled  in   Europe,  1881-82. 
Cond.  his  own  works  at  various  festivals. 
Works. — Operas,  etc.:  Pauline  (from  Lytton's  "  Lady  of  Lyons  "),  Lond.,  Carl 
Rosa,   1876;    Schiller's  Maid  of  Orleans  (overture,  etc.),   1871  ;   One  too  Many 
(German    Reed),    1874 ;    Garibaldi,    operetta.       Cantatas :    The    Rose   maiden, 
1870  ;  The  Corsair,   Birmingham  Festival,   1876 ;  St.  Ursula,   Norwich  Festival, 
188 [  ;     The    Sleeping    Beauty,     Birmingham,    1885.       Oratorio:    The    Deluge, 
Brighton    Festival,    1878.      Symphonies :    First,    in    C,   minor,    1869 ;    Second, 
in    F,    1872 ;    Third,     Scandinavian,    in    C    minor,    1880 ;    Fourth,    Cambrian, 
1884.       Overtures  and  Concertos:   Overture  in  D  minor,   1866;   Festival,   Nor- 
wich, 1872  ;  Concerto  for  Pf.  and  orch.   in  A  minor,  1869  ;   Suite  de  Ballet  for 
orch..  The  Language  of  Flowers,  6  pieces,  1880  ;  Sinfonietta  for  orch.  in  A,  Phil- 
harmonic Soc,  1881.    Instrumental  Music,  viiscellaneous :  Trio  in  A  minor  for  Pf., 
violin,  and  'cello,  1868  ;  Quartet  for  Pf.  and  strings  in  C  minor,  1869.     /"/.  music: 
Three  valses  caprices,  1870  ;  Rondo  a  la  Turque,  1870 ;  Fantasia  on  ' '  Zauberflote  " 
(8  hands),  1870  ;  Sylphide  ;  La  Coquette,  1873,  etc.     Six  Four-part  Songs,  1871. 
Songs:  Two  roses  (1870) ;  Spinning  (1871) ;  Marguerite  ;  Marie  (1872) ;  Aubade  ;  It 
was  a  dream  ;  The  carrier  dove  ;  Only  a  violet ;  Night  and  morning  (1873);  Under 
the  lime  (1874) ;  Past  and  future  ;  Almost ;  At  last ;  So  far  away  ;  Why  ;  The  old 
love  is  the  new,  1875  ;  Ay  or  no  ;   Steering  ;   Truant  love  ;   The  rainy  day  ;  The 
winding  of  the  skein;  The  better  land  (1877);  Never  again;  Make  believe  ;   It 
might  have  been ;  A  farewell ;  A  shadow ;  Tho'  lost  to  sight ;  Regret  ( 1 878) ;  Watch- 
ing and  waiting  ;  My  lady's  dower ;  The  unfinished  song ;  Jessie  ;  O  swallow  (1879) ; 
Casablanca  ;  I  wonder ;  The  children's  house  (1880) ;  The  watchman  and  the  child  ; 
All  in  all  (1881) ;  Six  songs.  Better  far,  etc, ;  I  will  come  ;  The  pilgrims  ;  Light  in 
darkness  ;  Passing  away  ;  A  song  and  a  rose  ;  Home  (1883)  ;  Sunlight  and  shadow  ; 
Album,  A  lullaby,  A  little  while,  Think  of  me,  etc.  j  Child  and  the  angel ;  The 
keepsake;  In  vain  (1884). 

cox  —  CRA  185 

Mr.  Cowen  is  one  of  the  most  popular  of  living  composers,  and  his  works  have 
been  received  with  a  large  measure  of  approbation  by  the  musical  public.  His 
great  strength  lies  in  instrumental  composition,  and  especially  in  his  symphonic 
writings,  which  unite  with  much  beauty  of  design  and  careful  finish,  a  well-marked 
vein  of  originality.  His  cantatas  have  enjoyed  much  popularity,  but  his  "  Rose 
Maiden  "  among  such  works  is  by  far  the  most  frequently  performed.  His  opera 
is  not  now  performed,  and  many  of  his  earlier  works  have  dropped  out  of  know- 
ledge. His  songs  have  enjoyed  a  great  measure  of  popular  favour,  and  many  of 
them  are  already  almost  classics,  but  as  before  indicated,  it  is  as  an  instrumental 
composer  that  Mr.  Cowen  will  hereafter  be  known. 

As  a  conductor  and  pianist  he  takes  high  rank,  end  it  is  due  to  him  to  say  that 
he  has  made  more  than  one  effort  to  secure  for  the  younger  generation  of  British 
composers  a  fair  share  of  public  attention.  His  efforts  in  this  direction,  though 
perhaps  less  successful  than  desirable,  were  none  the  less  patriotic  and  praiseworthy. 

COX  (Rev.  John  Edmund),  D.D.  English  writer  and  divine,  B.  Norwich, 
Oct.  9,  1812.  Vicar  ol  St.  Helen's,  and  St.  Martin's,  Bishopgale,  London, 
1849,  etc.  Author  of  "Musical  Recollections  of  the  last  Half  Century," 
Lond.,  2  vols.,  1872.     He  is  Hon.  Chaplain  of  Royal  Society  of  Musicians. 

CRAIG  (Adam).      Scottish  violinist  and  collector,  B.  in  latter  half  of  17th  cen- 
tury.     D.  Oct.,  1 741.       He  performed  at  the  public  concerts  in  Edinburgh 
during  his  lifetime. 
Works. — A  Collection  of  the  Choicest  Scots  Tunes,  adapted  for  the  Harp  or 

Spinnet,  and  within  the  compass  of  the  voice,  violin,  or  German  Flute,  Edinburgh, 

1730.      A  manuscript  volume  of  orginal  compositions  by  Craig  was  exposed  for 

sale  in  1728. 

CRAMENT  (John  Maude).    English  org.  and  comp.,  B.  Bolton,  Percy,  Yorks, 

1845.     S.  under  Sir  G.  A.  Macfarren,  Haupt,  and  Kiel.     Org.  of  Brompton 

Parish  Ch.,   etc.,   Lond.     Mus.   Bac,    Oxon.,    1879.      Secy,  of  the   Peoples 

Entertainment  Soc. ,  London,  which  gives  over  150  Eree  Concerts  annually. 

Has  composed  some  meritorious  anthems,  and  a  Festival  Psalm  for  solo  voices, 

chorus  and  orcb. 

CRAMER  (Franz).    German  violinist  and  comp.,  B.  Schwetzingen,  near  Mann- 
heim, 1772.     Son  of  Wilhelm  Cramer.     Settled  in  London.     Played  violin  at 
the  Opera,  the  Ancient  Concerts,  etc.     Afterwards  Leader  at  the  Ancient  Con- 
certs, Vocal  concerts,  and  Philharmonic  concerts.     D.  London,  1848. 
His  works  include  fantasies  for  violin  and  flute,  and  other  pieces  of  no  great 


CRAMER  (Henri).      German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  1818.      He  has  written  a 
large  number  of  ]?f.  works,  of  which  the  following  are  among  the  most  impor- 
tant .— 
Nocturne,  op.  2  ;  Fantaisie  Romantique,  op.  8  ;  Romance  sans  paroles,  op.  21  ; 

Po6me  d'amour,   op.   24 ;    Rondo   Capriccioso,   op.   27 ;    Three   Polkas,   op.    29 ; 

Marche  Orientale,  op.  43  ;  Serenade,  op.  90;  Three  Morceaux  de  salon,  op.  118  ; 

Potpourris  on  melodies  in  operas  by  Balfe,  Auber,  Verdi,  Gluck,  Flotow,  Cherubini, 

Adam,  Donizetti,  Rossini,  Mozart,  Herold,  Thomas,  Lortzing,  Wagner,  Spohr. 

CRAMER  (Jacob).  German  flute-player  and  comp.,  B.  in  Silesia,  1705.  D. 
1770.     Wrote  a  quantity  of  music  for  his  instrument. 

CRAMER  (Johann  Eaptist).     German  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Mannheim,  Feb. 
24,  1771.      Son  of  Wilhelm  Cramer.      Taken  to  London  by  his  father,   1772. 
S.  under  his  father,  K.  F.  Abel,  Clementi,  and  Schroeter.      Played  in  various 
towns  in  Europe,  1788-1791.      Established  firm  of  J.  B.  Cramer  &  Co.,  1828. 
Resided  for  period  in  Paris.     Returned  to  London  and  retired,  1845.    D.  Lon- 
don, April  16,  1858. 
■WOKViS.—Pianofot:te:  Opp.  i   tog.   Sonatas;   Concerto,  Pf.  and  orch.,  op.  10; 
Sonatas,  opp.  II  to  15  ;    Concerto,  Pf  and  orch.,  op.  16  ;    Marches  and  Waltzes, 
op.  17  ;  Sonatas,  opp.  18  to  23  ;  Duet,  op.  24  ;  Three  Sonatas,  op.  25  ;  Concerto, 
Pf;  and  orch  ,  op.  26  ;  Two  Sonatas,  op.  27  ;  Quartet,  Pf.,  violin,  viola,  and  'cello, 
op.  28  ;  Three  Sonatas,  op.  29  ;  Suite  of  Studies,  op.  36  ;  Three  Sonatas,  op.  31 ; 
JlQCturne,  op.  32 ;    Three  Sonatas,  op.  33  ;   Duet,  op.  34 ;   Sonatas,  opp.  35-36  ; 

l86  CRA  —  CRE 

Concerto,  Pf.  and  orch.,  op.  37  ;  Sonatas,  op.  38-39 ;  Studies,  op.  40;  Sonatas,  opp. 
41  to  44;  Duet,  Pf.  and  harp.,  op.  45  ;  Sonatas,  op.  46-47  ;  Concerto,  Pf.  and 
orch.,  in  C  minor,  op.  48;  Three  Sonatas,  op.  49  ;  Duet,  op.  50;  Concerto,  Pf. 
and  orch.,  in  E  flat,  op.  51  ;  Duet,  Pf.  and  harp,  op.  52  ;  Sonata,  op.  53 ;  Noc- 
turne, op.  54;  "Dulceet  Utile,"  op.  55;  Concerto,  Pf.  and  orch.,  op.  56; 
Sonatas,  opp.  57  to  59;  Bravura,  op.  60;  Quintet,  Pf.,  violin,  viola,  'celln,  and 
d.-bass,  op.  61  ;  Sonatas,  opp.  62-63.  Method  for  the  Pianoforte,  in  5  parts,  1846. 
The  didactic  vporks  of  Cramer  have  a  permanent  value  for  the  student,  as  well 
as  an  artistic  interest  fcr  the  musician.  The  general  style  of  his  compositions  is  in 
the  manner  of  Mozart ;  but  he  carried  the  capabilities  of  the  Pianoforte  to  a  higher 
degree  of  perfection  than  any  of  his  predecessors.  The  melodiousness  of  a  great 
number  of  his  compositions  still  gains  for  them  a  considerable  share  of  attention. 

CBAMEB   (Wilhelm).      German  violinist    and  cond.,    B.   Mannheim,   1745. 

Settled  in  London,  1772.     Debut  as  violinist,  1773.      Leader  at  the  Opera, 

Ancient  and  Professional  Concerts,  etc.      Leader  of  Handel  Festivals  of  1784- 

87.     D.  London,  Oct.  5,  1799.     Father  of  Franz  and  Johann  B.  Cramer. 

No  compositions  of  any  importance  have  been  published  by  this  musician,  who 

was  one  of  the  finest  viohnists  of  his  time. 

CRAMER  AND  COMPANY.  English  music-publishing  firm,  established  in 
London  by  J.  B.  Cramer  in  1828,  and  carried  on  to  the  present  day  by  different 
partners.  They  published  large  works  by  Crotch,  BaUe,  Benedict,  Barnett, 
Wallace,  and  numerous  smaller  pieces  by  the  same  composer,  with  Neukomm, 
Dbhler,  Moscheles,  Thalberg,  Horsley,  Callcott,  etc.,  etc. 

CBiAMPTON  (Thomas).  English  org.,  comp.,  and  editor,  B.  Sheerness,  1817. 
Has  edited  several  collections  of  choral  music,  and  composed  anthems,  glees, 
and  instrumental  music.  He  was  made  purchaser  of  music  to  the  British 
Museum  in  1875.  Editor  of  "Pitman's  Musical  Monthly."  D.  Chiswick,  April 
13.  i88S. 

CRANFORD  (William).  English  comp.  Was  one  of  the  chor.  of  St.  Paul's 
Cath.,  London,  in  1650.  He  composed  rounds,  catches,  and  songs  printed  in 
the  collections  of  Hilton,  Playford,  etc. 

CRANG  AND  HANCOCK.  English  firm  of  organ-builders,  established 
towards  close  of  last  century.  Their  operations  extend  over  some  years  of  the 
present  century. 

CRASKE  (George).  English  violin-maker  of  the  19th  century,  who  put  forth  a 
great  quantity  of  instruments  of  moderate  quality. 

CRAVEN  (J.  T.)  English  writer  and  teacher,  author  of  "The  Child's  First 
Singing  Book,"Lond.,  n.d.  ;  "The  Child's  First  Music  Book,  or  Introduction 
to  the  Art  of  Playing  the  Pianoforte,"  Lend.,  n.d. 

CRECQTJILLON  (Thomas),     Belgian  comp.  and  org.,  flourished  during  1520- 
60.      Chap. -master  to  Charles  V.  of  Spain.      He  composed  masses,  motets, 
psalms,  hymns,  etc. 
"His  French  songs,  for  four,  five,  and  six  voices,  are  numerous,  and  form  valu- 
able portions  of  the  different  collections  of  Chansons  published  in  the  Low  Coun- 
tries." — Busby, 

CRESCENTINI  (Girolamo).      Italian  soprano  vocalist  and  teacher,  B.  near 
Urbino,  1766.     S.  under  Gibelli.     DSbut  at  Rome,  1783.     Appeared  in  Lon- 
don, 1786.     Sang  throughout  Europe,  1786-1816.     D.Naples,  1846. 
His  works  consist  of  vocal  exercises,  which  are  still  in  use. 

CRESSONNOIS  (Jules  Alfred).  French  comp.,  B.  Mortagne,  Orne,  April 
17,  1823.  S.  under  Kastner.  Comp.  "  Chapelle  d' Bachaumont, "  operetta, 
1858.     Military  music,  Pf  music,  songs,  etc. 

CREYGHTON  (Robert.)      English   divine  and   comp.,   B.   Cambridge,    1639. 
Prof,  of  Greek  in  University  of  Cambridge,    1662.     Canon  Residentiary  and 
Precentor  of  Wells  cath.,  1674.     D.D.  [1736].     D.  Wells  1736. 
Works. — Services  in  E  flat  and  B  flat ;  Anthems,  various,  etc. 

CRI  —  CRO  187 

CBISPI  (Pietro),  Abbe.  B.  Rome,  1737.  D.  Rome,  1797.  Wrote  concertos, 
sonatas,  etc.,  for  the  harpsichord. 

CBISTOFOBI  (Bartolommeo  di  F.).  Itahan  harpsichord-maker,  B.  Padua, 
1651.  Was  engaged  during  his  life  at  Florence  in  the  manufacture  of  harpsi- 
chords of  a  superior  class.  He  is  the  inventor  of  the  Pianoforte,  though  his 
claim  to  be  regarded  as  such  has  been  frequently  quasi  ioned,  and  only  recently 
been  thoroughly  established.  For  further  information  the  reader  is  referred  to 
Grove's  "Dictionary  of  Music,"  articles  "  Cristofori  "  and  "  Pianoforte."  He 
D.  Florence,  March,  1731. 

CRIVELLI  (Gaetano.)  Italian  tenor  vocalist,  B.  Bergamo,  1774.  Appeared 
in  London,  1817.  Vocal  teacher  at  R.  A.  M.,  1823.  Sang  in  Italy,  etc.,  till 
1829.  D.  Brescia,  July,  1836.  Wrote  some  operas,  canzonetas,  and  vocal 

CBOAL  (George).     Scottish  comp.,  B.  Edinburgh,  Feb.  28,  181 1.     Son  of  Mr. 
Croal,  sub  editor  of  the  Caleaonian  Mercury.     Apprenticed  to  Alex.  Robert- 
son, music-seller,  1823.     Remained  with  him  1823-33.     Commenced  business 
as  music-seller,   1840.       Continued  business  till   1848.       Latterly  teacher   in 
AYoRKS. — Eaglesward,  a  narrative  poem,   1858  ;  The  Centenary  Souvenir,  Six 
Songs  by  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Edinburgh,     Songs  :  Away  to  the  woods,  My  Willie, 
The  Emigrant's  Dream,  My  Grannie's  Pouch,  The  Queen.     Pianoforte  music,  con- 
sisting of  arrangements,-  transcriptions,  and  dances,  published  mostly  under  name 
of  Carlo  Zotti. 

Mr.  Croal  is  an  able  performer  of  the  old  Scottish  melodies,  and  on  one  occasion 
played  a  number  of  them  to  Sir  Walter  Scott.  He  is  deserving  of  the  greatest 
credit  for  having  rescued  from  oblivion  and  adapting  to  appropriate  words  the  songs 
now  known  as  "  When  the  kye  comes  hame  "  and  "  My  Nannie's  awa."  The  for- 
mer was  set  to  Hogg's  words  by  permission  of  Messrs.  Blackwood  in  1836,  and  the 
latter  to  the  verses  of  Burns  in  1842.  He  transcribed  the  melodies  from  the  sing- 
ing of  a  friend,  and  they  are  now  two  of  the  most  popular  Scottish  Songs. 

CBOCE  (Giovanni  Dalla).     Italian  comp.,   B.  Chioggia,  1560.     Pupil  of  Zar- 

lino.     Vice-chapel-master  of  cath.  of  S.  Mark's,  Venice,  1603-9.     Priest  at  ch. 

of  S.  Maria  in  Formosa.     D.  Venice,  Aug.  1609. 

Works. — II  Primo  Libro  de'  raadrigali  a  cinque  voci,  1585  ;  Second  ditto,  1588  ; 

Motetti,  1589;  Motetti,  1590;  Salmi,  1596;  Triacca  musicale,   nella  quale  visono 

diversi  capricci  a  4,  5,  6,  e  7  voci. 

His  psalms  were  reprinted  in  London.  "  Hard  by  a  crystal  fountain,"  a  madri- 
gal for  6  voices,  is  given  in  "Triumphs  of  Oriana,"  as  his  composition.  His  music 
is  smoothly  written,  and  is  agreeable  to  modern  ears. 

CEOFT  (William).     English  comp.  and  org.,   B.  Nether-Eatington,  Warwick, 
1677.     S.  under  Blow. .    Chor.   in   Chap.   Royal.     Org.  of  St.  Anne's,  Soho, 
till  1711.    Gent,  of  Chap.  Royal,  1700.    Joint  org.  Chap.  Royal  with  Jeremiah 
Clarke,  1704.     Sole  org.  of  do.,  1707.     Master  of  Choristers  and  Comp.  to 
Chap.  Royal,  and  org.  of  Westminster  Abbey,  1708.     Resigned  post  of  St. 
Anne's  to  John  Isham,   1711.     Mus.  Doc,  Oxon.,  1715.     D.  London,  Aug. 
14,  1727. 
Works.— Divine  Harmony,  or  a  new  collection  of  select  anthems  used  at  H.M. 
Chapel  Royal,  etc.,  1712  ;  Thirty  Select  Anthems  in  score,  Lond.,  2  vols.,  (o.,  n.d. 
Musica  Sacra,  or  select  anthems  in  score,  for  two,  three,  loure,  five,  six,  seven  and 
eight  voices,  1724.    Anthems :  Blessed  are  all  they  ;  Be  merciful  unto  me,  O  God  ; 
God  is  gone  up  ;  Put  me  not  to  rebuke ;  O  Lord  rebuke  me  not ;   O  Lord,  thou 
hast  searched  me  out ;    Hear  my  prayer,   O  Lord,   8  voices  ;  I  will  sing  unto  the 
Lord  ;  O  be  joyful  in  God  ;  Rejoice  in  the  Lord  ;  Sing  unto  God  ;  Sing  praises  un- 
to the  Lord  ;  We  wait  for  Thy  loving  kindness.     He  also  completed  the  burial  ser- 
vice. "  I  am  the  Resurrection,"  of  which  Purcell  wrote  one  number,  "  Thou  knowest 
Lord."     Six  sets  of  tunes  for  '  viohns  and  bass  ;   Six  Sonatas  for  2  flutes  ;    Six 
Solos  for  the  flute.     Overtures  and  incidental  music  to   "Courtship  a  la  Mode," 
1700;  "The  Funeral,"  1702;   "The  Twin  Rivals,"  1703;   "  The  Lying  Lover," 
1704.     Three  Odes,  for  degree  of  Mus.  Doc,  1715  ;  Miscellaneous  Odes  for  public 


occasions  ;  Musicus  Apparatus  Academicus,  being  a  composition  of  two  odes,  etc., 

"  Dr.  Croft's  anthems  are  very  grand  and  solemn ;  their  harmony  is  pure,  and 
their  melody  elegant  and  expressive." — Hogarth.  This  opinion  contradicts  that  of 
other  authorities  who  speak  of  his  music  as  never  reaching  the  sublime,  and  being 
lacking  in  melody.  Croft  was  undoubtedly  one  of  the  first  among  Britain's  church 
composers,  and  the  frequent  use  made  of  his  anthems  in  every  cathedral  in  Britain 
is  a  sufficient  testimony  to  their  enduring  qualities.  Croft  introduced  printing  from 
engraved  pewter  plates,  and  his  example  was  generally  followed. 

CROISEZ  (Pierre).  French  pianist  and  comp.,  B.  Paris,  May  9,  1814.  S.  at 
Paris  Cons,  till  1832.  Teacher  and  comp.  in  Paris.  He  has  composed  a 
great  amount  of  brilliant  salon  pieces  for  the  Pf.,  many  of  which  have  been 
very  popular. 

CBiOMAR  (Rev.  Alexander,  M.A.)  Scottish  divine,  and  pastor  of  an  Episco- 
pal congregation  in  Liverpool,  wrote  "A  Vindication  of  the  Organ — a  Review 
of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Candlish's  pulalication  entitled  'The  Organ  Question,'"  Edin., 
8vo.,  1856. 

CROMWELL  (Thomas).  English  writer,  author  of  "Church  Music;  a  Ser- 
mon on  the  Antiquity,  Excellence,  and  Propriety  of  the  general  adoption  ot 
the  legitimate  Music  of  the  Christian  Church,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1843. 

CROSS  (Thomas).  English  music-engraver  during  17th  century.  He  published 
songs,  etc. ,  engraved  in  a  superior  manner  on  copper.  His  son  John  aided 
him  in  the  business,  and  was  himself  a  music-stamper. 

CROSSDILL  (John).  English  violoncellist,  B.  London,  1755.  Educated  at 
Westminster  School.  Chor.  in  Westminster  Abbey.  S.  under  B.  Cooke  and 
J.  Robinson.  Member  of  Royal  Soc.  of  Musicians,  1768-1825.  Violinist  in 
Chap. -Royal,  1777-  Chamber-musician  to  Queen  Charlotte,  1782.  Principal 
'cello  at  Handel  Commemoration,  1784.  Principal  'cello  at  Ancient  Concerts, 
etc.  Married,  and  retired,  1790.  D.  Escrick,  Yorkshire,  Oct.  1825. 
Crossdill  was  violoncellist-in-ordinary  to  King  George  IV.,  and  a  performer  on 

the  violoncello  of  the  greatest  ability.     A  number  of  anecdotes  concerning  him  will 

be  found  in  Parke's  "Musical  Memoirs." 

CROSSE  (John).  English  writer  and  musician.  Author  of  "  An  account  of 
the  Grand  Musical  Festival  held  in  Sept.,  1823,  in  the  Cathedral  Church  of 
York,  to  which  is  prefixed  a  Sketch  of  the  Rise  and  Progress  of  Musical 
Festivals  in  Great  Britain;  with  Biographical  and  Historical  Notes,"  York, 
4to,  1825.  This  is  a  valuable  work  of  more  than  local  interest.  Crosse  died 
about  1829. 

CROTCH  (William).     English  writer,   comp.   and  org.,    B.  Norwich,  July  5, 

1775.     Gave   early  evidence  of  great  talent  for  music.     Taken  to  London, 

1780.     Assistant  org.   at   Cambridge,    1786.      S.   for  the  Church  at  Oxford, 

1788.     Org.  of  Christ  Ch.,   Oxford,   1790.     Miis.   Bac,   Oxon.,  1794.     Org. 

of  St.  John's  Coll.,   Oxford,   1797.      Prof,  of  Music  at  Oxford,  March,  1797. 

Mus.   Doc,   Oxon.,   1799.      Lectured  in  Music   School  of  Oxford,    1800-4. 

Lectured  at   the  Royal  Institution,   London,    1820.      First   Principal  of  the 

Royal  Academy  of  Music,  London,  1823.     D.  Taunton,  Dec.  29,  1847.    ' 

Works. — Oratorios:    The   Captivity   of  Judah,    1789;    Palestine,    by    Bishop 

Heber,  1812;  The  Captivity  of  Judah,  re-written,    1834.     Anthems:  Be  Merciful 

unto  Me  ;  Comfort,  O  Lord,  the  Soul  of  Thy  Servant ;  Holy,  Holy,   Holy  ;  How 

Dear  are  Thy  Counsels  ;  In  God's  Word  will  I  Rejoice  ;  Lo  !  Star-led  Chiefs  ; 

Methinks  I  hear  the  full   Celestial  Choir  ;    My  God,   look  upon   Me ;   O  come 

hither,   and  hearken ;    O   Lord  God  of  Hosts  ;    Sing  we  merrily  ;    The  Lord  is 

King  ;  Who  is  like  unto  Thee.     Three  concertos  for  the  organ  with  accompts.  ; 

Fugues  for  the  organ  ;  Sonatas  for  the  Pf  ;  Handel's  oratorios  (portions)  adapted 

for  the  organ  or  Pf.     Ode  on  the  Accession  of  George  IV.,  1827  ;  Ode  to  Fancy, 

Warton  (Doctor's  exercise),  1799-     Glees,  various.     Elements  of  Musical  Composi. 

tion,  comprehending  the  rules  of  Thorough-bass  and  the  theory  of  Tuning,  Lond. 

4to,  1812;  2nd  edition,  1833;  3rd  edition,  Novello,   1856;  Practical  Thorough^ 

CRO  —  CRO  189 

bass,  or  the  art  of  playing  from  a  figured  bass,  Lond.,  fol.  n.  d.  ;  Questions  for  the 
Examination  of  Pupils  who  are  studying  the  work  called  Elements  of  Musical 
Composition  and  Practical  Thorough-bass,  Lond.,  i2mo  [1830] ;  Substance  of 
Several  Courses  of  Lectures  on  Music,  8vo,  1831  ;  Specimens  of  Various  Styles 
of  Music  referred  to  in  a  course  of  Lectures  read  at  Oxford  and  adapted  to  keyed 
Instruments,  Lond.,  3  vols.,  fol.  n.  d.  ;  Preludes  for  the  Pianoforte,  Compositions 
in  various  Styles,  to  which  are  Prefixed  the  Rudiments  of  Playing  the  Instrument 

The  extraordinary  precocity  of  Crotch  was  such  as  to  excite  great  interest  among 
English  musicians.  The  Hon.  Daines  Barrington  and  Dr.  Burney  have  both 
published  accounts  of  his  marvellous  musical  faculties,  and  both  agree  with  regard 
to  the  inborn  genius  which  he  undoubtedly  possessed.  Dr.  Crotch  is  one  of  the 
greatest  of  England's  talented  and  learned  musicians,  and  he  did  more  in  an  educa- 
tional sense  to  spread  musical  knowledge  that  any  other  man  of  his  day.  His 
didactic  works  are  of  first  class  utility,  and  one  of  them,  "  Elements  of  Composi- 
tion," is  still  largely  used  as  a  text-book,  old  fashioned  though  it  be.  His 
historical  courses  of  lectures,  among  the  first,  and  certainly  the  best  ever  delivered 
in  Britain  up  to  recent  times,  are  marked  by  much  variety  and  accuracy  of 
information,  and  great  taste  and  discrimination. 

Of  his  oratorios  "  Palestine  "  promises  to  endure  for  a  considerable  time  to  come, 
no  less  on  account  of  its  many  striking  original  features  than  on  account  of  its 
departure  from  the  conventional  style  of  Handel.  Busby,  writing  in  1819,  says, 
".  .  .  and  his  more  recent  production  of  an  oratorio  [Palestine]  exhibits  his 
theoretical  knowledge,  general  powers  of  vocal  conception,  and  command  of 
instrumental  accompaniment,  in  a  light  truly  favourable  to  his  character,  as  an 
original  author  in  the  higher  province  of  composition."  Hogarth,  writing  in 
1838,  says — "  In  this  oratorio  Dr.  Crotch  has  displayed  a  grandeur  and  originality 
of  conception  worthy  of  his  most  illustrious  predecessors,  and  has  united,  in  the 
happiest  manner,  the  depth  and  severity  of  the  old  ecclesiastical  masters,  with  the 
graceful  and  flowing  melody  and  orchestral  effects  of  the  modern  school."  The 
press  opinions  passed  on  its  recent  revivals  are  even  more  flattering  than  any  of  the 
above,  so  that  the  prospect  seems  certain  that  as  time  advances  this  truly  beautiful 
creation  will  advance  in  public  estimation.  As  regards  his  anthems  it  is  sufficient 
to  say,  so  often  and  wide-spread  is  their  performance,  that  they  are  among  the 
worthiest  specimens  of  sacred  music  to  be  found  in  the  noble  collection  of  British 
Church  music.  His  organ  concertos  are  fine  specimens  of  a  somewhat  old- 
fashioned  school  of  instrumental  composition,  but  their  effect  when  performed  by 
a  capable  organist  is  equal  to  some  of  the  best  works  of  recent  times.  Crotch's 
minor  works  are  in  no  way  remarkable,  save  that  they  represent  the  fugitive  pro- 
ductions of  a  man  of  musical  genius. 

CROUCH    (Anna    Maria),    nee    Phillips.      English    soprano    vocalist,    B. 
London,  April  20,   1763.     S.  under  T.  Linley,  to  whom  she  was  articled  in 
1779.     Dibut  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre  in  Arne's  "Artaxerxes,"   1780.      Ap- 
peared in  Ireland  with  great  success,   1783.      Married  to  Mr.    Crouch,   a 
lieutenant   in   the   navy,    1785.      Sang   at   oratorios   at    Drury   Lane,    1787. 
Separated  from   Crouch,    1792.      Resided  afterwards    with   Michael   Kelly. 
Retired  from  the  stage,  1800.     D.  Brighton,  Oct.  2,  1805. 
"  She  had  a  remarkably  sweet  voice,  and  a  naive,  affecting  style  of  singing  ;  this 
added  to  extraordinary  personal  charms,  made  her  a  great  favourite  of  the  public 
for  many  years."     A  most  laudatory  poem  on  her  is  entitled  "  Euphrosyne,  an  Ode 
to    Beauty  :    addressed   to   Mrs.   Crouch,   by   Silvester   Otway "  [otherwise  John 
Oswald],  Lond.,  4to,  1788.     See  also  Memoirs  of  Mrs.  Crouch.     By  M.  Young, 
Lond.,  2  vols.,  1806,  with  portrait. 

CROUCH  (Frederick  William  NichoUs).  English  comp.  and  teacher,  B. 
Devizes,  July  31,  1808.  S.  under  Bochsa  and  W.  Hawes.  Played  'cello  at 
H.M.  Theatre.  S.  at  the  R.A.M.  under  Crotch,  Attwood,  Lindley,  etc., 
1822.  Member  of  Queen  Adelaide's  band.  Principal  'cellist  at  Drury  Lane 
Theatre.  Engaged  for  a  time  in  the  manufacture  of  zinc.  Invented  the 
engraving  process  known  as  Zincography.  Musical  Supervisor  to 
D'Almaine  &  Co.,  London.  Went  to  America  with  Maretzek,  1849.  Director 
of  the  Sacred  Harmonic  Society,  Portland,  Me;     Director  of  the  Mathew's 

CRO  — CRO  196 

Choir,  Washington.  Served  during  the  American  Civil  War  on  the  Confederate 
side.     Latterly  unemployed  and  in  want.     Teacher  of  Music  at  Baltimore. 

Works. — Opeias:  Sir  Roger  de  Coverly  (MS  ) ;  The  Fifth  of  November,  1670 
(MS.)  Collections:  Echoes  of  the  Lakes,  Twenty-four  Irish  Songs,  Poetry  by 
Mrs.  Crawford,  1840  (containing  "  Kathleen  Mavourneen ") ;  Songs  of  Erin, 
Poetry  by  D.  Ryan  ;  Echoes  of  the  Past ;  Bardic  Reminiscences  ;  Songs  of  the 
Past ;  Songs  of  the  Olden  Time  ;  Songs  of  a  Rambler  ;  Songs  of  the  Parish  Wake  ; 
Songs  of  the  Seasons  ;  Songs  of  the  Abbeys  and  Cathedrals  ;  Sketches  of  the 
Emerald  Isle  ;  Hours  of  Idleness ;  Roadside  Sketches ;  Songs  of  Shakespeare  ; 
Sonjjs  of  a  Voyager  ;  Friendship's  Offering ;  Wayside  Melodies  ;  Songs  of  the 
Bards;  Beauties  of  other  Lands;  Single  Songs  of  Mrs.  Hemans,  Mrs.  Norton, 
Bayly,  Carpenter,  Lemon,  Jerrold,  Thackeray,  Campbell,  Rogers,  S.  Knowles, 
etc.  ;  Poetical  Works.     Complete  Treatise  on  the  violoncello,  etc.,  Lond.  [1827]. 

Crouch,  though  now  only  remembered  by  his  "Kathleen  Mavourneen,"  was  a 
musician  who  possessed  a  great  natural  fund  of  beautiful  melody,  which  he  used  in 
a  popular,  though  not  inartistic  manner.  His  songs  appeal  to  the  educated  and 
refined  ear,  besides  possessing  a  certain  homely  charm  and  fireside  interest. 
Crouch  was  a  composer  of  considerable  real  inspiration,  and  most  of  his  songs  are 
quite  free  from  stilted  and  artificial  mannerisms. 

In  the  United  States  Crouch  did  a  vast  deal  of  good  by  introducing  the  best 
works  of  English  glee  and  madrigal  writers,  as  well  as  producing  some  larger  works 
by  Mehul,  Rossini,  etc.  His  latterly  indigent  circumstances  is  very  regretable, 
since,  to  external  appearances,  they  were  produced  by  unavoidable  misfortune.  A 
recent  account  speaks  of  his  adoption  by  an  American  gentleman. 

CROW  (Edwin  John).     English  comp.  and  org.,  B.  Sittingbourne,  Sept.  17, 

1841.     Chor.   at   Rochester   Cath.     Articled  to  J.    L.    Hopkins.      S.   under 

John   Hopkins,  Dr.    Steggall,  and   H.   Banister.      Assistant  to  G.  A.  Lohr  at 

Leicester,  1858.     Org.  successively  of  Holy  Trinity,   St.  Andrew's  Ch.,  and 

St.    John's   Ch.,    Leicester,    1861-1873.      Fellow   of    Coll.    of    Org.,    1868. 

Mus.   Bac,   Cantab.,    1872.       Org.   and  Choirmaster  of  Ripon  Cath.,   1873. 

Mus.  Doc.  Cantab.,  1882.     Mem.  of  Musical  Assoc. ,  Central  Council  of  Soc. 

of  Professional  Musicians.     Mem.  of  Council  of  Coll.  of  Org.,  etc. 

Works. — The  146th  Psalm,  for  voices  and  orch. ;  Communion  Service  in  F 

(gained  College  of  Organists'  prize) ;  Morning  Service  in  C  ;  Evening  Services  in 

G,    A,    and    D ;    Music    for    Masonic    Ceremonies ;    Hymns ;    Chants ;    Songs, 

various;    Pianoforte  Music;    Church  Oratorio  for  Harvest-time;   Orchestral  and 

Organ  Works. 

CROWDY   (John).      English  writer  and   editor,    B.   Lewknor,  Jan.   6,    1834. 

Editor  successively  of  7 lie  Musician,  The  Musical  Standard,  and  The  Artist ; 

sub-editor  ot  the  Guardian  from  1854.  D.  Addlestone,  Surrey,  Jan.  12,  1883. 
Works. — A  Kalendar  of  Cadences,  in  the  form  called  Free  Chant,  adapted  for 
the  recitation  of  the  Psalms,  Lond.,  n.d. ;  The  Free  Chur^ch  Canticle  Book,  n.d.; 
The  Psalter,  n.d.;  The  Church  Choirmaster,  a  Critical  Guide  to  the  Musical 
Illustration  of  the  Order  for  Daily  Prayer,  Lond.,  1864;  A  Short  Commentary  on 
Handel's  oratorio.  The  Messiah,  Lond.,  [1875] ;  Analysis  of  Musical  Works  and 
contributions  to  the  musical  press,  etc. 

CROWEST  (Frederick  J.)  English  writer,  musician  and  critic,  B.  London, 
1850.  Trained  as  a  choir-boy  and  subsequently  org.  and  choirmaster  in 
various  London  and  country  churches.  Author  of  "  The  Great  Tone  Poets ; 
being  short  Memoirs  of  the  greater  Musical  Composers,"  Lond.,  8vo,  1874 
(7  eds.)  ;  "Book  of  Musical  Anecdotes,  from  every  available  source," 
Lond.,  2  vols.,  8vo,  1878  (2  eds.)  ;  "  Phases  of  Musical  England,"  8vo,  1881  ; 
"Musical  History  and  Biography,  in  the  Form  of  Question  and  Answer," 
Lond.,  1883;  "Advice  to  Singers,"  London,  n.  d..  Anon.  (2  eds.)  A  con- 
tributor to  the  musical  and  general  press,  and  for  many  years  London  critic  of 
"Church's  Musical  Visitor"  (American).  Comp.  various  songs  and  some 
Church  music.  Cond.  of  the  Female  Choral  Union,  1874-8.  Well  known  as 
a  tenor  singer  in  public  and  private,  under  the  nom  ife  guerre  of  Arlhur  Vitton. 

CROWTHER  (John).     English  violin-maker,  B.  1760.     D.  i8ro.     One  of  the 

Cfeo  — CtJilt  i^t 

best  makers  of  his  period.  His  instruments  are  generally  dark  in  colour  and 
well  finished.     His  violas  are  good. 

CROZIER  (William).  English  oboe-player,  pupil  of  Barret.  Member  of 
Crystal  Palace  orch.,  1855-1870.     D.  Dec.  20,  1870. 

CRUGEB  (Johann).  German  comp.  and  writer,  B.  near  Guben,  April  8,  1598. 
Chap.-master  of  the  Ch.  of  St.  Nicholas,  Berlin,  1622.  D.  Berlin,  Feb.  23, 

Works. — Synopsis  Musica,  etc, ;  Praxis  Pietatis,  a  collection  of  Lutheran  hymns. 
This  latter  work  went  through  a  great  number  of  editions,  and  some  of  the  melodies 
in  it  are  used  in  recent  psalmodic  works. 

CBUICKSHANK  (J.)  Scottish  writer,  author  of  "Flutina  and  Accordion 
Teacher,"  Lond.,  1851. 

CBUSE  (Edward).  English  musician  and  writer.  Compiled  "Psalms  of  the 
Church,  adapted